A Showman's wagon, used for accommodation and transportation
The three main confederations of Romani people in Europe, Kalderash (yellow), Sinti/Manush (blue), Gitanos (red), as well as the Dom people of the Middle East (green)
Sinti Romanies in the Rhineland, 1935
A traditional Kalderash Roma metalsmith from Hungary in 1892
Two Jenische in Muotathal, Switzerland, ca. 1890
Eight-spoked wheel flag used by the Kalderash Roma of Călărași County
An elderly woman of the Kalderash Roma ethnicity in diaspora
Kalderash Roma family in Sweden, early 20th century
The shrine of Kali Sara
Bistrița Monastery; considered a Holy place among Eastern Orthodox Kalderash Roma

There are a number of traditionally itinerant or travelling groups in Europe who are known as "Travellers" or "Gypsies".

- Itinerant groups in Europe

According to studies done on the Kalderash clans of Seattle, Kalderash Roma generally stick to traditional itinerant jobs such as automobile body repair, roofing, stove cleaning, and other short term jobs that allows them to maintain their traditional lifestyle.

- Kalderash

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Romani people

Three Finnish Romani women in Helsinki, Finland, in 1930s
Gypsies camping. Welsh Romanies near Swansea, 1953
Romani girl
Two Gypsies by Francisco Iturrino
A Roma makes a complaint to a local magistrate in Hungary, by Sándor Bihari, 1886
The migration of the Romanis through the Middle East and Northern Africa to Europe
A Romani wagon pictured in 2009 in Grandborough Fields in Warwickshire. Grandborough Fields Road is a popular spot for travelling people.
First arrival of the Romanies outside Bern in the 15th century, described by the chronicler as getoufte heiden ("baptized heathens") and drawn with dark skin and wearing Saracen-style clothing and weapons
Gypsy Family in Prison, 1864 painting by Carl d´Unker. An actual imprisoned family in Germany served as the models. The reason for their imprisonment remains unknown.
An 1852 Wallachian poster advertising an auction of Romani slaves in Bucharest
Sinti and other Romani about to be deported from Germany, 22 May 1940
Münster, Sebastian (1552), "A Gipsy Family", The Cosmographia (facsimile of a woodcut), Basle
Nomadic Roma family traveling in Moldavia, 1837
Christian Romanies during the pilgrimage to Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer in France, 1980s
Two Orthodox Christian Romanies in Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Romani and bear (Belgrade, Banovo brdo, 1980s)
Members of the Cofradía de los Gitanos parading the "throne" of Mary of the O during the Holy Week in Malaga, Spain
Gypsy fortune-teller in Poland, by Antoni Kozakiewicz, 1884
Costume of a Romani woman
Muslim Romanies in Bosnia and Herzegovina (around 1900)
27 June 2009: Fanfare Ciocărlia live in Athens, Greece
Street performance during the Khamoro World Roma Festival in Prague, 2007
Deportation of Roma from Asperg, Germany, 1940 (photograph by the Rassenhygienische Forschungsstelle)
Distribution of the Romani people in Europe (2007 Council of Europe "average estimates", totalling 9.8 million)
Antiziganist protests in Sofia, 2011
Paris Bordone, The Rest on the Flight into Egypt {{circa|1530}}, Elizabeth, at right, is shown as a Romani fortune-teller
August von Pettenkofen: Gypsy Children (1885), Hermitage Museum
Vincent van Gogh: The Caravans – Gypsy Camp near Arles (1888, oil on canvas)
Nicolae Grigorescu Gypsy from Boldu (1897), Art Museum of Iași

The Romani (also spelled Romany, ), colloquially known as the Roma, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group, traditionally nomadic itinerants.

Kalderash, from Romanian căldărar, lit. bucketmaker, meaning kettlemaker, tinsmith, tinker; also in Moldova and Ukraine.

Vlax Romani language

Dialect group of the Romani language.

Dialects of the Romani language

Vlax Romani is classified in two groups: Vlax I, or Northern Vlax (including Kalderash and Lovari), and Vlax II, or Southern Vlax.

Kalderash Romani language

Dialects of the Romani language

Kalderash Romani is a group of Vlax dialects spoken by the Kalderash Romani, mainly in Romania.

Slavery in Romania

Abolished in stages during the 1840s and 1850s before the independence of the United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia was allowed, and also until 1783, in Transylvania and Bukovina .

Nomadic Roma family traveling in Moldavia, Auguste Raffet, 1837
A Roma smith and his forge in Wallachia, Dieudonné Lancelot, 1860
Roma gold miners (Boyash, Aurari or Rudari) at work, gold panning
A deed of donation through which Stephen III of Moldavia donates a number of sălașe of Roma slaves to the Rădăuţi bishopric
A shatra (village) founded by Roma slaves, as depicted in an 1860 engraving by Dieudonné Lancelot.
A Roma family, Sibiu, Transylvania, ca. 1862, photo by Theodor Glatz
Slave liberation certificate issued during the Wallachian Revolution of 1848.
Allegory of the abolition of slavery during the Wallachian Revolution of 1848, drawing by Theodor Aman.
A Roma village in Romania after the abolition of slavery, 1884

The lăieşi category comprised several occupational subgroups: alongside the Kalderash (căldărari or "copper workers"), Lăutari ("string instrument players"), Boyash (lingurari or "spoon makers") and Ursari ("bear handlers"), all of which developed as distinct ethic subgroups, they comprised the fierari ("smiths").

Romani society and culture

The Romani people are a distinct ethnic and cultural group of peoples living all across the globe, who share a family of languages and sometimes a traditional nomadic mode of life.

1552 woodcut of a Romani family
The cult of Saint Sara in the shrine of Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, Southern France is a devotion associated with Catholic Romanies.
Ritual bath during the Romani pilgrimage of Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer.
Romani musicians entertaining
An 1852 Wallachian poster advertising an auction of Romani slaves.
Romani boy in bear costume, part of entertainer team for working Christmas crowds. Budapest, Hungary.
Roma wedding in Sofia, 1936
Django Reinhardt

There are many Romani groups, but with different Law. ( in Ruska Roma's and Kaldarash dialects)

Kris (Romani court)

Traditional court for conflict resolution in the culture of Vlax branch of the Romani people.

A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermann's Microcosm of London (1808–11).

Some non-Vlax Romanies adopted this institution, like the Drzara from Sweden (originally from Serbia), in contact with the local Kalderash.

Katarina Taikon

Katarina Taikon-Langhammer (29 July 1932 – 30 December 1995) was a Swedish Romany activist, leader in the civil rights movement, writer and actor, from the Kalderash caste.

Ronald Lee

Romani Canadian writer, linguist, professor, folk musician, and activist.

Lee's father was a Kalderash musician from Europe who immigrated to Canada, where he married and took his wife's surname of Lee.

Florin Cioabă

Romanian Romani Pentecostal minister and self-proclaimed "King of Roma Everywhere".

Florin Cioabă (2012)

He was the son of Ioan Cioabă, a Kalderash Romani leader.

Matéo Maximoff

French writer and Evangelical pastor of Romani ethnicity.

Park Street Church, Boston, Massachusetts, in 1904

His father was a Kalderash Rom from Russia; and his mother was a Manouche from France.