Italian Somaliland

Italian SomaliaSomaliaSomalilandSomalia ItalianaItalianscolonial periodSomaliBritish Military AdministrationBritish Military Administration (Somalia)campaign against Somalia
Italian Somaliland (Somalia italiana, الصومال الإيطالي Al-Sumal Al-Italiy, Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaalida), sometimes also referred to as Italian Somalia, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia.wikipedia
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Somalia

SomaliFederal Republic of SomaliaSOM
Italian Somaliland (Somalia italiana, الصومال الإيطالي Al-Sumal Al-Italiy, Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaalida), sometimes also referred to as Italian Somalia, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia.
In the late 19th century, the British and Italian empires established the colonies of British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland.

Kingdom of Italy

ItalyItalianFascist Italy
Italian Somaliland (Somalia italiana, الصومال الإيطالي Al-Sumal Al-Italiy, Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaalida), sometimes also referred to as Italian Somalia, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia.
The fourth phase, 1935–1940, was characterized by an aggressive foreign policy: war against Ethiopia, launched from Italian Eritrea and Italian Somaliland, which resulted in its annexation; confrontations with the League of Nations, leading to sanctions; growing economic autarky; and the signing of the Pact of Steel.

Italian East Africa

Italian occupationAfrica Orientale ItalianaItalian occupation of Ethiopia
In 1936, the region was integrated into Italian East Africa as part of the Italian Empire.
It was formed in 1936 through the merger of Italian Somaliland, Italian Eritrea, and the newly occupied Ethiopian Empire which became Italian Ethiopia.

Somali Republic

SomaliaRepublic of Somalia1960 independence
On July 1, 1960, the Trust Territory of Somaliland united as scheduled with the former British Somaliland protectorate to form the Somali Republic.
The Somali Republic (Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliyeed, Repubblica Somala, الجمهورية الصومالية ) was the official name of Somalia after independence on July 1, 1960, following the unification of the Trust Territory of Somaliland (the former Italian Somaliland) and the State of Somaliland (the former British Somaliland).

British Somaliland

SomalilandSomaliland ProtectorateBritish Somaliland Protectorate
On July 1, 1960, the Trust Territory of Somaliland united as scheduled with the former British Somaliland protectorate to form the Somali Republic.
For much of its existence, the territory was bordered by Italian Somalia, French Somaliland and Ethiopia.

Somalis

SomaliSomali peopleSomali clan
Ruled in the 19th century by the Somali Majeerteen Sultanate and the Sultanate of Hobyo, the territory was later acquired in the 1880s by Italy through various treaties. The European powers (Italy, Great Britain and France) first gained a foothold in Somalia through the signing of various pacts and agreements with the Somali Sultans that then controlled the region, such as Yusuf Ali Kenadid, Boqor Osman Mahamuud and Mohamoud Ali Shire.
In late 1888, Sultan Yusuf Ali Kenadid entered into a treaty with the Italian government, making his Sultanate of Hobyo an Italian protectorate known as Italian Somaliland.

Trust Territory of Somaliland

Trust Territory of Somaliatrusteeship periodSomalia
Italian Somaliland then came under British military administration until 1949, when it became a United Nations trusteeship, the Trust Territory of Somaliland under Italian administration.
It had as capital Mogadishu and was administered by Italy from 1950 to 1960 as part of the Italian Empire, following the dissolution of the former British Military Administration.

Italy

ItalianITAItalia
Ruled in the 19th century by the Somali Majeerteen Sultanate and the Sultanate of Hobyo, the territory was later acquired in the 1880s by Italy through various treaties. The European powers (Italy, Great Britain and France) first gained a foothold in Somalia through the signing of various pacts and agreements with the Somali Sultans that then controlled the region, such as Yusuf Ali Kenadid, Boqor Osman Mahamuud and Mohamoud Ali Shire.
Starting from the last two decades of the 19th century, Italy developed into a colonial power by forcing Eritrea, Somalia and later Libya and the Dodecanese under its rule.

Sultanate of Hobyo

Sultan of Hobyo
Ruled in the 19th century by the Somali Majeerteen Sultanate and the Sultanate of Hobyo, the territory was later acquired in the 1880s by Italy through various treaties. In late 1888, Sultan Yusuf Ali Kenadid entered into a treaty with the Italians, making his Sultanate of Hobyo an Italian protectorate.
In late 1888, Sultan Kenadid entered into a treaty with the Italians, making his realm an Italian protectorate.

Jubaland

JubaJubbalandJubba
The last piece of land acquired by Italy in Somalia in order to form Italian Somaliland was the Jubaland region.
Its eastern border lies 40–60 km east of the Jubba River, stretching from Gedo to the Indian Ocean, while its western side flanks the North Eastern Province in Kenya, which was carved out of Jubaland during the colonial period.

Majeerteen Sultanate

MajeerteenMigiurtiniaMajerteen Sultanate
Ruled in the 19th century by the Somali Majeerteen Sultanate and the Sultanate of Hobyo, the territory was later acquired in the 1880s by Italy through various treaties.
In late 1889, Boqor Osman entered into a treaty with Italy, making his kingdom a protectorate known as Italian Somaliland.

Horn of Africa

HornSomali peninsulanortheastern Africa
The late 19th century had a huge impact on developments occurring in the Horn of Africa.
By 1936 however, Eritrea became a province of Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana), along with Ethiopia and Italian Somaliland.

Royal Corps of Somali Colonial Troops

Italian colonial soldiers
From 5 April 1908 to 5 May 1936, the Royal Corps of Somali Colonial Troops (Regio corpo truppe coloniali della Somalia Italiana), originally called the "Guard Corps of Benadir", served as the territory's formal military corps.
The Royal Corps of Somali Colonial Troops (Regio corpo truppe coloniali della Somalia italiana) was the colonial body of the Royal Italian Army based in Italian Somaliland, in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia.

List of colonial governors of Italian Somaliland

GovernorGovernor of Italian SomalilandItalian Governor of Somaliland
On December 5, 1923, Cesare Maria De Vecchi di Val Cismon was named Governor in charge of the new colonial administration.
This article lists the colonial governors of Italian Somaliland from 1889 to 1941.

Osman Mahamuud

Osman MahamudBoqor Osman Mahamud
The European powers (Italy, Great Britain and France) first gained a foothold in Somalia through the signing of various pacts and agreements with the Somali Sultans that then controlled the region, such as Yusuf Ali Kenadid, Boqor Osman Mahamuud and Mohamoud Ali Shire.
In late 1889, Boqor Osman entered into a treaty with the Italians, making his realm an Italian protectorate.

Mogadishu–Villabruzzi Railway

Mogadishu-Villabruzzi RailwayrailwayItalian Somaliland Railway
In 1926, the agricultural colony of Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi comprised 16 villages, with some 3,000 Somali and 200 Italian inhabitants, and was connected by a 114 km new railway to Mogadishu.
It was constructed between 1914 and 1927 by the colonial authorities in Italian Somaliland.

Dubats

Dubat2nd Abyssinian IrregularsDubat Bands
The Dubats colonial troops and the Zaptié gendarmerie were extensively used by De Vecchi during these military campaigns.
Dubats (English: White turbans) was the designation given to armed irregular bands employed by the Italian "Royal Corps of Colonial Troops" (Regio Corpo di Truppe Coloniali in Italian) in Italian Somaliland from 1924 to 1941.

Oltre Giuba

Italian Trans-JubaTrans-Juba
After World War I in 1925, Trans-Juba, which was then a part of British East Africa, was ceded to Italy.
It lasted for one year, from 1924 until 1925, when it was absorbed into Italian Somaliland.

Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi

Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the AbruzziDuke of the AbruzziLuigi Amedeo
In 1920, a member of the Italian Royal Family, The Duca degli Abruzzi, who was also a famous explorer, would establish the Società Agricola Italo-Somala (SAIS) in order to explore the agricultural potential of the territory.
In September 1893, he traveled to Italian Somaliland to quell the unrest and stayed for a month to guard the port of Mogadishu, giving him his first contact with a land to which he would later devote the last years of his life and in which he would choose to die.

Protectorate

British Protectorateprotectionprotectorates
In late 1888, Sultan Yusuf Ali Kenadid entered into a treaty with the Italians, making his Sultanate of Hobyo an Italian protectorate.

Jowhar

VillabruzziVillabbruzziVillaggio Duca degli Abruzzi
That same year, the Duca founded the Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi ("Villabruzzi"; Jowhar) as an agricultural settlement in Italian Somaliland.
At the turn of the 20th century, Jowhar was incorporated into Italian Somaliland protectorate.

Zaptié

ZaptiepolicemenZaptié of Eritrea
The Dubats colonial troops and the Zaptié gendarmerie were extensively used by De Vecchi during these military campaigns.
Zaptié was the designation given to locally raised gendarmerie units in the Italian colonies of Tripolitania, Cyrenaica (later Italian Libya), Eritrea and Somaliland between 1889 and 1943.

Yusuf Ali Kenadid

Yusuf Ali Keenadid
The European powers (Italy, Great Britain and France) first gained a foothold in Somalia through the signing of various pacts and agreements with the Somali Sultans that then controlled the region, such as Yusuf Ali Kenadid, Boqor Osman Mahamuud and Mohamoud Ali Shire. In late 1888, Sultan Yusuf Ali Kenadid entered into a treaty with the Italians, making his Sultanate of Hobyo an Italian protectorate.
In late 1888, Sultan Kenadid entered into a treaty with Italy, making his Sultanate a protectorate known as Obbia Protectrorate later annexed to the Italian Somaliland in 1922 along with the territories of the Greater Kingdom Of Migiurtinia.

Warsheikh

Warsheekh
Both rulers had entered into the protectorate treaties to advance their own expansionist goals, with Sultan Kenadid looking to use Italy's support in his ongoing power struggle with Boqor Osman over the Majeerteen Sultanate, as well as in a separate conflict with the Hiraab Sultanate over an area to the north of Warsheikh.
At the turn of the 20th century, Warsheikh was incorporated into the Italian Somaliland protectorate.

United Nations trust territories

United Nations Trust TerritoryUN Trust TerritoryTrust Territory
Italian Somaliland then came under British military administration until 1949, when it became a United Nations trusteeship, the Trust Territory of Somaliland under Italian administration.
* The Trust Territory of Somaliland under Italian administration: Italy was appointed U.N. trustee of the former Italian Somaliland in 1950.