The Romani (also spelled Romany, ), colloquially known as the Roma, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group, traditionally nomadic itinerants.- Romani people
The largest of these groups are the Romani people, who have Indian roots and heritage, who left India around 1,500 years ago entering Europe around 1,000 years ago; this includes the Sinti people, who are themselves the second largest group.- Itinerant groups in Europe
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Irish Travellers (na lucht siúil, meaning "the walking people"), also known as Pavees or Mincéirs (Shelta: Mincéirí), are a traditionally peripatetic ethno-cultural group originating in Ireland.
They are one of several groups identified as "Travellers", a closely related group being the Scottish Travellers.
They are often incorrectly referred to as "Gypsies", but Irish Travellers are not genetically related to the Romani, who are of Indo-Aryan origin.
The Sinti (also Sinta or Sinte; masc. sing.
Sintesa) are a subgroup of Romani people mostly found in Germany and Central Europe that number around 200,000 people.
They were traditionally itinerant, but today only a small percentage of Sinti remain unsettled.
The Yenish (German: Jenische; French: Yéniche) are an itinerant group in Western Europe who live mostly in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Luxembourg, Belgium, and parts of France, roughly centred on the Rhineland.
The persecution of Romani people under Nazi Germany beginning in 1933 were directed not exclusively against the Romani people
Ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups.
Ethno-cultural, emphasizing shared culture or tradition, often overlapping with other forms of ethnicity – example: Travellers
An example of a largely nomadic ethnic group in Europe is the Roma, pejoratively known as Gypsies.
Scottish Travellers, or the people in Scotland loosely termed Romani persons or travellers, consist of a number of diverse, unrelated communities that speak a variety of different languages and dialects that pertain to distinct customs, histories, and traditions.
The distinct communities that identify themselves as Roma/Travellers in Scotland include the following: Indigenous Highland Travellers, Romani Lowland Travellers, Scottish Border Romanichal Traveller (Border Gypsies) and Showmen (Funfair Travellers).
True nomadism has rarely been practiced in Europe in the modern period, being restricted to the margins of the continent, notably Arctic peoples such as the (traditionally) semi-nomadic Saami people in the north of Scandinavia, or the Nenets people in Russia's Nenets Autonomous Okrug.
Sometimes also described as "nomadic" (in the figurative or extended sense) is the itinerant lifestyle of various groups subsisting on craft or trade rather than on livestock.
Romani people and Irish Travellers are the best known of these.
The Kalderash are a subgroup of the Romani people.
According to studies done on the Kalderash clans of Seattle, Kalderash Roma generally stick to traditional itinerant jobs such as automobile body repair, roofing, stove cleaning, and other short term jobs that allows them to maintain their traditional lifestyle.
Anti-Romani sentiment (also antigypsyism, anti-Romanyism, Romaphobia, or Antiziganism) is hostility, prejudice, discrimination or racism which is specifically directed at Romani people (Roma, Sinti, Iberian Kale, Welsh Kale, Finnish Kale, Horahane Roma, and Romanichal).
Non-Romani itinerant groups in Europe such as the Yenish, Irish and Highland Travellers are often given the name "gypsy" and confused with the Romani people.
The Dom (also called Domi; دومي / ALA-LC: ', دومري /, Ḍom / ضوم or دوم, or sometimes also called Doms''') are a people with origins in the Indian subcontinent which through ancient migrations are found scattered across Western Asia, North Africa, the Caucasus, Central Asia, the Eastern Anatolia Region, and parts of the Indian subcontinent.
They used to be with other traditionally itinerant ethnic groups originating from India: the Rom and Lom people.
The Athinganoi (, singular Athinganos, Ἀθίγγανος, Atsinganoi), were a Manichean sect regarded as Judaizing heretics who lived in Phrygia and Lycaonia but were neither Hebrews nor Gentiles.
The name Athinganoi, a later variant form of which is Atsinganoi (ἀτσίγγανοι), came to be associated with the Romani people who first appeared in the Byzantine Empire at the time.
3) The name Athinganoi may have been given to any itinerant people who came from abroad and were perceived to practice a different religion, with the term only later applying more narrowly to the Romani people.