Italian language

ItalianItalian-languageitStandard ItalianIt.Old ItalianItalian-speakingItalyItalmedieval Italian
Italian (italiano or lingua italiana ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family.wikipedia
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Indo-European languages

Indo-EuropeanIndo-European languageIndo-European language family
Italian (italiano or lingua italiana ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family.
The Indo-European languages with the greatest numbers of native speakers are Spanish, English, Hindustani (Hindi/Urdu), Portuguese, Bengali, Punjabi, and Russian, each with over 100 million speakers, with German, French, Marathi, Italian, and Persian also having more than 50 million.

Sardinian language

Sardiniansrdindigenous language
Italian descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire and, together with Sardinian, is by most measures the closest language to it of the Romance languages.
However, it also incorporates a Pre-Latin (mostly Paleo-Sardinian and, to a much lesser degree, Punic) substratum, as well as a Byzantine Greek, Catalan, Spanish and Italian superstratum due to the political history of the island, which became a Byzantine possession followed by a significant period of self-rule, fell into the Iberian sphere of influence in the late Middle Ages, and eventually into the Italian one in the 18th century.

Switzerland

SwissSwiss ConfederationSWI
Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland (where it is the first language in Canton Ticino and in the districts of Moesa and Bernina in Canton Graubünden), San Marino and Vatican City.
Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz (German); Suisse (French); Svizzera (Italian); and Svizra (Romansh).

Savoie

Savoy73 Savoy
It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor) and Greece (Ionian Islands and Dodecanese), and is generally understood in Corsica (due to its close relation with the Tuscan-influenced local language) and Savoie.
Savoie (Arpitan: Savouè, Italian: Savoia, English: Savoy ) is a department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of France.

Corsica

CorseCorsicanCyrnus
It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor) and Greece (Ionian Islands and Dodecanese), and is generally understood in Corsica (due to its close relation with the Tuscan-influenced local language) and Savoie.
Corsica (Corse ; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.

Regional Italian

Italian dialectsItalian dialectdialect
Many speakers of Italian are native bilinguals of both Italian (either in its standard form or regional varieties) and other regional languages.
Regional Italian (italiano regionale) is any regional variety of the Italian language.

Corsican language

Corsicanlocal languageCorsican dialects
It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor) and Greece (Ionian Islands and Dodecanese), and is generally understood in Corsica (due to its close relation with the Tuscan-influenced local language) and Savoie.
Corsican is closely related to Tuscan and therefore to the Florentine-based Italian.

Roman Empire

RomanRomansEmpire
Italian descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire and, together with Sardinian, is by most measures the closest language to it of the Romance languages.
After the decentralization of political power in late antiquity, Latin developed locally into branches that became the Romance languages, such as Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian and Romanian, and a large number of minor languages and dialects.

Venetian rule in the Ionian Islands

Venetian Ionian IslandsVenetian ruleIonian Islands
It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor) and Greece (Ionian Islands and Dodecanese), and is generally understood in Corsica (due to its close relation with the Tuscan-influenced local language) and Savoie.
The Italian language, for instance, which was introduced on the islands as the official language and was adopted by the upper class, is still popular today throughout the islands.

Languages of Italy

Italian dialectsItalianItalian languages
Many speakers of Italian are native bilinguals of both Italian (either in its standard form or regional varieties) and other regional languages.
The official and most widely spoken language across the country is a direct descendant of Tuscan, Standard Italian; twelve additional languages are officially recognized as linguistic minorities: Albanian, Catalan, German, Greek, Slovene, Croatian, French, Franco-Provençal, Friulian, Ladin, Occitan and Sardinian.

Languages of the European Union

EU languagesofficial languages of the European UnionLanguages of the EU
It is the fourth most widely spoken first language in the European Union with 69 million native speakers (13% of the EU population) and it is spoken as a second language by 16 million EU citizens (3%).
In addition, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Hungarian, Irish, Italian, Slovak, and Slovene are official languages in multiple EU countries at the regional level.

Italians

ItalianItalian peopleItalian descent
Dante's epic poems, known collectively as the Commedia, to which another Tuscan poet Giovanni Boccaccio later affixed the title Divina, were read throughout the peninsula and his written dialect became the "canonical standard" that all educated Italians could understand.
Italians share a common culture, history, ancestry and language.

Florence

FlorentineFlorence, ItalyFirenze
Thus the dialect of Florence became the basis for what would become the official language of Italy.
The Florentine dialect forms the base of Standard Italian and it became the language of culture throughout Italy due to the prestige of the masterpieces by Dante Alighieri, Petrarch, Giovanni Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini.

Dante Alighieri

DanteDante’sDantean
The language that came to be thought of as Italian developed in central Tuscany and was first formalized in the early 14th century through the works of Tuscan writer Dante Alighieri, written in his native Florentine.
His Divine Comedy, originally called Comedìa (modern Italian: Commedia) and later christened Divina by Giovanni Boccaccio, is widely considered the most important poem of the Middle Ages and the greatest literary work in the Italian language.

Divine Comedy

The Divine ComedyInfernoDivina Commedia
Dante's epic poems, known collectively as the Commedia, to which another Tuscan poet Giovanni Boccaccio later affixed the title Divina, were read throughout the peninsula and his written dialect became the "canonical standard" that all educated Italians could understand.
It helped establish the Tuscan language, in which it is written (also in most present-day Italian-market editions), as the standardized Italian language.

Italian diaspora

Italian immigrantsItalianItalian immigrant
Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia.
Italian used to be a major language, but its influence significantly diminished following independence.

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

OSCEOrganization for Security and Cooperation in EuropeOrganization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)
Italian is a major European language, being one of the official languages of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and one of the working languages of the Council of Europe.
The six official languages of the OSCE are English, French, German, Italian, Spanish and Russian.

European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

European Charter for Regional and Minority LanguagesEuropean Charter of regional languagesECRML
Italian is included under the languages covered by the European Charter for Regional or Minority languages in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Romania, although Italian is neither a co-official nor a protected language in these countries.

Malta

MalteseMaltese IslandsRepublic of Malta
It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor) and Greece (Ionian Islands and Dodecanese), and is generally understood in Corsica (due to its close relation with the Tuscan-influenced local language) and Savoie.
Until the Second World War, Maltese politics was dominated by the language question fought out by Italophone and Anglophone parties.

Italian Islands of the Aegean

Italian Aegean IslandsItalian DodecaneseDodecanese Islands
It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor) and Greece (Ionian Islands and Dodecanese), and is generally understood in Corsica (due to its close relation with the Tuscan-influenced local language) and Savoie.
The Italian language became compulsory in education and the public life, with Greek being only an optional subject in schools.

La Spezia–Rimini Line

La SpeziaLa Spezia-RiminiMassa–Senigallia Line
The most characteristic differences, for instance, between Roman Italian and Milanese Italian are the gemination of initial consonants and the pronunciation of stressed "e", and of "s" in some cases: e.g. va bene "all right" is pronounced by a Roman (and by any standard Italian speaker), by a Milanese (and by any speaker whose native dialect lies to the north of the La Spezia–Rimini Line); a casa "at home" is for Roman, or for standard, for Milanese and generally northern.
Romance languages on the eastern half of it include Italian and the Eastern Romance languages (Romanian, Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian, Istro-Romanian), whereas Spanish, French, Catalan, Portuguese as well as Gallo‒Italic languages are representatives of the Western group.

Venetian language

VenetianVenetian dialectvec
The economic might and relatively advanced development of Tuscany at the time (Late Middle Ages) gave its language weight, though Venetian remained widespread in medieval Italian commercial life, and Ligurian (or Genoese) remained in use in maritime trade alongside the Mediterranean.
Like all Italian dialects in the Romance language family, Venetian is descended from Vulgar Latin and influenced by the Italian language.

Sardinia

SardegnaSardinia, ItalySardinian
Sardinia's indigenous language and the other minority languages (Sassarese, Gallurese, Algherese Catalan and Ligurian Tabarchino) spoken on the island are recognized by the regional law and enjoy "equal dignity" with Italian.

Sister language

sistersHypothetical root
They are not in any sense "dialects" of standard Italian, which itself started off as one of these local tongues, but sister languages of Italian.
Italian and French have about 89% lexical overlap, meaning the words share 89 percent of the same characteristics and root origins.

Council of Europe

CECoEthe Council of Europe
Italian is a major European language, being one of the official languages of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and one of the working languages of the Council of Europe.
The Committee of Ministers, the Parliamentary Assembly, and the Congress also use German, Italian, and Russian for some of their work.