Itinerant groups in Europe

A Showman's wagon, used for accommodation and transportation
Sinti Romanies in the Rhineland, 1935
Two Jenische in Muotathal, Switzerland, ca. 1890

There are a number of traditionally itinerant or travelling groups in Europe who are known as "Travellers" or "Gypsies".

- Itinerant groups in Europe

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Nomads of India

Nomads are known as a group of communities who travel from place to place for their livelihood.

A painting by Vincent van Gogh depicting a caravan of nomadic Romani

The Targalas or Nayaks have been itinerant drama troupes in Gujarat who moved from village to village to perform ‘Bhavai’, a folk dance theatre form.


The Athinganoi (, singular Athinganos, Ἀθίγγανος, Atsinganoi), were a Manichean sect regarded as Judaizing heretics who lived in Phrygia and Lycaonia but were neither Hebrews nor Gentiles.

Manichaean priests, writing at their desks. Eighth or ninth century manuscript from Gaochang, Tarim Basin, China.

3) The name Athinganoi may have been given to any itinerant people who came from abroad and were perceived to practice a different religion, with the term only later applying more narrowly to the Romani people.

Anti-Romani sentiment

Hostility, prejudice, discrimination or racism which is specifically directed at Romani people (Roma, Sinti, Iberian Kale, Welsh Kale, Finnish Kale, Horahane Roma, and Romanichal).

Anti-Romani demonstration in České Budějovice, Czechia, 29 June 2013
A French poster depicting a child being kidnapped by nomads
German Nazi deportation of Sinti and Roma from Asperg, 1940
Eva Justin checking the facial characteristics of a Romani woman as part of her "racial studies"
According to a survey conducted by the European Commission in 2015 20% of the respondents would be completely uncomfortable about working with a Roma person, compared with 17% with a transgender or transsexual person and 13% with a Muslim person . This puts Roma people as the most discriminated minority in Europe.
Antiziganist protests in Sofia, 2011
Národní výbor in Teplice: "Seven gypsy kids in classroom".
Violent anti-Roma protests in České Budějovice in 2013
Roma slum Luník IX near Košice, Slovakia

Non-Romani itinerant groups in Europe such as the Yenish, Irish and Highland Travellers are often given the name "gypsy" and confused with the Romani people.

Nan Phelps

American folk artist from London, Kentucky.

The Birth of Baby Jesus (1950)
Birds on a Wire (1978)
Flowers in a Blue Vase (1975)

Some are reminiscent of the work of itinerant 19th century portrait painters, but the similarities are superficial.

Big Fat Gypsy Weddings

British documentary series broadcast on Channel 4, that explored the lives and traditions of several British Traveller families as they prepared to unite one of their members in marriage.

The series also featured Romanichal (British Gypsies) in several episodes, and has been criticised by some Romani for not accurately representing England’s Romani and Travelling community.

Gilad Margalit

Israeli historian, writer, and professor in the Department of General History at the University of Haifa.

These include, for example, the reluctance of both postwar Germanies to compensate them for their sufferings during the Nazi period, as well as the authorities' attempts to resume their control over the free movement of itinerants.

Scaramouche (novel)

Historical novel by Rafael Sabatini, originally published in 1921.

Title page of an early edition

"Niklāvs Strunke, who often resided in Italy from 1923, was considered the connoisseur of commedia dell'arte in Latvia." Osvalds Lemānis helped to choreograph the Latvian adaptation of Scaramouche, with renowned performer Rudolfs Saulē, performing the role as an itinerant violinist who had wandered into Leilon's castle. Obsessed by the striving to subdue other people, the musician "destroys the harmony of souls creating a devilish atmosphere of anxiety and foreboding".


"Peddle" redirects here.

A Peking fruit seller, c. 1869
Peddler in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Three East Karelian ”laukkuryssiä” peddlers from Kestenga, Russia in Lohja, Finland in the late 19th century.
Ribbon seller at the entrance to the Butter Market, engraving by J.J. Eeckhout, 1884
at Khan Al-Tujjar: At the Arab fair, the peddlers open their packages of tempting fabrics; the jeweler is there with his trinkets; the tailor with his ready-made garments; the shoe-maker with his stock, from rough, hairy sandals to yellow and red morocco boots; the farrier is there with his tools, nails, and flat iron shoes, and drives a prosperous business for a few hours; and so does the saddler, with his coarsesacks and his gayly-trimmed cloths.
Fruit peddlers with draft horses and covered wagon, Saint Paul, Minnesota, c. 1928
Fanciful drawing by Marguerite Martyn in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch of October 21, 1906, featuring the image of a travelling salesman of lightning rods, in the striped suit
Belgian milk peddlers, c. 1890-1900
A typical door-to-door vendor in rural Zhangpu County, Fujian, China.
A peddler woman in Nishapur.
Peddlers in the street, Boston, c. 1915
Peddling fruit, Turkey, 1872-1885
The Pedlar by Hieronymous Bosch, c. 1500
Modern day peddler in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, c. 2020
Vegetable peddler, Japan, 19th-century
Cycle-mounted Breton onion salesmen are a familiar sight across southern England and Wales
"Mush-Fakers" and Ginger-Beer Makers, London, circa 1877
Fruit peddler and barrow, Sydney, circa 1885
Peddler from Russia, circa 1900s
A door-to-door peddler, 1905
David and Harry Silverman in their fruit peddling cart, Saint Paul, Minnesota, c. 1920
Mandalay rickshaw peddler
The Produce Peddler, Fez, Morocco
Street vendor in Maracaibo with improvised carry container
Banana vendor, Uganda
Balloon Salesman
Food peddlers are the mainstay of the floating markets in Thailand
Ice cream seller in Paris, France 2010
Goat wagon peddler, late 19th century
The Knick-knack Peddler by Su Hanchen, 12th Century
The Pedlar by Hans Holbein 1538 Pedlar
The spectacle-pedlar, Rembrandt van Rijn, c. 1624–1625
Coffee Peddler, engraving from Etudes Prises Dans let Bas Peuple, Ou Les Cris de Paris, 1737
Broom Peddler, by François Joullain, Etching, 1737
Cherry peddler in Bucharest, painting by Amadeo Preziosi, c. 1869
The Shrimp Girl by William Hogarth, 1740
Portuguese peddler by Henry L'Evêque, 1814
Fawcett as Autolycus by Thomas Wageman, 1828
Poultry seller by Jean Davillier, 1874
Pedlar by Carl Spitzweg, 1875
London Pedlar by Gustave Doré, late 19th century
Russian peddler by Emile Francois Dessain, 1882
Basket Pedlar by Victor Fournel, 1887
Slovak peddler by Antonin Hölper, 1888
Punch, 1892
Brandy Peddler from Paul Clacquesin, Histoire de la Communauté des Distillateurs, 1900
Sbitenshchik and Khodebshchik, a "lubok print," 19th century
The Peddler, US, 1903, chalk drawing, unknown artist
Venetian fish seller by Giuseppe Barison, 1906

In some economies the work of itinerant selling was left to nomadic minorities, such as gypsies, travellers, or Yeniche who offered a varied assortment of goods and services, both evergreens and (notoriously suspicious) novelties.


Commune in the Hautes-Pyrénées department in the Occitanie region of southwestern France.

The town hall of Tarbes
Location of Tarbes in the Pyrenees
The Pyrenees seen from Tarbes.
Map of the commune of Tarbes and its adjacent communes
Foundations of an old villa in the Ormeau quarter
Map of the fiefs of Gascocony around 1150
The Gare de Tarbes, around 1900
Brauhauban market, around 1900
An old image of the arsenal
TARMAC and the fields around Ossun.
The Tribunal of Grand Instance (High Court) of Tarbes
Fountain of the Quatre-Vallées
The Alhambra Fountain in Tarbes
The fountain in the Place de Verdun
Equestrian statue of Ferdinand Foch
The Cathedral of Notre-Dame-de-la-Sède
The Henri Duparc Conservatory
The Massey Garden
Red beret of the 1st Parachute Hussar Regiment
Badge of the 1st Parachute Hussar Regiment
House of Martial Arts
2006 Tour de France stage held in Tarbes with a large turn out
Bertrand Barère
Bernard Lapasset
Céline Dumerc
Birthplace of Ferdinand Foch
Arsenal building 100 became the Maison des Associations
Building 119 became a cinema complex
Building 103 became the municipal archives
An overhead crane in building 117, which became a leisure complex
The Church of Saint-Anne
The Church of Sainte-Thérèse
Carmel de Tarbes
Carmel de Tarbes
Massey Museum
Blason of Huesca
Blason of Altenkirchen

The Communauté d'agglomération has competences related to transportation, travellers, culture, sports, environment, the university and the city's policy.

Internal passport

Identity document.

Pages of internal passport, issued in 1910 in Imperial Russia

In France, the "livret de circulation" (booklet of circulation) and its variant the "carnet de circulation" (notebook of circulation) provided to those of no fixed abode were particularly constraining and discriminatory obligations imposed on itinerants.