Italic languages

ItalicItalic languageItalic branchItalic dialectsItalic familyItalic family of languagesItalic subgroupItalicsLatinOld Italic
The Italic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.wikipedia
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Latin

Lat.Latin languagelat
They include Latin and its descendants (the Romance languages), as well as a number of extinct languages of the Italian Peninsula, including Umbrian, Oscan, Faliscan, South Picene, and possibly Venetic and Sicel. Latin was originally used by the tribe of the Latins, which inhabited the region of Latium (Latin: Latium) in the middle of Italy with their centre (from the 8th century BC) in Rome.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna, ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

Italic peoples

ItalicRomanceLatin
The Italic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples. The Italic peoples came from the north to the Italian Peninsula in the 2nd millennium BC. There were two waves - an earlier one (the Latino-Faliscan languages, including Sicel, which has gone far to the south) and later (the Osco-Umbrian languages).
The Italic peoples were an Indo-European ethnolinguistic group identified by their use of Italic languages.

Romance languages

RomanceRomance languageRomance philologist
They include Latin and its descendants (the Romance languages), as well as a number of extinct languages of the Italian Peninsula, including Umbrian, Oscan, Faliscan, South Picene, and possibly Venetic and Sicel.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the third and eighth centuries and that form a subgroup of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

South Picene language

South PiceneSouthspx
They include Latin and its descendants (the Romance languages), as well as a number of extinct languages of the Italian Peninsula, including Umbrian, Oscan, Faliscan, South Picene, and possibly Venetic and Sicel.
South Picene is an extinct Italic language, belonging to the Sabellic subfamily.

Faliscan language

Faliscanxfa
They include Latin and its descendants (the Romance languages), as well as a number of extinct languages of the Italian Peninsula, including Umbrian, Oscan, Faliscan, South Picene, and possibly Venetic and Sicel.
The Faliscan language is the extinct Italic language of the ancient Falisci.

Oscan language

OscanOscan-speakingOsc.
They include Latin and its descendants (the Romance languages), as well as a number of extinct languages of the Italian Peninsula, including Umbrian, Oscan, Faliscan, South Picene, and possibly Venetic and Sicel.
As a member of the Italic languages, Oscan is therefore a sister language to Latin and Umbrian.

Umbrian language

UmbrianUmb.Umb
They include Latin and its descendants (the Romance languages), as well as a number of extinct languages of the Italian Peninsula, including Umbrian, Oscan, Faliscan, South Picene, and possibly Venetic and Sicel.
Umbrian is an extinct Italic language formerly spoken by the Umbri in the ancient Italian region of Umbria.

Venetic language

VeneticPaleo-VenetianVenet.
They include Latin and its descendants (the Romance languages), as well as a number of extinct languages of the Italian Peninsula, including Umbrian, Oscan, Faliscan, South Picene, and possibly Venetic and Sicel. Venetic (the language of the ancient Veneti), as revealed by its inscriptions, shared some similarities with the Italic languages and is sometimes classified as Italic. Finally in Veneto to the northeast, we have Venetic, the language of the Eastern culture of the Iron Age in the Italian Peninsula. This language gradually spread beyond Rome, along with the growth of the power of this state, displacing, beginning in the 4th and 3rd centuries BC, the languages of other Italic tribes, as well as Illyrian, Messapian and Venetic, etc. Romanisation of the Italian Peninsula (except for the south of Italy and Sicily, where the dominance of Greek was preserved) basically ended by the 1st century BC. Further conquests of slave-owning Rome led to the spread of Latin in North Africa, Spain, Gaul, the German Rhineland, Raetia, Pannonia and Dacia, to the Romanisation of many peoples who inhabited these territories.
Venetic is an extinct Indo-European language, usually classified into the Italic subgroup, that was spoken by the Veneti people in ancient times in the North East of Italy (Veneto) and part of modern Slovenia, between the Po River delta and the southern fringe of the Alps.

Adriatic Veneti

VenetiVeneticVenetian
Venetic (the language of the ancient Veneti), as revealed by its inscriptions, shared some similarities with the Italic languages and is sometimes classified as Italic.
The ancient Veneti spoke Venetic, an extinct Indo-European language which is attested in approximately 300 short inscriptions dating from the 6th to 1st centuries BC. Venetic appears to share several similarities with Latin and the Italic languages, but also has some affinities with other IE languages, especially Germanic and Celtic.

Osco-Umbrian languages

Osco-UmbrianSabellianOsco-Umbrians
Across the backbone of Italy was the great Osco-Umbrian group. The Italic peoples came from the north to the Italian Peninsula in the 2nd millennium BC. There were two waves - an earlier one (the Latino-Faliscan languages, including Sicel, which has gone far to the south) and later (the Osco-Umbrian languages).
The Osco-Umbrian, Sabellic or Sabellian languages are a group of Italic languages, the Indo-European languages that were spoken in Central and Southern Italy by the Osco-Umbrians before being replaced by Latin, as the power of Ancient Rome expanded.

Centum and satem languages

satemcentumsatem language
All the Italic languages share a number of common isoglosses; thus, all of them are centum languages that do not present palatalization of the Indo-European (palatal) velars /*k, *kʷ, *g, *gʰ, *gʰʷ/.
The canonical centum languages of the Indo-European family are the "western" branches: Hellenic, Celtic, Italic and Germanic.

Proto-Italic language

Proto-ItalicItalicPre-Italic
In the intermediate view, the Italic languages are one of the ten or eleven major subgroups of the Indo-European language family and might therefore have had an ancestor, Common Italic or Proto-Italic, from which its daughter languages descended.
The Proto-Italic language is the ancestor of the Italic languages, including notably Latin and thus its descendants, the Romance languages.

Isogloss

isoglossesheteroglossisograph
All the Italic languages share a number of common isoglosses; thus, all of them are centum languages that do not present palatalization of the Indo-European (palatal) velars /*k, *kʷ, *g, *gʰ, *gʰʷ/.
In some branches (for example Greek, Italic and Germanic), the palatals merged with the velars: PIE "tremble (inwardly)" became Latin cupiō "desire" and "hundred" became Latin centum (pronounced [kentum]); but "interrogative pronoun" became quō "how? where?".

Latino-Faliscan languages

Latino-FaliscanLatino-Faliscans Latino-Faliscan
The Italic peoples came from the north to the Italian Peninsula in the 2nd millennium BC. There were two waves - an earlier one (the Latino-Faliscan languages, including Sicel, which has gone far to the south) and later (the Osco-Umbrian languages).
The Latino-Faliscan or Latino-Venetic languages are a group of languages originating from Italy belonging to the Italic languages, a group of the Indo-European languages.

Roman Empire

RomanRomansEmpire
It must be recognized that the Romance languages ended up imposing themselves on the vernacular languages in many of the territories that were occupied by the Roman Empire, making the Italic branch the second most spoken in the world among the Indo-European languages, with about 550 million speakers.
In the West, Latin, referred to in its spoken form as Vulgar Latin, gradually replaced Celtic and Italic languages that were related to it by a shared Indo-European origin.

Veneto

VenetiaVenetianVeneto Region
Finally in Veneto to the northeast, we have Venetic, the language of the Eastern culture of the Iron Age in the Italian Peninsula.
Venetic culture reached a high point during the 4th century BC. These ancient Veneti spoke Venetic, an Indo-European language akin to, but distinct from Latin and the other Italic languages.

Aequian language

Aequianxae
This article uses the classification presented by the Linguist List: Italic includes the Latin subgroup (Latin and the Romance languages) as well as the ancient Italic languages (Faliscan, Osco-Umbrian and two unclassified Italic languages, Aequian and Vestinian).
Not enough text survives to deduce any more than that it belonged to the Italic branch of the Indo-European language family.

Ligurian language (ancient)

LigurianLigurian languageAncient Ligurian
Some have suggested that Ligurian, a language evidenced to the north of the Etruscans in some inscriptions and local names, was also non-Indo-European, although strongly influenced by the Celts.
Scholars, such as Ernst Gamillscheg, Pia Laviosa Zambotti and Yakov Malkiel, consider ancient Ligurian as a pre-Indo-European language, with later and significant Indo-European influences, especially Celtic (Gallic) and Italic (Latin), superimposed on the original language.

Indo-European languages

Indo-EuropeanIndo-European languageIndo-European language family
The Italic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples. In the intermediate view, the Italic languages are one of the ten or eleven major subgroups of the Indo-European language family and might therefore have had an ancestor, Common Italic or Proto-Italic, from which its daughter languages descended. It must be recognized that the Romance languages ended up imposing themselves on the vernacular languages in many of the territories that were occupied by the Roman Empire, making the Italic branch the second most spoken in the world among the Indo-European languages, with about 550 million speakers.
Italic (from Proto-Italic), attested from the 7th century BC. Includes the ancient Osco-Umbrian languages, Faliscan, as well as Latin and its descendants (the Romance languages).

Proto-Villanovan culture

Proto-VillanovanProtovillanovan period
Previously, it was customary to identify the first wave with the Terramare culture, and the second one with the Proto-Villanovan culture; modern archaeologists point to more complex processes.
Various authors, like Marija Gimbutas, associated this culture with the arrival, or the spread, of the proto-Italics into the Italian peninsula.

Vestinian language

Vestinianxvs
This article uses the classification presented by the Linguist List: Italic includes the Latin subgroup (Latin and the Romance languages) as well as the ancient Italic languages (Faliscan, Osco-Umbrian and two unclassified Italic languages, Aequian and Vestinian).
Not enough of their presumed language survives to classify it beyond Italic.

Calvert Watkins

Watkins, CalvertC. WatkinsCalvert W. Watkins
The linguist Calvert Watkins suggested, among the ten major groups, a four-way division of East, West, North and South Indo-European.
Meanwhile, his work on Indo-European vocabulary and poetics yielded a large number of articles on (among others) Celtic, Anatolian, Greek, Italic and Indo-Iranian material, presented directly in his Selected Writings and indirectly in his book, How to Kill a Dragon: Aspects of Indo-European Poetics (Oxford University Press, 1995).

Latins (Italic tribe)

LatinsLatinLatini
Latin was originally used by the tribe of the Latins, which inhabited the region of Latium (Latin: Latium) in the middle of Italy with their centre (from the 8th century BC) in Rome.
The tribe spoke the Latin language, a member of the western branch of the Italic languages, in turn a branch of the Indo-European (IE) family of languages.

Etruscan civilization

EtruscanEtruscansEtruria
The problem of the origin of the Etruscans has generated many debates and there is not yet a definitive solution, but the tendency is to believe that the Etruscans were a non-Indo-European people native to Italy who adopted many customs and styles of the eastern Mediterranean through trade.
Others were colonized by Etruscans who Etruscanized the name, usually Italic.

Southern Italy

Southern ItaliansouthernSouth
This language gradually spread beyond Rome, along with the growth of the power of this state, displacing, beginning in the 4th and 3rd centuries BC, the languages of other Italic tribes, as well as Illyrian, Messapian and Venetic, etc. Romanisation of the Italian Peninsula (except for the south of Italy and Sicily, where the dominance of Greek was preserved) basically ended by the 1st century BC. Further conquests of slave-owning Rome led to the spread of Latin in North Africa, Spain, Gaul, the German Rhineland, Raetia, Pannonia and Dacia, to the Romanisation of many peoples who inhabited these territories.
An original Hellenic civilization soon developed, later interacting with the native Italic and Latin civilisations.