A report on Venice and Italian Renaissance

Portrait of Dante Alighieri by Cristofano dell'Altissimo, Uffizi Gallery Florence
Pandolfo Malatesta (1417–1468), lord of Rimini, by Piero della Francesca. Malatesta was a capable condottiere, following the tradition of his family. He was hired by the Venetians to fight against the Turks (unsuccessfully) in 1465, and was the patron of Leone Battista Alberti, whose Tempio Malatestiano at Rimini is one of the first entirely classical buildings of the Renaissance.
Grand Canal from Rialto to Ca'Foscari
Portrait of Cosimo de' Medici by Jacopo Pontormo
Venice in autumn, with the Rialto Bridge in the background
Leonardo da Vinci, Italian Renaissance Man
Venice view from the Bridge Priuli a Santa Sofia, to the Bridge de le Vele
Giulio Clovio, Adoration of the Magi and Solomon Adored by the Queen of Sheba from the Farnese Hours, 1546
Gondola Punta and Basilica Salute
Niccolò Machiavelli (1469–1527), the author of The Prince and prototypical Renaissance man. Detail from a portrait by Santi di Tito.
St Mark's Basilica houses the relics of St Mark the Evangelist
Petrarch, from the Cycle of Famous Men and Women. ca. 1450. Detached fresco. 247 x. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy. Artist: Andrea di Bartolo di Bargilla (ca. 1423–1457).
The Doge's Palace, the former residence of the Doge of Venice
Detail of The Last Judgment, 1536–1541, by Michelangelo
The Republic of Venice and its colonial empire Stato da Màr.
David by Donatello
Piazza San Marco in Venice, with St. Mark's Campanile.
Bramante's Tempietto in San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502
View of San Giorgio Maggiore Island from St. Mark's Campanile.
Claudio Monteverdi by Bernardo Strozzi
Monument to Bartolomeo Colleoni (1400-1475), captain-general of the Republic of Venice from 1455 to 1475.
The Fra Mauro Map of the world. The map was made around 1450 and depicts Asia, Africa and Europe.
View of San Marco basin in 1697.
Venice viewed from the International Space Station
Venice and surroundings in false colour, from Terra. The picture is oriented with North at the top.
Piazza San Marco under water in 2007
Acqua alta ("high water") in Venice, 2008
Like Murano, Burano is also a tourist destination, usually reached via vaporetto
The beach of Lido di Venezia
Bridge of Sighs, one of the most visited sites in the city
Venetian Arsenal houses the Naval Historical Museum
Piazzetta San Marco with Doge's Palace on the left and the columns of the Lion of Venice and St. Theodore in the center.
Gondolas share the waterway with other types of craft (including the vaporetti)
Cleaning of canals in the late 1990s.
Gondoliers on the Grand Canal
Venice Guggenheim Museum.
Cruise ships access the port of Venice through the Giudecca Canal.
Cruise ship and gondolas in the Bacino San Marco
Aerial view of Venice including the Ponte della Libertà bridge to the mainland.
Giudecca Canal. View from St Mark's Campanile.
Sandolo in a picture of Paolo Monti of 1965. Fondo Paolo Monti, BEIC.
P & O steamer, circa 1870.
Rialto Bridge
Vaporetti on the Grand Canal
The Venice Santa Lucia station
Cruise ships at the passenger terminal in the Port of Venice (Venezia Terminal Passeggeri)
Marco Polo International Airport (Aeroporto di Venezia Marco Polo)
Ca' Foscari University of Venice
The Travels of Marco Polo.
The Santa Maria della Salute
An 18th-century view of Venice by Venetian artist Canaletto.
The Palazzo Cavalli-Franchetti is an example of Venetian Gothic architecture alongside the Grand Canal.
The Ca' d'Oro.
Palazzo Dandolo.
The Baroque Ca' Rezzonico.
Murano glass chandelier Ca' Rezzonico
A Venetian glass goblet
La Fenice operahouse in the city.
The Venice Film Festival is the oldest film festival in the world and one of the most prestigious and publicized.
Francesco Guardi's Regatta in Venice, Guardi was a member of the Venetian School.
The Morning Chocolate, by Pietro Longhi. Hot chocolate was a fashionable drink in Venice during the 1770s and 1780s.
Luxury shops and boutiques along the Rialto Bridge.
The Doge Andrea Gritti, reigned 1523–1538, portrait by Titian.
Carlo Goldoni, the most notable name in Italian theatre.
The explorer Sebastian Cabot.
thumb|The Grand Canal in Venice from Palazzo Flangini to Campo San Marcuola, Canaletto, circa 1738, J. Paul Getty Museum.
thumb|Francesco Guardi, The Grand Canal, circa 1760 (Art Institute of Chicago)
thumb|Morning Impression along a Canal in Venice, Veneto, Italy by Rafail Levitsky (1896)
thumb|View from the Bridge of Sighs (2017)
The whole comune (red) in the Metropolitan City of Venice
Ca' Loredan is Venice's City Hall
Palazzo Corner is the seat of the Metropolitan City of Venice
Palazzo Ferro Fini is the seat of the Regional Council of Veneto
People Mover in Venice
A map of the waterbus routes in Venezia
Bus in Mestre
Tram in Venice leaving Piazzale Roma
Iconic Della Salute by UK based Artist Raouf Oderuth

Renaissance culture later spread to Venice, heart of a Mediterranean empire and in control of the trade routes with the east since its participation in the crusades and following the journeys of Marco Polo between 1271 and 1295.

- Italian Renaissance

Venice is known for several important artistic movements—especially during the Renaissance period—and has played an important role in the history of instrumental and operatic music, and is the birthplace of Baroque composers Tomaso Albinoni and Antonio Vivaldi.

- Venice

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Naples

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Regional capital of Campania and the third-largest city of Italy, after Rome and Milan, with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of 2017.

Regional capital of Campania and the third-largest city of Italy, after Rome and Milan, with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of 2017.

Mount Echia, the place where the polis of Parthenope arose
The Columns of the Temple of Castor and Pollux incorporated into the facade of San Paolo Maggiore
A scene featuring the siren Parthenope, the mythological founder of Naples
The Gothic Battle of Mons Lactarius on Vesuvius, painted by Alexander Zick
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The Castel Nuovo, a.k.a. Maschio Angioino, a seat of medieval kings of Naples, Aragon and Spain
French troops and artillery entering Naples in 1495, during the Italian War of 1494–98
Onofrio Palumbo's portrait of the 17th-century revolutionary leader Masaniello
Departure of Charles III of Spain from Naples, 1759
Naples depicted during the ephemeral Parthenopean Republic
Entrance of Garibaldi into Naples on 7 September 1860
Allied bombardment of Naples, 1943
Royal Palace of Naples
The Egg Castle
National Archaeological Museum
National Museum of Capodimonte
Naples Cathedral
Church of Gesù Nuovo
Hanging gardens of the Certosa di San Martino
Interior of the Church of Girolamini
Inside Galleria Umberto I
Underground Naples
Villa Comunale
Aselmeyer Castle, built by Lamont Young in the Neo-Gothic style
One of the city's various examples of Liberty Napoletano
The Gulf of Naples
The Palazzo Donn'Anna and Bagno Donn'Anna beach in Posillipo
Urban density in central Naples
Main building of the University of Naples Federico II
Palazzo San Giacomo, the city hall
Palazzo delle Poste in Naples, Gino Franzi, 1936. The masterpiece of modernism, marble and diorite.
Directional center of Naples
The port of Naples
Naples International Airport
The square of Piazza Garibaldi at Napoli Centrale under renovation
Dante Station of the Naples Metro
A Romantic painting by Salvatore Fergola showing the 1839 inauguration of the Naples-Portici railway line
Neapolitan pizza. Pizza was invented in Naples.
Sfogliatelle, a popular Neapolitan pastry dish
An 1813 depiction of the Piedigrotta festival
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The interior of the Teatro San Carlo
Tarantella in Napoli, a 1903 postcard
Neapolitan mandolin
Totò, a famous Neapolitan actor
The Stadio San Paolo

Despite the split, Naples grew in importance, attracting Pisan and Genoese merchants, Tuscan bankers, and some of the most prominent Renaissance artists of the time, such as Boccaccio, Petrarch and Giotto.

Naples is, with Florence, Rome, Venice and Milan, one of the main Italian tourist destinations.

Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. This small temple marks the place where St Peter was put to death

Renaissance architecture

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European architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 16th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.

European architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 16th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.

Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. This small temple marks the place where St Peter was put to death
Temple of Vesta, Rome, 205 AD. As one of the most important temples of Ancient Rome, it became the model for Bramante's Tempietto
Palladio's engraving of Bramante's Tempietto
Plan of Bramante's Tempietto in Montorio
The Piazza del Campidoglio
The Romanesque Florence Baptistery was the object of Brunelleschi's studies of perspective
Pope Sixtus IV, 1477, builder of the Sistine Chapel. Fresco by Melozzo da Forlì in the Vatican Palace.
Four Humanist philosophers under the patronage of the Medici: Marsilio Ficino, Cristoforo Landino, Angelo Poliziano and Demetrius Chalcondyles. Fresco by Domenico Ghirlandaio.
Cosimo de' Medici the Elder, head of the Medici Bank, sponsored civic building programs. Posthumous portrait by Pontormo.
The Church of the Certosa di Pavia, Lombardy
Scuola Grande di San Marco, Venice
Raphael's unused plan for St. Peter's Basilica
Facade of Sant'Agostino, Rome, built in 1483 by Giacomo di Pietrasanta
Classical Orders, engraving from the Encyclopédie vol. 18. 18th century.
The Dome of St Peter's Basilica, Rome.
Courtyard of Palazzo Strozzi, Florence
Ospedale degli Innocenti in Florence.
The dome of Florence Cathedral (the Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore)
The church of San Lorenzo
Palazzo Medici Riccardi by Michelozzo. Florence, 1444
Basilica of Sant'Andrea, Mantua, the façade
Façade of Santa Maria Novella, 1456–70
The crossing of Santa Maria della Grazie, Milan (1490)
picture above
The Palazzo Farnese, Rome (1534–1545). Designed by Sangallo and Michelangelo.
Palazzo Pandolfini, Florence, by Raphael
Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne.
Palazzo Te, Mantua
St Peter's Basilica
The vestibule of the Laurentian Library
Il Gesù, designed by Giacomo della Porta.
Villa Capra "La Rotonda"
Keystone with a profile of a man, Palazzo Giusti, Verona, Italy
The House of the Blackheads in Riga, Latvia
Royal Summer Palace in Prague is considered the purest Renaissance architecture outside of Italy.
Cathedral of St James, Šibenik
English Renaissance: Hardwick Hall (1590–1597).
French Renaissance: Château de Chambord (1519–39)
Juleum in Helmstedt, Germany (example of Weser Renaissance)
Antwerp City Hall (finished in 1564)
Courtyard of Wawel Castle exemplifies first period of Polish Renaissance
Cloister of the Convent of Christ, Tomar, Portugal, (1557–1591), Diogo de Torralva and Filippo Terzi.
The Palace of Facets on the Cathedral Square of the Moscow Kremlin.
Nordic Renaissance: Frederiksborg Palace (1602–20)
The Escorial (1563–1584), Madrid
Cathedral Basilica of Salvador built between 1657 and 1746, a UNESCO WHS.
The large Basilica of San Francisco in Quito, built between 1535 and 1650, a UNESCO World Heritage Site city.

Although the term Renaissance was used first by the French historian Jules Michelet, it was given its more lasting definition from the Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt, whose book Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien, 1860 (The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, 1860, English translation, by SGC Middlemore, in 2 vols., London, 1878) was influential in the development of the modern interpretation of the Italian Renaissance.

In the 15th century, Florence, Venice and Naples extended their power through much of the area that surrounded them, making the movement of artists possible.

A commedia dell'arte street play during the Carnival of Venice

Commedia dell'arte

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Early form of professional theatre, originating in Italy, that was popular throughout Europe between the 16th and 18th centuries.

Early form of professional theatre, originating in Italy, that was popular throughout Europe between the 16th and 18th centuries.

A commedia dell'arte street play during the Carnival of Venice
Commedia dell'arte Troupe on a Wagon in a Town Square by Jan Miel (1640)
Claude Gillot (1673–1722), Four Commedia dell'arte Figures: Three Gentlemen and Pierrot, c. 1715
Pulcinella, drawn by Maurice Sand
Harlequin in a 19th-century Italian print
Commedia dell'arte troupe I Gelosi in a late 16th-century Flemish painting
Jean-Antoine Watteau (1684–1721), Commedia dell'arte player of Pierrot, ca. 1718–19, identified as "Gilles". Louvre, Paris.
Harlequin and Pantalone in a 2011 play in Tallinn, Estonia.
Eduardo De Filippo as Pulcinella
Harlequin and Colombina. Paint by Giovanni Domenico Ferretti.
Jean-Antoine Watteau, Italian Comedians, 1720
Johann Joachim Kändler's commedia dell'arte figures in Meissen porcelain, c. 1735–44
Peeter van Bredael, Commedia dell'arte Scene in an Italian Landscape
Pierrot as "Pjerrot" in Denmark

The genesis of commedia may be related to carnival in Venice, where the author and actor Andrea Calmo had created the character Il Magnifico, the precursor to the vecchio (old man) Pantalone, by 1570.

Castagno posits that the aesthetic of exaggeration, distortion, anti-humanism (as in the masked types), and excessive borrowing as opposed to originality was typical of all the arts in the late Italian Renaissance.

The Republic of Ragusa, a maritime city-state, was based in the walled city of Dubrovnik

City-state

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Independent sovereign city which serves as the center of political, economic, and cultural life over its contiguous territory.

Independent sovereign city which serves as the center of political, economic, and cultural life over its contiguous territory.

The Republic of Ragusa, a maritime city-state, was based in the walled city of Dubrovnik
The Free imperial cities as of 1792.
Italy in 1494, after the Peace of Lodi
Tangier
Vatican City, a city-state well known for being the smallest country in the world
The city of Basel, located on the Rhine, is a historic city-state and a Swiss canton.

They have existed in many parts of the world since the dawn of history, including cities such as Rome, Athens, Sparta, Carthage, and the Italian city-states during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, such as Florence, Venice, Genoa and Milan.

Some of the most well-known examples of city-state culture in human history are the ancient Greek city-states and the merchant city-states of Renaissance Italy, which organised themselves as independent centers.

Florence, the birthplace of the European Renaissance. The architectural perspective, and modern systems and fields of banking and accounting were introduced during the Renaissance.

Renaissance

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Period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity and covering the 15th and 16th centuries, characterized by an effort to revive and surpass ideas and achievements of classical antiquity.

Period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity and covering the 15th and 16th centuries, characterized by an effort to revive and surpass ideas and achievements of classical antiquity.

Florence, the birthplace of the European Renaissance. The architectural perspective, and modern systems and fields of banking and accounting were introduced during the Renaissance.
Portrait of a Young Woman (c. 1480–85) (Simonetta Vespucci) by Sandro Botticelli
View of Florence, birthplace of the Renaissance
Coluccio Salutati
A political map of the Italian Peninsula circa 1494
Pieter Bruegel's The Triumph of Death (c. 1562) reflects the social upheaval and terror that followed the plague that devastated medieval Europe.
Lorenzo de' Medici, ruler of Florence and patron of arts (Portrait by Vasari)
Pico della Mirandola, writer of the famous Oration on the Dignity of Man, which has been called the "Manifesto of the Renaissance".
Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man (c. 1490) demonstrates the effect writers of Antiquity had on Renaissance thinkers. Based on the specifications in Vitruvius' De architectura (1st century BC), Leonardo tried to draw the perfectly proportioned man. (Museum Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice)
Anonymous portrait of Nicolaus Copernicus (c. 1580)
Portrait of Luca Pacioli, father of accounting, painted by Jacopo de' Barbari, 1495, (Museo di Capodimonte).
The world map by Pietro Coppo, Venice, 1520
Alexander VI, a Borgia Pope infamous for his corruption
Adoration of the Magi and Solomon adored by the Queen of Sheba from the Farnese Hours (1546) by Giulio Clovio marks the end of the Italian Renaissance of illuminated manuscript together with the Index Librorum Prohibitorum.
Leonardo Bruni
"What a piece of work is a man, how noble in reason, how infinite in faculties, in form and moving how express and admirable, in action how like an angel, in apprehension how like a god!" – from William Shakespeare's Hamlet.
Château de Chambord (1519–1547), one of the most famous examples of Renaissance architecture
Portrait of Emperor Maximilian I, by Albrecht Dürer, 1519
Erasmus of Rotterdam in 1523, as depicted by Hans Holbein the Younger
São Pedro Papa, 1530–1535, by Grão Vasco Fernandes. A pinnacle piece from when the Portuguese Renaissance had considerable external influence.
The Palace of Facets on the Cathedral Square of the Moscow Kremlin
Theotokos and The Child, the late-17th-century Russian icon by Karp Zolotaryov, with notably realistic depiction of faces and clothing.
The Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo del Escorial, by Juan de Herrera and Juan Bautista de Toledo
A cover of the Lives of the Artists by Giorgio Vasari
Painting of the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, an event in the French Wars of Religion, by François Dubois

Instead, it was divided into smaller city states and territories: the Kingdom of Naples controlled the south, the Republic of Florence and the Papal States at the center, the Milanese and the Genoese to the north and west respectively, and the Venetians to the east.

In the first period of the Italian Renaissance, humanists favored the study of humanities over natural philosophy or applied mathematics, and their reverence for classical sources further enshrined the Aristotelian and Ptolemaic views of the universe.

Portrait of Man, possibly a self-portrait

Antonello da Messina

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Antonello da Messina, properly Antonello di Giovanni di Antonio, but also called Antonello degli Antoni and Anglicized as Anthony of Messina (c.

Antonello da Messina, properly Antonello di Giovanni di Antonio, but also called Antonello degli Antoni and Anglicized as Anthony of Messina (c.

Portrait of Man, possibly a self-portrait
Antonello's St Jerome in His Study, c.1475
Antonello's Salting Madonna
The Virgin Annunciate in the Palazzo Abatellis in Palermo
Crucifixion, Antwerp, detail

undefined 1430 – February 1479), was a Sicilian painter from Messina, active during the Early Italian Renaissance.

Unusually for a south Italian artist of the Renaissance, his work proved influential on painters in northern Italy, especially in Venice.

Aldus Pius Manutius, illustration in Vita di Aldo Pio Manuzio (1759)

Aldus Manutius

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Italian humanist, scholar, educator, and the founder of the Aldine Press.

Italian humanist, scholar, educator, and the founder of the Aldine Press.

Aldus Pius Manutius, illustration in Vita di Aldo Pio Manuzio (1759)
Bust of Aldo Manuzio. Panteon Veneto; Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti
Aristotle printed by Aldus Manutius, 1495–98 (Libreria antiquaria Pregliasco, Turin)
Imprint of Aldus Manutius, in Bembo, Gli Asolani
A page from Francesco Colonna's Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, an illustrated book printed by Aldus Manutius
The John Rylands Library copy of the Aldine Vergil of 1501, printed on vellum and hand-coloured
Aldo Manuzio (left) and Alberto III Pio by Bernardino Loschi

In his late thirties or early forties, Manutius settled in Venice to become a print publisher.

He grew up in a wealthy family during the Italian Renaissance and in his youth was sent to Rome to become a humanist scholar.

Padua

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City and comune in Veneto, northern Italy.

City and comune in Veneto, northern Italy.

Remnants of Padua's Roman amphitheatre wall
The Botanical Garden of Padova today; in the background, the Basilica of Sant'Antonio
Tomb of Antenor
The unfinished façade of Padua Cathedral
Clock tower and Lion of St. Mark, symbol of the Serenissima Repubblic
Last Judgment by Giotto, part of the Scrovegni Chapel.
Palazzo della Ragione
Botanical Garden (Orto Botanico).
Street tram in Padua
This tempera, Two Christians before the Judges, hangs in the city's Cathedral.
The apse area of Santa Sofia.
The "Gran Guardia" loggia
Prato della Valle (detail)
Loggia Amulea, as seen from Prato della Valle
Torre degli Anziani as seen from Piazza della Frutta
The Astronomical clock as seen from Piazza dei Signori

Padua is on the river Bacchiglione, west of Venice.

In the Piazza dei Signori is the loggia called the Gran Guardia, (1493–1526), and close by is the Palazzo del Capitanio, the residence of the Venetian governors, with its great door, the work of Giovanni Maria Falconetto, the Veronese architect-sculptor who introduced Renaissance architecture to Padua and who completed the door in 1532. Falconetto was the architect of Alvise Cornaro's garden loggia, (Loggia Cornaro), the first fully Renaissance building in Padua. Nearby stands the Cathedral, remodelled in 1552 after a design of Michelangelo. It contains works by Nicolò Semitecolo, Francesco Bassano and Giorgio Schiavone. The nearby Baptistry, consecrated in 1281, houses the most important frescoes cycle by Giusto de' Menabuoi.Sant'Antonio (Padua) - Facade.jpg.]]Padua5.jpg