Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars

Italian campaignItalyItalian campaignsNapoleonic invasion of ItalyCampaign of Italy1796 Italian Campaigncampaign in ItalyFirst Italian CampaignItalian campaign of 1800approached Vienna
The Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars (1792–1802) were a series of conflicts fought principally in Northern Italy between the French Revolutionary Army and a Coalition of Austria, Russia, Piedmont-Sardinia, and a number of other Italian states.wikipedia
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French Revolutionary Wars

French RevolutionaryFrench Revolutionary WarFrench Revolutionary troops
The Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars (1792–1802) were a series of conflicts fought principally in Northern Italy between the French Revolutionary Army and a Coalition of Austria, Russia, Piedmont-Sardinia, and a number of other Italian states.
A hitherto unknown general named Napoleon Bonaparte began his first campaign in Italy in April 1796.

Napoleon

Napoleon BonaparteNapoleon INapoleon I of France
Before the Allies could launch this assault the French, under tactical command of André Masséna, launched the Saorgio Offensive (April, 1794), which was planned by the army's artillery commander, General Napoleon Bonaparte.
At age 26, he began his first military campaign against the Austrians and the Italian monarchs aligned with the Habsburgs—winning virtually every battle, conquering the Italian Peninsula in a year while establishing "sister republics" with local support, and becoming a war hero in France.

Army of Italy (France)

Army of Italyarmée d'ItalieFrench Army of Italy
A new offensive, again devised by General Bonaparte, was similarly successful despite its more complicated nature, calling for the co-ordination of the Army of Italy and the Army of the Alps.
Though it existed in some form in the 16th century through to the present, it is best known for its role during the French Revolutionary Wars (in which it was one of the early commands of Napoleon Bonaparte, during his Italian campaign) and Napoleonic Wars.

French Revolutionary Army

French Revolutionary ArmiesRevolutionary ArmyFrench army
The Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars (1792–1802) were a series of conflicts fought principally in Northern Italy between the French Revolutionary Army and a Coalition of Austria, Russia, Piedmont-Sardinia, and a number of other Italian states.

French campaign in Egypt and Syria

Egyptian CampaignNapoleon's invasion of 1799French invasion of Egypt
Bonaparte, meanwhile, was away from the continent, as from May, 1798 to September, 1799 he was leading the Egyptian Campaign.
It would resort to the army to maintain order in the face of the Jacobin and royalist threats, and count in particular on general Bonaparte, already a successful commander, having led the Italian campaign.

War of the Second Coalition

Second CoalitionSecondMay 1802
The second phase of the war in Italy began in 1799 as part of the War of the Second Coalition and was different from the first in that Russian forces participated in the campaign.
The efforts of Napoleon Bonaparte in the northern Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars pushed Austrian forces back and resulted in the negotiation of the Treaty of Leoben (18 April 1797) and the subsequent Treaty of Campo Formio (October 1797).

Battle of Marengo

MarengoBattle of Marengo (1800)Marengo 1800
The Reserve Army fought a battle at Montebello on 9 June before the main confrontation at Marengo.
The Battle of Marengo was the victory that sealed the success of Bonaparte's Italian campaign of 1800 and is best understood in the context of that campaign.

Italy

ItalianITAItalia
The Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars (1792–1802) were a series of conflicts fought principally in Northern Italy between the French Revolutionary Army and a Coalition of Austria, Russia, Piedmont-Sardinia, and a number of other Italian states.

Habsburg Monarchy

Habsburg EmpireHabsburgAustria
The Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars (1792–1802) were a series of conflicts fought principally in Northern Italy between the French Revolutionary Army and a Coalition of Austria, Russia, Piedmont-Sardinia, and a number of other Italian states. The conflict soon escalated with Austrian and Neapolitan forces being mobilised for an invasion of southern France to recover Nice and strike into Provence.

War of the First Coalition

First CoalitionCoalitionFirst
The Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars (1792–1802) were a series of conflicts fought principally in Northern Italy between the French Revolutionary Army and a Coalition of Austria, Russia, Piedmont-Sardinia, and a number of other Italian states. The War of the First Coalition broke out in autumn 1792, when several European powers formed an alliance against Republican France. This was reversed in mid-1793, when the Republican forces were withdrawn to deal with a revolt in Lyon, triggering a counter-invasion of Savoy by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia (a member of the First Coalition).

French First Republic

French RepublicFranceFirst French Republic
The War of the First Coalition broke out in autumn 1792, when several European powers formed an alliance against Republican France.

Nice

Nice, FranceNizzaNice, Alpes-Maritimes
The first major operation was the annexation of Nice (part of the Duchy of Savoy) by 30,000 French troops.

Duchy of Savoy

SavoySavoyardDuke of Savoy
The first major operation was the annexation of Nice (part of the Duchy of Savoy) by 30,000 French troops.

Lyon

Lyon, FranceLyonsLyons, France
This was reversed in mid-1793, when the Republican forces were withdrawn to deal with a revolt in Lyon, triggering a counter-invasion of Savoy by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia (a member of the First Coalition).

Kingdom of Sardinia

SardiniaPiedmont-SardiniaKingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia
The Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars (1792–1802) were a series of conflicts fought principally in Northern Italy between the French Revolutionary Army and a Coalition of Austria, Russia, Piedmont-Sardinia, and a number of other Italian states. This was reversed in mid-1793, when the Republican forces were withdrawn to deal with a revolt in Lyon, triggering a counter-invasion of Savoy by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia (a member of the First Coalition).

François Christophe de Kellermann

François Christophe KellermannKellermannFrançois Kellermann
After the revolt in Lyon had been suppressed, the French under General Kellermann managed to push back the Piedmontese with just 12,000 troops, winning engagements at Argentines and St Maurice in September and October 1793.

Kingdom of Naples

NaplesNeapolitanKing of Naples
The conflict soon escalated with Austrian and Neapolitan forces being mobilised for an invasion of southern France to recover Nice and strike into Provence.

Provence

ProvençalProvence, FranceHaute-Provence
The conflict soon escalated with Austrian and Neapolitan forces being mobilised for an invasion of southern France to recover Nice and strike into Provence.

Royal Navy

RNBritish NavyBritish Royal Navy
The Allied forces were bolstered by some 45,000 Austrians, Piedmontese, and Neapolitans, with additional support from the British Royal Navy.

Battle of Saorgio

1793 invasion of the Kingdom of SardiniaSaorgioSaorgio Offensive
Before the Allies could launch this assault the French, under tactical command of André Masséna, launched the Saorgio Offensive (April, 1794), which was planned by the army's artillery commander, General Napoleon Bonaparte.

Army of the Alps

Armée des AlpesArmee des AlpsDES ALPES
A new offensive, again devised by General Bonaparte, was similarly successful despite its more complicated nature, calling for the co-ordination of the Army of Italy and the Army of the Alps.

Lazare Carnot

CarnotLazare Nicolas Marguerite CarnotCarnot, Lazare
Further French assaults on the Allied positions were called off under orders from war minister Carnot, who was concerned about supply lines being cut by rebels behind the front.

Committee of Public Safety

Comité de salut publicCommittee for Public SafetyC.P.S.
The commanders in the field were unhappy about this decision, but appeals were interrupted by the overthrow of the Committee of Public Safety and its leader, Maximilien de Robespierre (28 July 1794).

First Battle of Dego

Ignoring Carnot's orders, the commander of the Army of Italy launched a counter-offensive and secured supply routes to Genoa following victory at the First Battle of Dego.

Battle of Loano

Loano
Kellermann was replaced by General Schérer soon after and he carried out the attacks, gaining victory at Loano.