Italian East Africa

Italian occupationAfrica Orientale ItalianaItalian occupation of EthiopiaoccupationEast AfricaEthiopiaGalla-SidamoItalianItalian conquestItalians
Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana) was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa.wikipedia
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Italian Empire

Italian Colonial EmpireItalian coloniesItaly
Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana) was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa.
In its second invasion of Ethiopia in 1935–36, Italy was successful and it merged its new conquest with its older east African colonies to create Italian East Africa.

Italian Ethiopia

EthiopiaItalian occupationItalian occupation of Ethiopia
It was formed in 1936 through the merger of Italian Somaliland, Italian Eritrea, and the newly occupied Ethiopian Empire which became Italian Ethiopia.
After the second Italo-Ethiopian War, in which the Ethiopian Empire was occupied by the Fascist Italy of Benito Mussolini, the Ethiopian territories were proclaimed part of Africa Orientale Italiana (AOI) in 1936, with the capital of AOI moved to Addis Ababa and Victor Emmanuel III proclaiming himself Emperor of Ethiopia.

East African campaign (World War II)

East African CampaignEast AfricaEast Africa Campaign
However, the enlarged colony was dismembered only a year later, when in the course of the East African Campaign the colony was occupied by British forces.
The East African campaign (also known as the Abyssinian campaign) was fought in East Africa during the Second World War by Allied forces, mainly from the British Empire, against Axis forces, Italy and their colony of Italian East Africa, between June 1940 and November 1941.

Horn of Africa

HornSomali peninsulanortheastern Africa
Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana) was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa. When established in 1936, Italian East Africa (the other Italian colony in Africa being Italian North Africa) consisted of the old Italian possessions in the Horn of Africa, Italian Eritrea and Italian Somaliland, and the recently annexed Empire of Ethiopia.
By 1936 however, Eritrea became a province of Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana), along with Ethiopia and Italian Somaliland.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
During the Second World War, Italian East Africa was occupied by a British-led force including colonial and Ethiopian units.
The war resulted in the military occupation of Ethiopia and its annexation into the newly created colony of Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana, or AOI); in addition it exposed the weakness of the League of Nations as a force to preserve peace.

Benito Mussolini

MussoliniBenitoDuce
Some Italian historians such as Franco Catalano and Giorgio Rochat argue that the invasion was an act of social imperialism, contending that the Great Depression had badly damaged Mussolini's prestige, and that he needed a foreign war to distract public opinion.
In 1936, Mussolini formed Italian East Africa (AOI) by merging Eritrea, Somalia and Ethiopia following the Abyssinian crisis and the Second Italo–Ethiopian War.

Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta

Duke of AostaAmedeo, 3rd Duke of AostaAmedeo, Duke of Aosta
In 1937 the friendship of Sejum Mangascia with the Italian Viceroy Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta enabled this Ras to play an influential role in securing the release of 3,000 Ethiopian POWs being held in Italian Somaliland.
During World War II, he was the Italian Viceroy of Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana, or AOI).

Italian Libya

LibyaItalian North AfricaFourth Shore
When established in 1936, Italian East Africa (the other Italian colony in Africa being Italian North Africa) consisted of the old Italian possessions in the Horn of Africa, Italian Eritrea and Italian Somaliland, and the recently annexed Empire of Ethiopia.
Indeed Italian plans, in the case of a war against France and Great Britain, projected the extension of Libya as far south as Lake Chad and the establishment of a broad land bridge between Libya and Italian East Africa.

Ethiopian Empire

EthiopiaAbyssiniaEthiopian
It was formed in 1936 through the merger of Italian Somaliland, Italian Eritrea, and the newly occupied Ethiopian Empire which became Italian Ethiopia. When established in 1936, Italian East Africa (the other Italian colony in Africa being Italian North Africa) consisted of the old Italian possessions in the Horn of Africa, Italian Eritrea and Italian Somaliland, and the recently annexed Empire of Ethiopia. The dominion was formed in 1936, after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War that resulted in the annexation of the Ethiopian Empire by Fascist Italy, by merging the pre-existing colonies of Italian Somaliland and Italian Eritrea with the newly conquered territory.
Later, after the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, the Italian Empire occupied Ethiopia briefly for five years and established the Italian East Africa colony in the region.

Victor Emmanuel III of Italy

Victor Emmanuel IIIKing Victor Emmanuel IIIVittorio Emanuele III
Victor Emmanuel III of Italy consequently adopted the title of "Emperor of Ethiopia", although having not been recognized by any country other than Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan.
In late 1941, Italian East Africa was lost.

Italian Fascism

FascistItalian FascistFascism
The dominion was formed in 1936, after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War that resulted in the annexation of the Ethiopian Empire by Fascist Italy, by merging the pre-existing colonies of Italian Somaliland and Italian Eritrea with the newly conquered territory.
Amongst indigenous peoples of Africa, the racial hierarchy regarded indigenous North Africans as superior to indigenous people in Italian East Africa.

Italian Eritrea

EritreaEritreanBritish Military Administration
It was formed in 1936 through the merger of Italian Somaliland, Italian Eritrea, and the newly occupied Ethiopian Empire which became Italian Ethiopia. When established in 1936, Italian East Africa (the other Italian colony in Africa being Italian North Africa) consisted of the old Italian possessions in the Horn of Africa, Italian Eritrea and Italian Somaliland, and the recently annexed Empire of Ethiopia. The dominion was formed in 1936, after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War that resulted in the annexation of the Ethiopian Empire by Fascist Italy, by merging the pre-existing colonies of Italian Somaliland and Italian Eritrea with the newly conquered territory.
After il Duce declared the birth of Italian Empire in May 1936, Italian Eritrea (enlarged with northern Ethiopia's regions) and Italian Somaliland were merged with the just conquered Ethiopia in the new Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana) administrative territory.

Battle of Gondar

Gondarat Gondarcapture of Gondar
The remnants of the Italian forces in the AOI surrendered after the Battle of Gondar in November 1941, except for groups that fought an Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia against the British until the Armistice of Cassibile (3 September 1943) ended hostilities between Italy and the Allies.
The Battle of Gondar or Capture of Gondar was the last stand of the Italian forces in Italian East Africa during the Second World War.

Galla-Sidamo Governorate

Galla e SidamaGalla TerritoryGalla-Sidamo
possessions since 1869 and 1889 respectively, became Eritrea Governorate and Somalia Governorate, while Ethiopia was made of Harrar, Galla-Sidamo, Amhara, and Scioa Governorate.

Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia

Italian guerrilla warguerrilla warguerrilla war in Ethiopia
The remnants of the Italian forces in the AOI surrendered after the Battle of Gondar in November 1941, except for groups that fought an Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia against the British until the Armistice of Cassibile (3 September 1943) ended hostilities between Italy and the Allies.
The Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia was a conflict fought from the summer of 1941 to the autumn of 1943 by remnants of Italian troops in Ethiopia, in what had been the short-lived attempt to incorporate Ethiopia as part of Italian East Africa.

British Somaliland

SomalilandSomaliland ProtectorateBritish Somaliland Protectorate
(The Kingdom of Egypt remained neutral during World War II, but the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 allowed the British to occupy Egypt and Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.) Egypt, the Suez Canal, French Somaliland and British Somaliland were also vulnerable to invasion, but the Comando Supremo (Italian General Staff) had planned for a war after 1942.
From 1940 to 1941, it was occupied by the Italians and was part of Italian East Africa.

Italian conquest of British Somaliland

British Somalilandinvaded British Somalilandoccupied British Somaliland
In August 1940, the protectorate of British Somaliland was occupied by Italian forces and absorbed into Italian East Africa.
On 9 May 1936, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini proclaimed the Africa Orientale Italiana (AOI, Italian East African Empire), formed from Ethiopia and the colonies of Italian Eritrea and Italian Somaliland.

Seyoum Mengesha

Seyum MangashaSeyoum MangashaSejum Mangascià
Some Ethiopians welcomed the Italians and collaborated with them in the government of the newly created Italian Empire, like Ras Sejum Mangascià, Ras Ghetacciù Abaté and Ras Kebbedé Guebret.
Italian occupation of Ethiopia.

Viceroy

viceregalvice-regalnamestnik
The territory was divided into the six governorates of Italian East Africa: Italian Eritrea and Italian Somaliland, plus four provinces of Ethiopia (Amhara, Galla-Sidamo, Scioa, Harar) each under the authority of an Italian governor, answerable to a viceroy, who in turn represented the Emperor.
In Italian Viceré: The highest colonial representatives in the "federation" of Italian East Africa (six provinces, each under a governor; together Ethiopia, Eritrea and Italian Somaliland) were no longer styled "High Commissioner", but "Viceroy and Governor-general" from 5 May 1936, when Italian forces occupied Ethiopia, until 27 November 1941, when the last Italian administrator surrendered to the Allies.

Second Italo-Ethiopian War

Second Italo-Abyssinian WarItalian invasion of Ethiopiainvasion of Ethiopia
The dominion was formed in 1936, after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War that resulted in the annexation of the Ethiopian Empire by Fascist Italy, by merging the pre-existing colonies of Italian Somaliland and Italian Eritrea with the newly conquered territory.
The provinces of Eritrea, Italian Somaliland and Abyssinia (Ethiopia) were united to form the Italian province of East Africa.

Amhara Governorate

AmaraAmharaGovernor of Amhara
possessions since 1869 and 1889 respectively, became Eritrea Governorate and Somalia Governorate, while Ethiopia was made of Harrar, Galla-Sidamo, Amhara, and Scioa Governorate.

Italian Somaliland

Italian SomaliaSomaliaSomaliland
It was formed in 1936 through the merger of Italian Somaliland, Italian Eritrea, and the newly occupied Ethiopian Empire which became Italian Ethiopia. In 1937 the friendship of Sejum Mangascia with the Italian Viceroy Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta enabled this Ras to play an influential role in securing the release of 3,000 Ethiopian POWs being held in Italian Somaliland. When established in 1936, Italian East Africa (the other Italian colony in Africa being Italian North Africa) consisted of the old Italian possessions in the Horn of Africa, Italian Eritrea and Italian Somaliland, and the recently annexed Empire of Ethiopia. The dominion was formed in 1936, after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War that resulted in the annexation of the Ethiopian Empire by Fascist Italy, by merging the pre-existing colonies of Italian Somaliland and Italian Eritrea with the newly conquered territory.
In 1936, the region was integrated into Italian East Africa as part of the Italian Empire.

French Somaliland

French Somali CoastFrench SomaliaFrench
(The Kingdom of Egypt remained neutral during World War II, but the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 allowed the British to occupy Egypt and Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.) Egypt, the Suez Canal, French Somaliland and British Somaliland were also vulnerable to invasion, but the Comando Supremo (Italian General Staff) had planned for a war after 1942.
The railway continued to operate following the Italian conquest of Ethiopia but, following the tumult of the Second World War, the area became an overseas territory of France in 1946.

Scioa Governorate

Governorate of Shewa
possessions since 1869 and 1889 respectively, became Eritrea Governorate and Somalia Governorate, while Ethiopia was made of Harrar, Galla-Sidamo, Amhara, and Scioa Governorate.

Italian Eritreans

Italian EritreanItalian colonistsItalians
While Italian Eritrea enjoyed some degree of development, supported by nearly 80,000 Italian colonists, by 1940 only 3,200 farmers had arrived in Ethiopia, less than ten percent of the Fascist regime's goal.
Eritrea was chosen by the Italian government to be the industrial center of the Italian East Africa.