Yenish at Lake Lauerz, Schwyz, Switzerland, 1928
A Showman's wagon, used for accommodation and transportation
Two Yenish in Muotathal, Switzerland, ca. 1890
Sinti Romanies in the Rhineland, 1935
Geographic distribution of the Yenish (2007 upload, unreferenced)
Two Jenische in Muotathal, Switzerland, ca. 1890

The Yenish (German: Jenische; French: Yéniche) are an itinerant group in Western Europe who live mostly in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Luxembourg, Belgium, and parts of France, roughly centred on the Rhineland.

- Yenish people

The third largest group in Europe is the Yenish, an indigenous Germanic group.

- Itinerant groups in Europe

53 related topics


Romani people

Three Finnish Romani women in Helsinki, Finland, in 1930s
Gypsies camping. Welsh Romanies near Swansea, 1953
Romani girl
Two Gypsies by Francisco Iturrino
A Roma makes a complaint to a local magistrate in Hungary, by Sándor Bihari, 1886
The migration of the Romanis through the Middle East and Northern Africa to Europe
A Romani wagon pictured in 2009 in Grandborough Fields in Warwickshire. Grandborough Fields Road is a popular spot for travelling people.
First arrival of the Romanies outside Bern in the 15th century, described by the chronicler as getoufte heiden ("baptized heathens") and drawn with dark skin and wearing Saracen-style clothing and weapons
Gypsy Family in Prison, 1864 painting by Carl d´Unker. An actual imprisoned family in Germany served as the models. The reason for their imprisonment remains unknown.
An 1852 Wallachian poster advertising an auction of Romani slaves in Bucharest
Sinti and other Romani about to be deported from Germany, 22 May 1940
Münster, Sebastian (1552), "A Gipsy Family", The Cosmographia (facsimile of a woodcut), Basle
Nomadic Roma family traveling in Moldavia, 1837
Christian Romanies during the pilgrimage to Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer in France, 1980s
Two Orthodox Christian Romanies in Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Romani and bear (Belgrade, Banovo brdo, 1980s)
Members of the Cofradía de los Gitanos parading the "throne" of Mary of the O during the Holy Week in Malaga, Spain
Gypsy fortune-teller in Poland, by Antoni Kozakiewicz, 1884
Costume of a Romani woman
Muslim Romanies in Bosnia and Herzegovina (around 1900)
27 June 2009: Fanfare Ciocărlia live in Athens, Greece
Street performance during the Khamoro World Roma Festival in Prague, 2007
Deportation of Roma from Asperg, Germany, 1940 (photograph by the Rassenhygienische Forschungsstelle)
Distribution of the Romani people in Europe (2007 Council of Europe "average estimates", totalling 9.8 million)
Antiziganist protests in Sofia, 2011
Paris Bordone, The Rest on the Flight into Egypt {{circa|1530}}, Elizabeth, at right, is shown as a Romani fortune-teller
August von Pettenkofen: Gypsy Children (1885), Hermitage Museum
Vincent van Gogh: The Caravans – Gypsy Camp near Arles (1888, oil on canvas)
Nicolae Grigorescu Gypsy from Boldu (1897), Art Museum of Iași

The Romani (also spelled Romany, ), colloquially known as the Roma, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group, traditionally nomadic itinerants.

Though often confused with them, the Romani people are culturally different from Irish Travellers and the Yenish people, two groups who may be related to each other.


The Sinti (also Sinta or Sinte; masc. sing.

Sinti people in Rhine Province, Germany 1935.
Johann Trollmann, a German Sinti boxer, 1928
Memorial in Nuremberg opposite Frauentorgraben 49, where on the 15 September 1935 the Nuremberg Laws were adopted in the ballroom of the Industrial & Cultural Association clubhouse
Deportation of Sinti and Roma in Asperg, 22 May 1940
Memorial for murdered Sinti in Düsseldorf-Lierenfeld
Ravensburg, Memorial for Sinti murdered in Auschwitz

They were traditionally itinerant, but today only a small percentage of Sinti remain unsettled.

Despite their long presence, they were still generally regarded as beggars and thieves, and, by 1899, the police kept a central register on Sinti, Roma, and Yenish peoples.

Scottish Romani and Itinerant people groups


Scottish Travellers, or the people in Scotland loosely termed Romani persons or travellers, consist of a number of diverse, unrelated communities that speak a variety of different languages and dialects that pertain to distinct customs, histories, and traditions.

Several other European groups are non-Romany groups, namely the Yeniches, Woonwagenbewoners in the Netherlands (who may be related to the Yeniche), Indigenous Norwegian Travellers and Landfahrer in Germany.

Ethnic group

Ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups.

A group of ethnic Bengalis in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The Bengalis form the third-largest ethnic group in the world after the Han Chinese and Arabs.
The Javanese people of Indonesia are the largest Austronesian ethnic group.
The racial diversity of Asia's ethnic groups, Nordisk familjebok (1904)
Assyrians are the indigenous peoples of Northern Iraq.
The Basque people constitute an indigenous ethnic minority in both France and Spain.
Sámi family in Lapland of Finland, 1936
The Irish are an ethnic group indigenous to Ireland of which 70–80 million people worldwide claim ancestry.

Ethno-cultural, emphasizing shared culture or tradition, often overlapping with other forms of ethnicity – example: Travellers

Irish Travellers

Irish Travellers (na lucht siúil, meaning "the walking people"), also known as Pavees or Mincéirs (Shelta: Mincéirí), are a traditionally peripatetic ethno-cultural group originating in Ireland.

Travellers near the Four Masters monument in Donegal Town, 1958
Irish Travellers in 1946
The Traveller Ethnicity pin was created to celebrate the Irish State's formal acknowledgement on 1 March 2017 of Travellers as a distinct ethnic group in Irish society.
The flag of the Irish Traveller Movement
logo for Minceirs Whiden Ireland, the all-Traveller Forum

They are one of several groups identified as "Travellers", a closely related group being the Scottish Travellers.

Nomadic peoples of Europe

True nomadism has rarely been practiced in Europe in the modern period, being restricted to the margins of the continent, notably Arctic peoples such as the (traditionally) semi-nomadic Saami people in the north of Scandinavia, or the Nenets people in Russia's Nenets Autonomous Okrug.

Nenets people in Russia, 2014

Sometimes also described as "nomadic" (in the figurative or extended sense) is the itinerant lifestyle of various groups subsisting on craft or trade rather than on livestock.

Anti-Romani sentiment

Hostility, prejudice, discrimination or racism which is specifically directed at Romani people (Roma, Sinti, Iberian Kale, Welsh Kale, Finnish Kale, Horahane Roma, and Romanichal).

Anti-Romani demonstration in České Budějovice, Czechia, 29 June 2013
A French poster depicting a child being kidnapped by nomads
German Nazi deportation of Sinti and Roma from Asperg, 1940
Eva Justin checking the facial characteristics of a Romani woman as part of her "racial studies"
According to a survey conducted by the European Commission in 2015 20% of the respondents would be completely uncomfortable about working with a Roma person, compared with 17% with a transgender or transsexual person and 13% with a Muslim person . This puts Roma people as the most discriminated minority in Europe.
Antiziganist protests in Sofia, 2011
Národní výbor in Teplice: "Seven gypsy kids in classroom".
Violent anti-Roma protests in České Budějovice in 2013
Roma slum Luník IX near Košice, Slovakia

Non-Romani itinerant groups in Europe such as the Yenish, Irish and Highland Travellers are often given the name "gypsy" and confused with the Romani people.


"Peddle" redirects here.

A Peking fruit seller, c. 1869
Peddler in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Three East Karelian ”laukkuryssiä” peddlers from Kestenga, Russia in Lohja, Finland in the late 19th century.
Ribbon seller at the entrance to the Butter Market, engraving by J.J. Eeckhout, 1884
at Khan Al-Tujjar: At the Arab fair, the peddlers open their packages of tempting fabrics; the jeweler is there with his trinkets; the tailor with his ready-made garments; the shoe-maker with his stock, from rough, hairy sandals to yellow and red morocco boots; the farrier is there with his tools, nails, and flat iron shoes, and drives a prosperous business for a few hours; and so does the saddler, with his coarsesacks and his gayly-trimmed cloths.
Fruit peddlers with draft horses and covered wagon, Saint Paul, Minnesota, c. 1928
Fanciful drawing by Marguerite Martyn in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch of October 21, 1906, featuring the image of a travelling salesman of lightning rods, in the striped suit
Belgian milk peddlers, c. 1890-1900
A typical door-to-door vendor in rural Zhangpu County, Fujian, China.
A peddler woman in Nishapur.
Peddlers in the street, Boston, c. 1915
Peddling fruit, Turkey, 1872-1885
The Pedlar by Hieronymous Bosch, c. 1500
Modern day peddler in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, c. 2020
Vegetable peddler, Japan, 19th-century
Cycle-mounted Breton onion salesmen are a familiar sight across southern England and Wales
"Mush-Fakers" and Ginger-Beer Makers, London, circa 1877
Fruit peddler and barrow, Sydney, circa 1885
Peddler from Russia, circa 1900s
A door-to-door peddler, 1905
David and Harry Silverman in their fruit peddling cart, Saint Paul, Minnesota, c. 1920
Mandalay rickshaw peddler
The Produce Peddler, Fez, Morocco
Street vendor in Maracaibo with improvised carry container
Banana vendor, Uganda
Balloon Salesman
Food peddlers are the mainstay of the floating markets in Thailand
Ice cream seller in Paris, France 2010
Goat wagon peddler, late 19th century
The Knick-knack Peddler by Su Hanchen, 12th Century
The Pedlar by Hans Holbein 1538 Pedlar
The spectacle-pedlar, Rembrandt van Rijn, c. 1624–1625
Coffee Peddler, engraving from Etudes Prises Dans let Bas Peuple, Ou Les Cris de Paris, 1737
Broom Peddler, by François Joullain, Etching, 1737
Cherry peddler in Bucharest, painting by Amadeo Preziosi, c. 1869
The Shrimp Girl by William Hogarth, 1740
Portuguese peddler by Henry L'Evêque, 1814
Fawcett as Autolycus by Thomas Wageman, 1828
Poultry seller by Jean Davillier, 1874
Pedlar by Carl Spitzweg, 1875
London Pedlar by Gustave Doré, late 19th century
Russian peddler by Emile Francois Dessain, 1882
Basket Pedlar by Victor Fournel, 1887
Slovak peddler by Antonin Hölper, 1888
Punch, 1892
Brandy Peddler from Paul Clacquesin, Histoire de la Communauté des Distillateurs, 1900
Sbitenshchik and Khodebshchik, a "lubok print," 19th century
The Peddler, US, 1903, chalk drawing, unknown artist
Venetian fish seller by Giuseppe Barison, 1906

In some economies the work of itinerant selling was left to nomadic minorities, such as gypsies, travellers, or Yeniche who offered a varied assortment of goods and services, both evergreens and (notoriously suspicious) novelties.

Rafael van der Vaart

Dutch former professional footballer who played as an attacking midfielder, and is currently the assistant manager of Danish 1st Division club Esbjerg fB.

Van der Vaart at practice with Hamburger SV in 2014
Van der Vaart was with Ajax from 1993 to 2005.
Van der Vaart in action for Real Madrid
Van der Vaart with Tottenham Hotspur
Van der Vaart with Hamburg in 2013
Van der Vaart with Oranje.
Van der Vaart playing for the Netherlands
Van der Vaart (right) with Wesley Sneijder.
Van der Vaart won the Spanish Super Cup while at Real Madrid
Posters farewell match Rafael van der Vaart at football club Hamburger SV. Hamburg

He grew up on a trailer park, with him belonging to a Dutch cultural minority called the Woonwagenbewoners, with them sharing ties with Irish Travellers and the Yenish people, and often pretended to be Romário while playing football.

Yenish language

The social group enables its members to benefit in ways that would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis. Both individual and social (common) goals can thus be distinguished and considered. Ant (formicidae) social ethology.

Yenish (French: Yeniche, German: Jenisch), is a variety of German spoken by the Yenish people, former nomads living mostly in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Alsace and other parts of France.