Italian Social Republic

Republic of SalòRSIItalyFascist ItalyRepubblica Sociale ItalianaRepublic of SaloFascistFascist ItalianSalò RepublicItalian
The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana, ; RSI), popularly and historically known as the Republic of Salò (Repubblica di Salò ), was a German puppet state with limited recognition that was created during the later part of World War II, existing from the beginning of German occupation of Italy in September 1943 until the surrender of German troops in Italy in May 1945.wikipedia
723 Related Articles

Italian Fascism

FascistItalian FascistFascism
The Italian Social Republic was the second and last incarnation of the Italian Fascist state and was led by Duce Benito Mussolini and his reformed anti-monarchist Republican Fascist Party which tried to modernise and revise fascist doctrine into a more moderate and sophisticated direction.
The ideology is associated with a series of three political parties led by Benito Mussolini, namely the Revolutionary Fascist Party (PFR) founded in 1915, the succeeding National Fascist Party (PNF) which was renamed at the Third Fascist Congress on 7–10 November 1921 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1922 until 1943 and the Republican Fascist Party that ruled the Italian Social Republic from 1943 to 1945.

Republican Fascist Party

Partito Fascista RepubblicanoPFRFascists
The Italian Social Republic was the second and last incarnation of the Italian Fascist state and was led by Duce Benito Mussolini and his reformed anti-monarchist Republican Fascist Party which tried to modernise and revise fascist doctrine into a more moderate and sophisticated direction.
The Republican Fascist Party (Partito Fascista Repubblicano, PFR) was a political party in Italy led by Benito Mussolini during the German occupation of Central and Northern Italy and was the sole legitimate and ruling party of the Italian Social Republic.

Benito Mussolini

MussoliniBenitoDuce
The Italian Social Republic was the second and last incarnation of the Italian Fascist state and was led by Duce Benito Mussolini and his reformed anti-monarchist Republican Fascist Party which tried to modernise and revise fascist doctrine into a more moderate and sophisticated direction.
Adolf Hitler, after meeting with the rescued former dictator, then put Mussolini in charge of a puppet regime in northern Italy, the Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana, RSI), informally known as the Salò Republic.

Salò

Serniga di SalòBarbarano-SalòCoste di Salò
The state declared Rome its capital, but was de facto centered on Salò (hence its colloquial name), a small town on Lake Garda, near Brescia, where Mussolini and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs were headquartered.
The city was the seat of government of the Italian Social Republic from 1943 to 1945, with the ISR often being referred to as the "Salò Republic" (Repubblica di Salò in Italian).

Italian resistance movement

Italian ResistancepartisansItalian partisans
On this day a general partisan uprising, alongside the efforts of Allied forces during their final offensive in Italy, managed to oust the Germans from Italy almost entirely.
It was opposed to the forces of Nazi Germany as well as their puppet state local regime, the Italian Social Republic, especially following the German military occupation of Italy between September 1943 and April 1945, though the resistance to the Fascist Italian government began even prior to World War II.

Fascism

fascistfascistsFascist regime
The Italian Social Republic was the second and last incarnation of the Italian Fascist state and was led by Duce Benito Mussolini and his reformed anti-monarchist Republican Fascist Party which tried to modernise and revise fascist doctrine into a more moderate and sophisticated direction.
While continuing to rely on Germany for support, Mussolini and the remaining loyal Fascists founded the Italian Social Republic with Mussolini as head of state.

Italian campaign (World War II)

Italian CampaignItalyItalian Front
Around 25 April 1945–- nineteen months after the RSI's founding–- it all but collapsed.
However, German forces shortly succeeded in taking control of northern and central Italy; Mussolini, who was rescued by German paratroopers, established a collaborationist puppet state, the Italian Social Republic (RSI) to administer the German-occupied territory, leading to Italy being split in two.

Rodolfo Graziani

GrazianiRodolfo Graziani, marchese di NeghelliGRAZIANI, Rodolfo
The RSI Minister of Defense Rodolfo Graziani surrendered what was left of the Italian Social Republic on 1 May, one day after the German forces in Italy capitulated, putting a definitive end to the Italian Social Republic.
Following the 25 Luglio coup in 1943, he was the only Marshal of Italy who remained loyal to Mussolini and was named the Minister of Defence of the Italian Social Republic, commanding its army and returning to active service against the Allies for the rest of the war.

Clara Petacci

Claretta PetacciClaretta "Clara" Petacci
On 27 April, partisans caught Mussolini, his mistress (Clara Petacci), several RSI ministers and several other Italian Fascists while they were attempting to flee.
On 27 April 1945, Mussolini and Petacci were captured by partisans while traveling with a convoy of Italian Social Republic members.

Armistice of Cassibile

Italian armisticearmisticeArmistice between Italy and Allied armed forces
When the Armistice of Cassibile was announced 8 September, Germany was prepared and quickly intervened.
Italian forces were quickly defeated and most of Italy was occupied by German troops, establishing a puppet state, the Italian Social Republic.

Duce

Il DuceDuce of FascismDux
The Italian Social Republic was the second and last incarnation of the Italian Fascist state and was led by Duce Benito Mussolini and his reformed anti-monarchist Republican Fascist Party which tried to modernise and revise fascist doctrine into a more moderate and sophisticated direction.
In September 1943, Mussolini styled himself as the "Duce of the Italian Social Republic" (Duce della Repubblica Sociale Italiana), and held the position until the collapse of the Italian Social Republic and his death in April 1945.

Verona trial

six months later in VeronaTrialtrial at Verona
The RSI took revenge against the 19 members who had voted against Mussolini on the Grand Council with the Verona trial (processo di Verona) which handed down a death sentence to all of the accused but one.
The Verona Trial (processo di Verona) was a show trial held in January 1944 in the Italian Social Republic (ISR) to punish—by five almost-immediately executed death sentences and one 30-year imprisonment—the members of the Grand Council of Fascism who had committed the offence of voting for Benito Mussolini's removal from power in the Kingdom of Italy and had later been arrested by Mussolini's forces.

Pietro Koch

Banda KochKoch BandKOCH, Pietro
This work was also carried out by the infamous Pietro Koch and the Banda Koch on Germany's behalf.
Pietro Koch (18 August 1918 – 4 June 1945) was an Italian soldier and leader of the Banda Koch, a group notorious for its anti-partisan activity in the Republic of Salò.

Carabinieri

CarabiniereArma dei CarabinieriItalian Carabinieri
On 12 September, Mussolini was liberated by the Germans in Operation Eiche in the mountains of Abruzzo, while the Italian carabinieri were allegedly ordered to not fire their weapons at the raiders, rendering them defenseless.
After the armistice between Italy and the Allies on 3 September 1943 and the country's split into the fascist Italian Social Republic in the north and the Kingdom of Italy in the south, the Carabinieri split into two groups.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana, ; RSI), popularly and historically known as the Republic of Salò (Repubblica di Salò ), was a German puppet state with limited recognition that was created during the later part of World War II, existing from the beginning of German occupation of Italy in September 1943 until the surrender of German troops in Italy in May 1945.
German special forces then rescued Mussolini, who then soon established a new client state in German-occupied Italy named the Italian Social Republic, causing an Italian civil war.

Victor Emmanuel III of Italy

Victor Emmanuel IIIKing Victor Emmanuel IIIVittorio Emanuele III
In July 1943, after the Allies had pushed Italy out of North Africa and subsequently invaded Sicily, the Grand Fascist Council—with the support of King Victor Emmanuel III—overthrew and arrested Mussolini.
In a short time, he established a new Fascist state in northern Italy, the Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana).

Northern Italy

northernNorthern ItalianNorth
The Italian Social Republic exercised nominal sovereignty in Northern and Central Italy, but was largely dependent on German troops to maintain control.
Between 1943 and 1945, during the Second World War, Northern Italy was part of the Fascist Italian Social Republic and the main theatre of the anti-fascist partisan activity.

Lake Garda

GardaLago di GardaGarda Lake
The state declared Rome its capital, but was de facto centered on Salò (hence its colloquial name), a small town on Lake Garda, near Brescia, where Mussolini and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs were headquartered.

Galeazzo Ciano

Count CianoCianoCount Galeazzo Ciano
Only six of the 19 were in RSI custody (Giovanni Marinelli, Carlo Pareschi, Luciano Gottardi, Tullio Cianetti, Emilio De Bono and Mussolini's own son-in-law Galeazzo Ciano).
Ciano proceeded to flee to Germany but was arrested and turned over to Mussolini's new regime, the Italian Social Republic.

Italian Islands of the Aegean

Italian Aegean IslandsItalian DodecaneseDodecanese Islands
After the Italian capitulation, the Italian Aegean Islands were occupied by the Germans (see Dodecanese campaign).
The Italian Islands of the Aegean (Isole italiane dell'Egeo; Ἰταλικαὶ Νῆσοι Αἰγαίου Πελάγους) were a group of twelve major islands (the Dodecanese) in the southeastern Aegean Sea, that — together with the surrounding islets — were ruled by the Kingdom of Italy from 1912 to 1943 and the Italian Social Republic from 1943 to 1945.

Gothic Line

Operation OliveNorth ApenninesBattle of Coriano
Mussolini wanted to conduct a small offensive along the Gothic Line against the Allies with his new RSI Divisions; in December 1944, the Alpine Division "Monte Rosa" with some German battalions fought the Battle of Garfagnana with some success.
It formed Field Marshal Albert Kesselring's last major line of defence along the summits of the northern part of the Apennine Mountains during the fighting retreat of the German forces in Italy against the Allied Armies in Italy, commanded by General Sir Harold Alexander.

Operational Zone of the Adriatic Littoral

Operational Zone Adriatic CoastAdriatic LittoralOperation Zone of the Adriatic Littoral
The region identified by Germany as Operationszone Adriatisches Küstenland that included Udine, Gorizia, Trieste, Pola and Fiume were de facto incorporated into Reichsgau Kärnten and administered by its Gauleiter Friedrich Rainer.
Both operations zones formally belonged to the Italian Social Republic, which governed those areas of Italy not yet occupied by the Allies from Salò at Lake Garda.

Verona

Verona, ItalyVeroneseSan Michele Extra
They (except for Tullio Cianetti who received a life sentence) were all executed on 11 January 1944 in the fort of San Procolo in Verona.
An Austrian Fort (now a church, the Santuario della Madonna di Lourdes), was used to incarcerate and torture Allied troops, Jews and anti-fascists, especially after 1943, when Verona became part of the Italian Social Republic.

Black Brigades

Brigate NereBlack BrigadeBlack Brigade (Italy)
Smaller units like the Black Brigades (Brigate nere) led by Alessandro Pavolini and the Decima Flottiglia MAS led by Junio Valerio Borghese (called "principe nero", the Black Prince) fought for the RSI during its entire existence.
The Corpo Ausiliario delle Squadre d'azione di Camicie Nere (Italian: Auxiliary Corps of the Black Shirts' Action Squads), most widely known as the Black Brigades (Brigate Nere) was one of the Fascist paramilitary groups, organized and run by the Republican Fascist Party (Partito Fascista Repubblicano, PFR) operating in the Italian Social Republic (in northern Italy), during the final years of World War II, and after the signing of the Italian Armistice in 1943.

Axis powers

AxisAxis forcesAxis power
In the aftermath of the Kingdom of Italy's abandonment of the Axis on 8 September 1943, Germany seized and de facto incorporated some Italian territories.
On 12 September 1943, Mussolini was rescued by the Germans in Operation Oak and placed in charge of a puppet state called the Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana/RSI, or Repubblica di Salò) in northern Italy.