A report on Italy

Expansion of the territory called "Italy" from ancient Greece until Diocletian
The Iron Crown of Lombardy, for centuries a symbol of the Kings of Italy
Marco Polo, explorer of the 13th century, recorded his 24 years-long travels in the Book of the Marvels of the World, introducing Europeans to Central Asia and China.
The Italian states before the beginning of the Italian Wars in 1494
Leonardo da Vinci, the quintessential Renaissance man, in a self-portrait (ca. 1512, Royal Library, Turin)
Christopher Columbus leads an expedition to the New World, 1492. His voyages are celebrated as the discovery of the Americas from a European perspective, and they opened a new era in the history of humankind and sustained contact between the two worlds.
Flag of the Cispadane Republic, which was the first Italian tricolour adopted by a sovereign Italian state (1797)
Holographic copy of 1847 of Il Canto degli Italiani, the Italian national anthem since 1946
Animated map of the Italian unification from 1829 to 1871
The Victor Emmanuel II Monument in Rome, a national symbol of Italy celebrating the first king of the unified country, and resting place of the Italian Unknown Soldier since the end of World War I. It was inaugurated in 1911, on the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the Unification of Italy.
The fascist dictator Benito Mussolini titled himself Duce and ruled the country from 1922 to 1943.
Areas controlled by the Italian Empire at its peak
Italian partisans in Milan during the Italian Civil War, April 1945
Alcide De Gasperi, first republican Prime Minister of Italy and one of the Founding Fathers of the European Union
The signing ceremony of the Treaty of Rome on 25 March 1957, creating the European Economic Community, forerunner of the present-day European Union
Funerals of the victims of the Bologna bombing of 2 August 1980, the deadliest attack ever perpetrated in Italy during the Years of Lead
Italian government task force to face the COVID-19 emergency
Topographic map of Italy
Dolphins in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Aeolian Islands
National and regional parks in Italy
Gran Paradiso, established in 1922, is the oldest Italian national park.
The Italian wolf, the national animal of Italy
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map of Italy
The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of Italy.
The Supreme Court of Cassation, Rome
An Alfa Romeo 159 vehicle of the Carabinieri corps
Group photo of the G7 leaders at the 43rd G7 summit in Taormina
Heraldic coat of arms of the Italian Armed Forces
A proportional representation of Italy exports, 2019
Milan is the economic capital of Italy, and is a global financial centre and a fashion capital of the world.
A Carrara marble quarry
The Autostrada dei Laghi ("Lakes Motorway"), the first motorway built in the world
FS' Frecciarossa 1000 high speed train, with a maximum speed of 400 km/h
Trieste, the main port of the northern Adriatic and starting point of the Transalpine Pipeline
ENI is considered one of the world's oil and gas "Supermajors".
Solar panels in Piombino. Italy is one of the world's largest producers of renewable energy.
Galileo Galilei, the father of modern science, physics and astronomy
Enrico Fermi, creator of the world's first first nuclear reactor
The Amalfi Coast is one of Italy's major tourist destinations.
Map of Italy's population density at the 2011 census
Italy is home to a large population of migrants from Eastern Europe and North Africa.
Linguistic map showing the languages spoken in Italy
Vatican City, the Holy See's sovereign territory
Bologna University, established in AD 1088, is the world's oldest academic institution.
Olive oil and vegetables are central to the Mediterranean diet.
Carnival of Venice
The Last Supper (1494–1499), Leonardo da Vinci, Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan
Michelangelo's David (1501–1504), Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence
The Birth of Venus (1484–1486), Sandro Botticelli, Uffizi Gallery, Florence
Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the mount of Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelino's fresco, 1465
Niccolò Machiavelli, founder of modern political science and ethics
Pinocchio is one of the world's most translated books and a canonical piece of children's literature.
Clockwise from top left: Thomas Aquinas, proponent of natural theology and the Father of Thomism; Giordano Bruno, one of the major scientific figures of the Western world; Cesare Beccaria, considered the Father of criminal justice and modern criminal law; and Maria Montessori, credited with the creation of the Montessori education
La Scala opera house
Statues of Pantalone and Harlequin, two stock characters from the Commedia dell'arte, in the Museo Teatrale alla Scala
Dario Fo, one of the most widely performed playwrights in modern theatre, received international acclaim for his highly improvisational style.
Giacomo Puccini, Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, Madama Butterfly and Turandot, are among the most frequently worldwide performed in the standard repertoire
Luciano Pavarotti, considered one of the finest tenors of the 20th century and the "King of the High Cs"
Giorgio Moroder, pioneer of Italo disco and electronic dance music, is known as the "Father of disco".
Entrance to Cinecittà in Rome
The Azzurri in 2012. Football is the most popular sport in Italy.
Starting in 1909, the Giro d'Italia is the Grands Tours' second oldest.
A Ferrari SF21 by Scuderia Ferrari, the most successful Formula One team
Prada shop at Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan
The traditional recipe for spaghetti with tomato and basil sauce
Italian wine and salumi
The Frecce Tricolori, with the smoke trails representing the national colours of Italy, during the celebrations of the Festa della Repubblica
The Venice Film Festival is the oldest film festival in the world.

Country that consists of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and several islands surrounding it; its territory largely coincides with the homonymous geographical region.

- Italy

593 related topics with Alpha


Kingdom of Italy

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The Kingdom of Italy in 1936
Map of the Kingdom of Italy at its greatest extent in 1943
The Kingdom of Italy in 1936
Italian unification between 1815 and 1870
Count Camillo Benso of Cavour, the first Prime Minister of the unified Italy
Victor Emmanuel II, the first King of the united Italy
Giuseppe Garibaldi, a major military leader during Italian unification
A factory machinery exposition in Turin, set in 1898, during the period of early industrialization, National Exhibition of Turin, 1898
A 1899 FIAT advertisement
Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milano was an architectural work created by Giuseppe Mengoni between 1865 and 1877 and named after the first King of Italy, Victor Emmanuel II.
The Triple Alliance in 1913, shown in red
Original coat of arms
Francesco Crispi promoted the Italian colonialism in Africa in the late 19th century.
The Ain Zara oasis during the Italo-Turkish War: propaganda postcard made by the Italian Army
Italian mounted infantry in China during the Boxer Rebellion in 1900
Italian dirigibles bomb Turkish positions in Libya, as the Italo-Turkish War of 1911–1912 was the first in history in which air attacks (carried out here by dirigible airships) determined the outcome.
Giovanni Giolitti was Prime Minister of Italy five times between 1892 and 1921.
Italy and its colonial possessions at the time of the outbreak of World War I: the area between British Egypt and the firmly held Italian territories is the region of southern Cyrenaica which was under dispute of ownership between Italy and the United Kingdom.
Gabriele D'Annunzio, national poet (vate) of Italy and a prominent nationalist revolutionary who was a supporter of Italy joining action in World War I
Generalissimo Luigi Cadorna (the man to the left of two officers to whom he is speaking) while visiting British batteries during World War I
Italian propaganda poster depicting the Battle of the Piave River
Members of the Arditi corps in 1918. More than 650,000 Italian soldiers lost their lives on the battlefields of World War I.
Armando Diaz, Chief of Staff of the Italian Army since November 1917, halted the Austro-Hungarian advance along the Piave River and launched counter-offensives which led to a decisive victory on the Italian Front. He is celebrated as one of the greatest generals of World War I.
Italian propaganda dropped over Vienna by Gabriele D'Annunzio in 1918
Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (2nd from left) at the World War I peace negotiations in Versailles with David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau and Woodrow Wilson (from left)
Residents of Fiume cheering D'Annunzio and his Legionari in September 1919, when Fiume had 22,488 (62% of the population) Italians in a total population of 35,839 inhabitants
Benito Mussolini (second from left) and his Fascist Blackshirts in 1920
Mussolini was initially a highly popular leader in Italy until Italy's military failures in World War II.
Haile Selassie's resistance to the Italian invasion of Ethiopia made him Man of the Year in 1935 by Time.
The Italian Empire (red) before World War II. Pink areas were annexed/occupied for various periods between 1940 and 1943 (the Tientsin concession in China is not shown).
Cruiser Raimondo Montecuccoli
Erwin Rommel meeting Italian General Italo Gariboldi in Tripoli, February 1941
The Italian Army in Russia fought on the Eastern Front.
An Italian AB 41 armored car in Egypt
Territory of the Italian Social Republic and the South Kingdom
Three men executed by public hanging in a street of Rimini, 1944
Rebels celebrating the liberation of Naples, after the Four days of Naples (27–30 September 1943)
Members of the Italian resistance in Ossola, 1944
Umberto II, the last king of Italy
Results of the 1946 referendum
Crown of the Kingdom of Italy

The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946, when civil discontent led an institutional referendum to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.


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The Monti Sicani in western Sicily
View of the Ciane river
Inner Sicily
Zingaro Natural Reserve
Sicilian wolf
Dolmen of Avola, east Sicily
Megaliths of Argimusco, Montalbano Elicona.
Dolmen of Monte Bubbonia, south Sicily
Ruins of the ancient Phoenician city of Motya
Clockwise from top: temples of Concordia and Hera Lacinia in Agrigento, the temple of Segesta, and the Temple E in Selinunte.
The Sicilian province within the Roman Empire
Greco-Roman theatre at Taormina
Historic map of Sicily by Piri Reis
Arabesque on a wall in the Cuba Palace in Palermo
Trilingual sign in Palermo in Italian, Hebrew and Arabic
Roger I conqueror and first count of Sicily, depicted on a Trifollaris
The cathedral of Cefalù at night
The Cathedral of Monreale
Interior of Castello Maniace
Depiction of the Sicilian Vespers
Sicilian Baroque in Catania.
Battle of Calatafimi, 1860
Private Roy W. Humphrey of Toledo, Ohio is being given blood plasma after he was wounded by shrapnel in Sicily on 9 August 1943.
The city of Palermo
A Sicilian café in New York 1889
Noto Cathedral
Provinces of Sicily
Olive groves
A sample of Marsala, a DOC wine produced in the city of Marsala
Palermo shipyards
Oilfields near Ragusa
The A20 Messina-Palermo motorway near Torregrotta
Messina tramway system
Two trains inside Punta Raisi railway station within Palermo International Airport
Palermo, AMAT tramway system map
Catania Metro
Catania International Airport
The port of Catania
Lampedusa, Pelagie Islands
One of the mosaics in Villa Romana del Casale
Cathedral of San Giorgio in Modica
Taormina's central square at sunset
Castello Ursino in Catania
Zisa Castle in Palermo
Castle of the Counts of Modica (Alcamo) in Alcamo
Castello di Donnafugata near Ragusa
Virgin Annunciate, Antonello da Messina
Palazzo Beneventano del Bosco, Syracuse, Sicilian Baroque
Syracuse Cathedral
Teatro Massimo, Palermo
Vincenzo Bellini
Alessandro Scarlatti
Luigi Pirandello
Department of Engineering, University of Messina
Cannoli, a popular pastry associated with Sicilian cuisine
Arancini, rice balls fried in breadcrumbs
Giuseppe Gibilisco, pole vaulter from Syracuse, 2003 World Champion and bronze Olympic medalist
Sicilian arrotino at a living nativity scene wearing traditional Sicilian clothing
The "Misteri", a Religious festival in Trapani
A carnival float in Acireale
The marionettes used in the Opera dei Pupi
A traditional Sicilian cart
Triskelion painted on Ancient Greek vase, Agrigento
The Triskelion symbol of Sicily
Mount Etna rising over suburbs of Catania
Torre-Capo-Rama (Terrasini)
Torre di (Altavilla Milicia)
Torre Spalmatore (Ustica)
Torre Pozzillo (Cinisi)
Ligny Tower - (Trapani)
Torre Nubia (Paceco)
Torre Manfria (Gela)
Torre Cabrera (Marina di Ragusa) (Marina di Ragusa)
Torre Cabrera (Pozzallo) (Pozzallo)
Vignazza Tower (Giardini Naxos)

Sicily (Sicilia ; Sicilia ) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 20 regions of Italy.


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Roman representation of the god Tiber, Capitoline Hill in Rome
Capitoline Wolf, a sculpture of the mythical she-wolf suckling the infant twins Romulus and Remus
The Ancient-Imperial-Roman palaces of the Palatine, a series of palaces located in the Palatine Hill, express power and wealth of emperors from Augustus until the 4th century.
The Imperial fora belong to a series of monumental fora (public squares) constructed in Rome by the emperors. Also seen in the image is Trajan's Market.
The Roman Empire at its greatest extent in 117 AD, approximately 6.5 e6km2 of land surface.
The Roman Forum are the remains of those buildings that during most of Ancient Rome's time represented the political, legal, religious and economic centre of the city and the neuralgic centre of all the Roman civilisation.
Trajan's Column, triumphal column and place where the relics of Emperor Trajan are placed.
The Pyramid of Cestius and the Aurelian Walls
15th-century illustration depicting the Sack of Rome (410) by the Visigothic king Alaric I
Detail view on an illustration by Raphael portraying the crowning of Charlemagne in Old Saint Peter's Basilica, on 25 December 800
Almost 500 years old, this map of Rome by Mario Cartaro (from 1575) shows the city's primary monuments.
Castel Sant'Angelo or Hadrian's Mausoleum, is a Roman monument radically altered in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance built in 134 AD and crowned with 16th and 17th-century statues.
Fontana della Barcaccia by Gian Lorenzo Bernini in 1629
Carnival in Rome, c. 1650
A View of the Piazza Navona, Rome, Hendrik Frans van Lint, c. 1730
Bombardment of Rome by Allied planes, 1943
The municipi of Rome
The Piazza della Repubblica, Rome
The Palazzo del Quirinale, now seat of the President of the Italian Republic
Satellite image of Rome
Aerial view of part of Rome's Centro Storico
Stone pines in the Villa Doria Pamphili
The Esquilino rione
Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran, Rome's Cathedral, built in 324, and partly rebuilt between 1660 and 1734
Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, one of the four papal major basilicas and has numerous architectural styles, built between the 4th century and 1743
St. Peter's Basilica at night from Via della Conciliazione in Rome
The Pantheon, built as a temple dedicated to "all the gods of the past, present and future"
The Colosseum is still today the largest amphitheater in the world. It was used for gladiator shows and other public events (hunting shows, recreations of famous battles and dramas based on classical mythology).
The Victor Emmanuel II Monument
The Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana in EUR district
The Temple of Aesculapius, in the Villa Borghese gardens
The Trevi Fountain. Construction began during the time of Ancient Rome and was completed in 1762 by a design of Nicola Salvi.
Fontana dei Fiumi by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, 1648
Flaminio Obelisk, Piazza del Popolo
Ponte Vittorio Emanuele II at sunset
The Vatican Caves, the place where many popes are buried
Rome chamber of commerce in the ancient Temple of Hadrian
The Sapienza University of Rome, founded in 1303
Biblioteca Casanatense
National Central Library
The Teatro dell'Opera di Roma at the Piazza Beniamino Gigli
The Spanish Steps
Ostia Lido beach
The Vatican Museums are the 3rd most visited art museum in the world.
Via Condotti
Spaghetti alla carbonara, a typical Roman dish
Concia di zucchine, an example of Roman-Jewish cuisine
Sepulchral inscription for Tiberius Claudius Tiberinus, a Plebeian and professional declaimer of poetry. 1st century AD, Museo Nazionale Romano
Stadio Olimpico, home of A.S. Roma and S.S. Lazio, is one of the largest in Europe, with a capacity of over 70,000.
Stadio dei Marmi
Rome–Fiumicino Airport was the tenth busiest airport in Europe in 2016.
Port of Civitavecchia
Roma Metrorail and Underground map, 2016
Conca d'Oro metro station
FAO headquarters in Rome, Circo Massimo
WFP headquarters in Rome
Sculpture dedicated to Rome in the Square Samuel-Paty in Paris
Column dedicated to Paris in 1956 near the Baths of Diocletian
The Piazza della Repubblica, Rome
Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran, Rome's Cathedral, built in 324, and partly rebuilt between 1660 and 1734

Rome (Italian and Latin: Roma ) is the capital city of Italy.

Five Days of Milan, 18–22 March 1848

Unification of Italy

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The 19th-century political and social movement that resulted in the consolidation of different states of the Italian Peninsula into a single state in 1861, the Kingdom of Italy.

The 19th-century political and social movement that resulted in the consolidation of different states of the Italian Peninsula into a single state in 1861, the Kingdom of Italy.

Five Days of Milan, 18–22 March 1848
Flag of the Cispadane Republic, which was the first Italian tricolour adopted by a sovereign Italian state (1797)
Giuseppe Mazzini, highly influential leader of the Italian revolutionary movement
Animated map of the Italian unification from 1829 to 1871
The first meeting between Garibaldi and Mazzini at the headquarters of Young Italy in 1833.
The Arrest of Silvio Pellico and Piero Maroncelli, Saluzzo, civic museum
Ciro Menotti and his compatriots clashed with the army
Execution of the Bandiera Brothers
Holographic copy of 1847 of Il Canto degli Italiani, the Italian national anthem since 1946
Daniele Manin and Niccolò Tommaseo after the proclamation of the Republic of San Marco
Garibaldi and Cavour making Italy in a satirical cartoon of 1861
Giuseppe Garibaldi, celebrated as one of the greatest generals of modern times and as the "Hero of the Two Worlds", who commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led to unification of Italy
Battle of Calatafimi
People cheering as Garibaldi enters Naples
Victor Emmanuel meets Garibaldi near Teano
Proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy
The Injured Garibaldi in the Aspromonte Mountains (oil on canvas), credited to Gerolamo Induno
Battle of Bezzecca
Victor Emmanuel II in Venice
Garibaldi at Mentana, 3 November 1867
Capture of Rome
The Quirinal Palace in Rome became the head of state of Italy's official residence (royal residence of the Kings of Italy and after the Italian constitutional referendum, 1946 residence and workplace for the Presidents of the Italian Republic)
Massimo d'Azeglio
The Victor Emmanuel II Monument in Rome, inaugurated in 1911 on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the unification of Italy.
Mourning Italia turrita on the tomb to Vittorio Alfieri by Antonio Canova
Portrait of Alessandro Manzoni (1841) by Francesco Hayez
Portrait of Francesco De Sanctis (1890) by Francesco Saverio Altamura
Verdi's bust outside the Teatro Massimo in Palermo
Patriots scrawling "Viva VERDI" on walls
The final scene of the opera Risorgimento! (2011) by Lorenzo Ferrero
Italy in 1494
Italy in 1796
Italy in 1843
Italy in 1860: orange Kingdom of Sardinia, blue Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (Austrian Empire), pink United Provinces of Central Italy, red Papal States, pale green Kingdom of Two Sicilies.
Italy in 1861: orange Kingdom of Italy, blue Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (Austrian Empire), red Papal States.
Kingdom of Italy in 1870, showing the Papal States, before the Capture of Rome.
Kingdom of Italy in 1871
Kingdom of Italy in 1919
The Quirinal Palace in Rome became the head of state of Italy's official residence (royal residence of the Kings of Italy and after the Italian constitutional referendum, 1946 residence and workplace for the Presidents of the Italian Republic)

Italy was unified by the Roman Republic in the latter part of the third century BC. For 700 years, it was a de facto territorial extension of the capital of the Roman Republic and Empire, and for a long time experienced a privileged status but was not converted into a province.

Map of the Mediterranean Sea

Mediterranean Sea

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Sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.

Sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.

Map of the Mediterranean Sea
Greek (red) and Phoenician (yellow) colonies in antiquity c. the 6th century BC
The Roman Empire at its farthest extent in AD 117
The Battle of Lepanto, 1571, ended in victory for the European Holy League against the Ottoman Turks.
The bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo-Dutch fleet in support of an ultimatum to release European slaves, August 1816
Borders of the Mediterranean Sea
Approximate extent of the Mediterranean drainage basin (dark green). Nile basin only partially shown
Map of the Mediterranean Sea from open Natural Earth data, 2020
Alexandria, the largest city on the Mediterranean
Barcelona, the second largest metropolitan area on the Mediterranean Sea (after Alexandria) and the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean
The Acropolis of Athens with the Mediterranean Sea in the background
The ancient port of Jaffa (now in Tel Aviv-Yafo), from which the biblical Jonah set sail before being swallowed by a whale
Catania, Sicily, Italy, with Mount Etna in the background
İzmir, the third metropolis of Turkey (after Istanbul and Ankara)
Africa (left, on horizon) and Europe (right), as seen from Gibraltar
Positano, Italy, Tyrrhenian Sea
View of the Saint George Bay, and snow-capped Mount Sannine from a tower in the Beirut Central District
The Port of Marseille seen from L'Estaque
Sarandë, Albania, stands on an open-sea gulf of the Ionian sea in the central Mediterranean.
The two biggest islands of the Mediterranean: Sicily and Sardinia (Italy)
Predominant surface currents for June
A submarine karst spring, called vrulja, near Omiš; observed through several ripplings of an otherwise calm sea surface.
Messinian salinity crisis before the Zanclean flood
The thermonuclear bomb that fell into the sea recovered off Palomares, Almería, 1966
Stromboli volcano in Italy
The reticulate whipray is one of the species that colonised the Eastern Mediterranean through the Suez Canal as part of the ongoing Lessepsian migration.
A cargo ship cruises towards the Strait of Messina
Port of Trieste
Kemer Beach in Antalya on the Turkish Riviera (Turquoise Coast). In 2019, Turkey ranked sixth in the world in terms of the number of international tourist arrivals, with 51.2 million foreign tourists visiting the country.
Coast of Alexandria, view From Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt
Beach of Hammamet, Tunisia
The beach of la Courtade in the Îles d'Hyères, France
Sardinia's south coast, Italy
Pretty Bay, Malta
Panoramic view of Piran, Slovenia
Panoramic view of Cavtat, Croatia
View of Neum, Bosnia and Herzegovina
A view of Sveti Stefan, Montenegro
Ksamil Islands, Albania
Navagio, Greece
Ölüdeniz, Turquoise Coast, Turkey
Paphos, Cyprus
Burj Islam Beach, Latakia, Syria
A view of Raouché off the coast of Beirut, Lebanon
A view of Haifa, Israel
Old city of Ibiza Town, Spain
Les Aiguades near Béjaïa, Algeria
El Jebha, a port town in Morocco
Europa Point, Gibraltar
Panoramic view of La Condamine, Monaco
Sunset at the Deir al-Balah beach, Gaza Strip

The countries surrounding the Mediterranean in clockwise order are Spain, France, Monaco, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco; Malta and Cyprus are island countries in the sea.

Expansion of the territory called "Italy" from ancient Greece until Diocletian.


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Expansion of the territory called "Italy" from ancient Greece until Diocletian.
Etruscan Civilization fresco from the François Tomb, late fourth century BC
The Colosseum in Rome, built in the 1st century.
Italy after the Peace of Lodi in 1454.
Laura Bassi, the first chairwoman of a university in a scientific field of studies
The Expedition of the Thousand.
Animated map of the Italian unification from 1829 to 1871
A young Italian exile on the run carries, along with her personal effects, a flag of Italy, during the Istrian-Dalmatian exodus
The Pantheon and the Fontana del Pantheon. Roman relics and Roman culture are important national symbols in Italy.
Italian women dance the tarantella, 1846
Niccolò Machiavelli, the founder of modern political science and ethics.
Bartolomeo Cristofori, the inventor of the piano
Federico Fellini, recognized as one of the greatest and most influential filmmakers of all time.
Motorcycle racer Giacomo Agostini
Gianluigi Buffon, the highest-priced goalkeeper and the most capped player for the Italian national team
Principal component analysis of the Italian population with other populations.
Fresco of dancing Peucetian women in the Tomb of the Dancers in Ruvo di Puglia, 4th–5th century BC
Ethnolinguistic map of Italy in the Iron Age.
Duel of Lucanian warriors, fresco from a tomb of the 4th century BC.
Map of Roman coloniae during the second century in Italy
Lombard (Northern Italian) colonies of Sicily: in light blue: the cities where Gallo-Italic language is spoken today.
In dark blue: the cities where there is a good influence of the Gallo-Italic language.
In purple: ancient Gallo-Italic colonies, the influence in these cities is variable, also some districts of Messina were colonized.
Map of Tuscan settlements in Sicily.
Italian ethnic regions claimed in the 1930s by the Italian irredentism: Green: Nice, Ticino and Dalmatia; Red: Malta; Violet: Corsica. Savoy and Corfu were later claimed.
Scipio Africanus, Roman general best known for having defeated Hannibal in Africa, a victory that earned him the surname Africanus.
Cicero, Roman orator and lawyer who served as consul and exposed the Second Catilinarian conspiracy. One of the greatest Latin philosophers along with Lucretius and Seneca.
Julius Caesar, member of the Populares, nephew of Gaius Marius, politician, writer, general, and Dictator, introduced the Julian Calendar. First of the Twelve Caesars.
Augustus, first Roman Emperor. The golden age of Rome, known as Pax Romana due to the relative peace established in the Mediterranean world, began with his reign.
Virgil, author of three of the most famous poems in Latin literature: the Eclogues (or Bucolics), the Georgics, and the epic Aeneid.
Ovid, author of the Metamorphoses and one of three main Augustan poets along with Virgil and Horace.
Marco Polo, Italian merchant traveler who introduced Europeans to Central Asia and China
Christopher Columbus, early European explorer of the New World.
Amerigo Vespucci, geographer and traveler from whose name the word America is derived.
Dante Alighieri
Francesco Petrarca (Petrarch)
Giovanni Boccaccio
Ludovico Ariosto
Giacomo Leopardi
Alessandro Manzoni
Giosuè Carducci, first Italian to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature
Gabriele D'Annunzio
Eugenio Montale
Italo Calvino
Dario Fo
Umberto Eco
Lorenzo de Medici
Thomas Aquinas
Alberico Gentili
Cesare Beccaria
Enrico De Nicola
Cesare Terranova
Leonardo da Vinci, a polymath of the High Renaissance who was active as a painter, draughtsman, engineer, scientist, theorist, sculptor, and architect.<ref>{{cite encyclopedia |last=Kemp |first=Martin |author-link=Martin Kemp (art historian) |year=2003 |title=Leonardo da Vinci |encyclopedia=Grove Art Online |publisher=Oxford University Press |location=Oxford |doi=10.1093/gao/9781884446054.article.T050401 |isbn=978-1-884446-05-4 |url-access=subscription |url=https://www.oxfordartonline.com/groveart/view/10.1093/gao/9781884446054.001.0001/oao-9781884446054-e-7000050401 }} {{Grove Art subscription}}</ref>
Galileo Galilei, the father of science and modern physics, one of the key figures in astronomy, pioneered the thermometer and made significant works in other fields of science.
Elena Cornaro Piscopia, the first woman to obtain a doctoral degree.
Evangelista Torricelli, the inventor of barometer, made various advances in optics and work on the method of indivisibles.
Alessandro Volta, the inventor of the electrical battery and discover of methane, did substantial work with electric currents.
Eugenio Barsanti, inventor, along with Felice Matteucci, of the first version of the internal combustion engine using gases.
Antonio Meucci, who was for a long time involved in a struggle with Alexander Graham Bell over the invention of the telephone, but was later recognised as "the winner".
Guglielmo Marconi, inventor of the radio and the father of the wireless communication. <ref name=NPbio>"Guglielmo Marconi: The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909". nobelprize.org</ref>
Enrico Fermi, builder of the first nuclear reactor.
Federico Faggin, the designer of the first commercial microprocessor, the Intel 4004.
Gerolamo Cardano
Luca Pacioli
Bonaventura Cavalieri
Jacopo Francesco Riccati
Maria Gaetana Agnesi
Gian Francesco Malfatti
Joseph-Louis Lagrange
Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro
Giuseppe Peano
Tullio Levi-Civita
Beniamino Segre
Filippo Brunelleschi
Andrea Palladio
Luigi Vanvitelli
Gae Aulenti
Renzo Piano
Antonio Vivaldi
Gioachino Rossini
Giuseppe Verdi
Arturo Benedetti Michelangeli
Laura Pausini
Giorgio Moroder
Andrea Bocelli
Eros Ramazzotti

Italians (italiani ) are the citizens and nationals of Italy, as well as a predominantly Romance-speaking people native to the Italian geographical region and its neighboring insular territories.


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Second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, and one of the 20 regions of Italy.

Second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, and one of the 20 regions of Italy.

Strait of Bonifacio. The southern coast of Corsica can be seen from Santa Teresa Gallura
Cala Goloritzé, Baunei
View of Gennargentu, the highest massif of Sardinia
A proportionate graph of Sardinian topography: 13.6% of the island is mountainous, 18.5% is flat, and 67.9% is hilly.
Lake Omodeo, the largest reservoir in Sardinia and in Italy
Sardinia average rainfalls
The prehistoric megalithic temple of Monte d'Accoddi.
Monte Corru Tundu Menhir in Villa Sant'Antonio (5.75 meters high)
Nuraghe Losa.
Giants' grave in Dorgali (Bronze Age).
Head of one of the so-called Giants of Mont'e Prama
The Phoenician and subsequently Roman town of Tharros.
Necropolis of Tuvixeddu, Cagliari
Carthage and its dependencies in 264 BC; A region of Sardinia was a part of Carthage
Roman thermae of Forum Traiani, in what is now Fordongianus.
A Vandal-period coin found in Sardinia depicting Godas. Latin legend : REX CVDA.
The medieval Basilica of San Gavino in Porto Torres
12th century frescoes in the Basilica di Saccargia in Codrongianos
The Sardinian Judicates
The proclamation of the Republic of Sassari. The Sassarese republic lasted from 1272 until 1323, when it sided with the new born Kingdom of Sardinia.
Statue of the Juighissa Eleanor of Arborea in Oristano.
Flag of the Kingdom of Sardinia (center) at the funeral of Charles I of Spain
Spanish era coastal tower in Stintino called Torre della Pelosa
The French siege of Cagliari and Quartu
GM. Angioy entry into Sassari.
Sardinians wearing traditional ethnic garments, 1880s.
Effect of Allied bombing on Cagliari during the Second World War.
Super Yachts anchored at Porto Cervo port, Costa Smeralda
Santo Stefano's former NATO naval base
Main Building of the University of Sassari (which started the university courses in 1562)
Economic classification of European regions according to Eurostat
Exports of Sardinia in 2012–13
Percentage distribution of employees in different economic sectors in Sardinia: 8.7% the primary sector (fishing, agriculture, farming), 23.5% the secondary sector (industry, machinery, manufacturing), and 67.8% the tertiary sector (tourism, services, finance)
Sheep grazing around Lula, Nuoro
Campidano near Cagliari
Peeled trunks of cork oaks in Tempio Pausania
Petrochemical and Green Chemical industries in Porto Torres
Yachts in Porto Cervo. Luxury tourism represents an important source of income in Sardinia since the 1960s.
Sardinia Radio Telescope
A high-speed ferry in the Gulf of Olbia
Cable-stayed bridge of the Monserrato University Campus interchange SS 554
A bus of Sardinia public transport authorities (Arst) in Sassari
ATR 365 owned by the Autonomous Region of Sardinia in Cagliari
7 km railway tunnel of Campeda
Tourist railway between Aritzo and Belvì
Change in population for each comune of Sardinia between 1861 and 2011
Cagliari, Alghero, Sassari, Nuoro, Oristano, Olbia
Provinces of Sardinia
US Artillery Live Fire Exercise in Capo Teulada 2015 during NATO exercise Trident Juncture
Santa Cristina holy well of Paulilatino, tholos
Gothic portal of the Cathedral of Alghero
Facade of Nostra Signora di Tergu (SS)
Interior of San Pietro di Sorres, Borutta (SS)
Crypt of the Cagliari Cathedral
Roman mosaic in Nora
Archangel Michael by the Master of Castelsardo
La madre dell'ucciso (the mother of the killed) by Francesco Ciusa (1907)
Linguistic map of Sardinia
A 'no smoking' sign in both Sardinian and Italian
A bilingual road sign in Italian and Sardinian at Pozzomaggiore
Costume from Ovodda
Launeddas players
Cheeses and sausages in Alghero's city market
A range of different cakes, pastries, meals, dishes and sweets which are common elements of Sardinian cuisine
Beer produced in Sardinia
Sardegna Arena in Cagliari.
Regatta at Santa Maria Navarrese
Skilifts on the Bruncu Spina
A wind farm in Sedini, Sassari
Paeonia mascula
Giara horses
Albino donkeys in Asinara
The Sardinian feral cat, long considered a subspecies of the African wildcat, are descended from domesticated cats
National and regional parks of Sardinia
Sulcis Regional Park, the largest Mediterranean evergreen forest in Europe

This Iberian kingdom endured until 1718, when it was ceded to the Alpine House of Savoy; the Savoyards would politically merge their insular possession with their domains on the Italian Mainland which, during the period of Italian unification, they would go on to expand to include the whole Italian peninsula; their territory was so renamed into the Kingdom of Italy in 1861, and it was reconstituted as the present-day Italian Republic in 1946.


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Region in Southern Italy.

Region in Southern Italy.

Cliff at Tropea
Pollino National Park
La Sila National Park
Calabria in a photo from the ISS
Geotectonic map of the Central Mediterranean Area and the Calabrian Arc. The blue area is the geotectonic cross section depicted below. From van Dijk (1992)
Geotectonic Cross Section of the Calabrian Arc. Left: NW; Right: SE. From van Dijk (1992)
Magna Grecia around 280 BC
Costumes in Calabria about 1800
Calabrian olive tree plantations
Percoca (Variety of peach)
Ski trails near Gambarie overlooking the Strait of Messina
The seaport of Gioia Tauro
Provinces of Calabria
The Riace bronzes, Greek bronzes, about 460–430 BC
The Byzantine church known as the Cattolica
Bottarga di tonno rosso
Sardella calabrese

It is the first territory in history to have taken the name of Italy.


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Landlocked country located at the confluence of Western, Central and Southern Europe.

Landlocked country located at the confluence of Western, Central and Southern Europe.

Founded in 44 BC by Lucius Munatius Plancus, Augusta Raurica (near Basel) was the first Roman settlement on the Rhine and is now among the most important archaeological sites in Switzerland.
The Old Swiss Confederacy from 1291 (dark green) to the sixteenth century (light green) and its associates (blue). In the other colours shown are the subject territories.
The 1291 Bundesbrief (federal charter)
The Act of Mediation was Napoleon's attempt at a compromise between the Ancien Régime and a Republic.
The first Federal Palace in Bern (1857). One of the three cantons presiding over the Tagsatzung (former legislative and executive council), Bern was chosen as the permanent seat of federal legislative and executive institutions in 1848, in part because of its closeness to the French-speaking area.
Inauguration in 1882 of the Gotthard Rail Tunnel connecting the southern canton of Ticino, the longest in the world at the time
General Ulrich Wille, appointed commander-in-chief of the Swiss Army for the duration of World War I
In 2003, by granting the Swiss People's Party a second seat in the governing cabinet, the Parliament altered the coalition that had dominated Swiss politics since 1959.
Physical map of Switzerland (in German)
Köppen–Geiger climate classification map for Switzerland
The Swiss Federal Council in 2022 with President Ignazio Cassis (bottom) standing on an abstract, reduced railway lines map and positioned at their respective political origins
The Federal Palace, seat of the Federal Assembly and the Federal Council
The Landsgemeinde is an old form of direct democracy, still in practice in two cantons.
The colour-reversed Swiss flag became the symbol of the Red Cross Movement, founded in 1863 by Henry Dunant.
A Swiss Air Force F/A-18 Hornet at Axalp Air Show
Swiss-built Mowag Eagles of the Land Forces
The Old City of Bern
A proportional representation of Switzerland exports, 2019
The city of Basel (Roche Tower) is the capital of the country's pharmaceutical industry, which accounts for around 38% of Swiss exports worldwide.
The Greater Zürich area, home to 1.5 million inhabitants and 150,000 companies, is one of the most important economic centres in the world.
The University of Basel is Switzerland's oldest university (1460).
Some Swiss scientists who played a key role in their discipline (clockwise):
Leonhard Euler (mathematics)
Louis Agassiz (glaciology)
Auguste Piccard (aeronautics)
Albert Einstein (physics)
The LHC tunnel. CERN is the world's largest laboratory and also the birthplace of the World Wide Web.
Members of the European Free Trade Association (green) participate in the European Single Market and are part of the Schengen Area.
Switzerland has the tallest dams in Europe, among which the Mauvoisin Dam, in the Alps. Hydroelectricity is the most important domestic source of energy in the country.
Entrance of the new Lötschberg Base Tunnel, the third-longest railway tunnel in the world, under the old Lötschberg railway line. It was the first completed tunnel of the greater project NRLA.
Population density in Switzerland (2019)
Percentage of foreigners in Switzerland (2019)
Urbanisation in the Rhone Valley (outskirts of Sion)
Alphorn concert in Vals
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was not only a writer but also an influential philosopher of the eighteenth century.
Ski area over the glaciers of Saas-Fee
Roger Federer has won 20 Grand Slam singles titles, making him among the most successful men's tennis players ever.
Fondue is melted cheese, into which bread is dipped
National languages in Switzerland (2016): 
German (62.8%)
French (22.9%)
Italian (8.2%)
Romansh (0.5%)

Switzerland is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east.

Adriatic Sea

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Body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Illyrian Peninsula.

Body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Illyrian Peninsula.

Bay of Kotor, a ria in the Southern Adriatic
Gjipe Canyon in southern Albania, where the Adriatic Sea meets the Ionian Sea
Depth of the Adriatic Sea
Schematic layout of Adriatic Sea currents
A submarine spring near Omiš, observed through sea surface rippling
As seen from the map, most of the landmass surrounding the Adriatic sea is classified as Cfa, with the southern region (near the Ionian sea) being Csa.
MOSE Project north of Lido di Venezia
Adriatic Microplate boundaries
Sediment billowing out from Italy's shore into the Adriatic
Pebble beach at Brač island, in the Adriatic Sea within Croatia
Coast of Conero in Italy
Isole Tremiti protected area
Kornati National Park
Karavasta Lagoon in Albania
Pula Arena, one of the six largest surviving Roman amphitheatres
Mosaic of Emperor Justinian and his court, from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy
The Republic of Venice was a leading maritime power in Europe
Battle of Lissa, 1811
Battle of Lissa, 1866
The last moments of SMS Szent István, hit and sank by the Italian MAS
The Duce Benito Mussolini in a beach of Riccione, in 1932
The town of Izola in the Gulf of Koper, southwestern Slovenia
A Trabucco, old fishing machine typical of Abruzzo region in Italy
Fishing boat in Croatia
Port of Trieste, the largest port in the Adriatic
Rimini is a major seaside tourist resort in Italy
The Barcolana regatta in Trieste, Italy, was named "the greatest sailing race" by the Guinness World Record for its 2,689 boats and over 16,000 sailors on the starting line.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.sail-world.com/news/218597/Barcolana-the-largest-regatta-in-the-world |title=Barcolana, the largest regatta in the world is presented in London |website=Sail World}}</ref>
View of Ulcinj, Montenegro
The Zlatni Rat (Golden Cape) on the island of Brač
The Palace of the Emperor Diocletian in Split
The coast of Neum, the only town to be situated along Bosnia and Herzegovina's {{convert|20|km|0|abbr=on}} of coastline
Portorož is the largest seaside tourist centre in Slovenia
Port of Durrës, the largest port in Albania
Port of Rijeka, the largest cargo port in Croatia
Port of Koper, the largest port in Slovenia
Port of Trieste, the largest cargo port in the Adriatic
Port of Bar, the largest seaport in Montenegro
Port of Ancona, a large passenger port

The countries with coasts on the Adriatic are Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Montenegro, and Slovenia.