Sinti people in Rhine Province, Germany 1935.
A Showman's wagon, used for accommodation and transportation
Johann Trollmann, a German Sinti boxer, 1928
Sinti Romanies in the Rhineland, 1935
Memorial in Nuremberg opposite Frauentorgraben 49, where on the 15 September 1935 the Nuremberg Laws were adopted in the ballroom of the Industrial & Cultural Association clubhouse
Two Jenische in Muotathal, Switzerland, ca. 1890
Deportation of Sinti and Roma in Asperg, 22 May 1940
Memorial for murdered Sinti in Düsseldorf-Lierenfeld
Ravensburg, Memorial for Sinti murdered in Auschwitz

They were traditionally itinerant, but today only a small percentage of Sinti remain unsettled.

- Sinti

The largest of these groups are the Romani people, who have Indian roots and heritage, who left India around 1,500 years ago entering Europe around 1,000 years ago; this includes the Sinti people, who are themselves the second largest group.

- Itinerant groups in Europe

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Romani people

Three Finnish Romani women in Helsinki, Finland, in 1930s
Gypsies camping. Welsh Romanies near Swansea, 1953
Romani girl
Two Gypsies by Francisco Iturrino
A Roma makes a complaint to a local magistrate in Hungary, by Sándor Bihari, 1886
The migration of the Romanis through the Middle East and Northern Africa to Europe
A Romani wagon pictured in 2009 in Grandborough Fields in Warwickshire. Grandborough Fields Road is a popular spot for travelling people.
First arrival of the Romanies outside Bern in the 15th century, described by the chronicler as getoufte heiden ("baptized heathens") and drawn with dark skin and wearing Saracen-style clothing and weapons
Gypsy Family in Prison, 1864 painting by Carl d´Unker. An actual imprisoned family in Germany served as the models. The reason for their imprisonment remains unknown.
An 1852 Wallachian poster advertising an auction of Romani slaves in Bucharest
Sinti and other Romani about to be deported from Germany, 22 May 1940
Münster, Sebastian (1552), "A Gipsy Family", The Cosmographia (facsimile of a woodcut), Basle
Nomadic Roma family traveling in Moldavia, 1837
Christian Romanies during the pilgrimage to Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer in France, 1980s
Two Orthodox Christian Romanies in Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Romani and bear (Belgrade, Banovo brdo, 1980s)
Members of the Cofradía de los Gitanos parading the "throne" of Mary of the O during the Holy Week in Malaga, Spain
Gypsy fortune-teller in Poland, by Antoni Kozakiewicz, 1884
Costume of a Romani woman
Muslim Romanies in Bosnia and Herzegovina (around 1900)
27 June 2009: Fanfare Ciocărlia live in Athens, Greece
Street performance during the Khamoro World Roma Festival in Prague, 2007
Deportation of Roma from Asperg, Germany, 1940 (photograph by the Rassenhygienische Forschungsstelle)
Distribution of the Romani people in Europe (2007 Council of Europe "average estimates", totalling 9.8 million)
Antiziganist protests in Sofia, 2011
Paris Bordone, The Rest on the Flight into Egypt {{circa|1530}}, Elizabeth, at right, is shown as a Romani fortune-teller
August von Pettenkofen: Gypsy Children (1885), Hermitage Museum
Vincent van Gogh: The Caravans – Gypsy Camp near Arles (1888, oil on canvas)
Carmen
Esméralda
Nicolae Grigorescu Gypsy from Boldu (1897), Art Museum of Iași

The Romani (also spelled Romany, ), colloquially known as the Roma, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group, traditionally nomadic itinerants.

For instance, while the main group of Roma in German-speaking countries refer to themselves as Sinti, their name for their original language is Romanes.

Yenish people

Yenish at Lake Lauerz, Schwyz, Switzerland, 1928
Two Yenish in Muotathal, Switzerland, ca. 1890
Geographic distribution of the Yenish (2007 upload, unreferenced)
Flag

The Yenish (German: Jenische; French: Yéniche) are an itinerant group in Western Europe who live mostly in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Luxembourg, Belgium, and parts of France, roughly centred on the Rhineland.

Recently established settlements of Yenish, Sinti, and Roma, dubbed "gypsy colonies" (Zigeunerkolonien), were discouraged and attempts were made to incite the settlers to move away, in the form of various forms of harassment, and in some cases physical attacks.

Ethnic group

Ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups.

A group of ethnic Bengalis in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The Bengalis form the third-largest ethnic group in the world after the Han Chinese and Arabs.
The Javanese people of Indonesia are the largest Austronesian ethnic group.
The racial diversity of Asia's ethnic groups, Nordisk familjebok (1904)
Assyrians are the indigenous peoples of Northern Iraq.
The Basque people constitute an indigenous ethnic minority in both France and Spain.
Sámi family in Lapland of Finland, 1936
The Irish are an ethnic group indigenous to Ireland of which 70–80 million people worldwide claim ancestry.

Ethno-cultural, emphasizing shared culture or tradition, often overlapping with other forms of ethnicity – example: Travellers

Irish Travellers

Irish Travellers (na lucht siúil, meaning "the walking people"), also known as Pavees or Mincéirs (Shelta: Mincéirí), are a traditionally peripatetic ethno-cultural group originating in Ireland.

Travellers near the Four Masters monument in Donegal Town, 1958
Irish Travellers in 1946
The Traveller Ethnicity pin was created to celebrate the Irish State's formal acknowledgement on 1 March 2017 of Travellers as a distinct ethnic group in Irish society.
The flag of the Irish Traveller Movement
logo for Minceirs Whiden Ireland, the all-Traveller Forum

They are one of several groups identified as "Travellers", a closely related group being the Scottish Travellers.

Scottish Romani and Itinerant people groups

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Scottish Travellers, or the people in Scotland loosely termed Romani persons or travellers, consist of a number of diverse, unrelated communities that speak a variety of different languages and dialects that pertain to distinct customs, histories, and traditions.

Nomadic peoples of Europe

True nomadism has rarely been practiced in Europe in the modern period, being restricted to the margins of the continent, notably Arctic peoples such as the (traditionally) semi-nomadic Saami people in the north of Scandinavia, or the Nenets people in Russia's Nenets Autonomous Okrug.

Nenets people in Russia, 2014

Sometimes also described as "nomadic" (in the figurative or extended sense) is the itinerant lifestyle of various groups subsisting on craft or trade rather than on livestock.

Names of the Romani people

The Romani people are also known by a variety of other names; in English as gypsies or gipsies, and Roma, in Greek as γύφτοι (gíftoi) or τσιγγάνοι (tsiggánoi), in Central and Eastern Europe as Tsingani (and variants), in France as gitans besides the dated bohémiens, manouches, in Italy as zíngari and gitani, in Spain as gitanos, and in Portugal as ciganos.

Distribution of the Romani people in Europe based on self-designation

In German-speaking Europe, the self-designation is Sinti, in France Manush, while the groups of Spain, Wales and Finland use Kalo/Kale (from kalo meaning "black" in Romani language).

Anti-Romani sentiment

Anti-Romani demonstration in České Budějovice, Czechia, 29 June 2013
A French poster depicting a child being kidnapped by nomads
German Nazi deportation of Sinti and Roma from Asperg, 1940
Eva Justin checking the facial characteristics of a Romani woman as part of her "racial studies"
According to a survey conducted by the European Commission in 2015 20% of the respondents would be completely uncomfortable about working with a Roma person, compared with 17% with a transgender or transsexual person and 13% with a Muslim person . This puts Roma people as the most discriminated minority in Europe.
Antiziganist protests in Sofia, 2011
Národní výbor in Teplice: "Seven gypsy kids in classroom".
Violent anti-Roma protests in České Budějovice in 2013
Roma slum Luník IX near Košice, Slovakia

Anti-Romani sentiment (also antigypsyism, anti-Romanyism, Romaphobia, or Antiziganism) is hostility, prejudice, discrimination or racism which is specifically directed at Romani people (Roma, Sinti, Iberian Kale, Welsh Kale, Finnish Kale, Horahane Roma, and Romanichal).

Non-Romani itinerant groups in Europe such as the Yenish, Irish and Highland Travellers are often given the name "gypsy" and confused with the Romani people.

Kalderash

The Kalderash are a subgroup of the Romani people.

The three main confederations of Romani people in Europe, Kalderash (yellow), Sinti/Manush (blue), Gitanos (red), as well as the Dom people of the Middle East (green)
A traditional Kalderash Roma metalsmith from Hungary in 1892
Eight-spoked wheel flag used by the Kalderash Roma of Călărași County
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An elderly woman of the Kalderash Roma ethnicity in diaspora
Kalderash Roma family in Sweden, early 20th century
The shrine of Kali Sara
Bistrița Monastery; considered a Holy place among Eastern Orthodox Kalderash Roma

The Kalderash of the Balkans and Central Europe, in addition to the Gitanos and Manouche/Sinti, are seen as one of the three main confederations of Romani people in Europe by certain ethnographers.

According to studies done on the Kalderash clans of Seattle, Kalderash Roma generally stick to traditional itinerant jobs such as automobile body repair, roofing, stove cleaning, and other short term jobs that allows them to maintain their traditional lifestyle.

Sinte Romani

Dialects of the Romani language

Sinte Romani (also known as Sintitikes, Manuš) is the variety of Romani spoken by the Sinti people in Germany, France, Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands, some parts of Northern Italy and other adjacent regions.