Ivory

elephant ivorymammoth ivoryivorieselephant teethelephant tusksElfenbeinivory boardanimal ivoryelephants teethfossil ivory
Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that consists mainly of dentine, one of the physical structures of teeth and tusks.wikipedia
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Ivory carving

carved ivoryivoriesivory
Ivory has been valued since ancient times in art or manufacturing for making a range of items from ivory carvings to false teeth, piano keys, fans, dominoes and joint tubes.
Ivory carving is the carving of ivory, that is to say animal tooth or tusk, generally by using sharp cutting tools, either mechanically or manually.

Dominoes

dominodominosDomino tiles
Ivory has been valued since ancient times in art or manufacturing for making a range of items from ivory carvings to false teeth, piano keys, fans, dominoes and joint tubes.
European-style dominoes are traditionally made of bone or ivory, or a dark hardwood such as ebony, with contrasting black or white pips (inlaid or painted).

Hippopotamus

hippohipposhippopotami
Elephant ivory is the most important source, but ivory from mammoth, walrus, hippopotamus, sperm whale, killer whale, narwhal and warthog are used as well.
They are threatened by habitat loss and poaching for their meat and ivory canine teeth.

Narwhal

MonodonnarwhalsMonodon monoceros
Elephant ivory is the most important source, but ivory from mammoth, walrus, hippopotamus, sperm whale, killer whale, narwhal and warthog are used as well.
Narwhals have been harvested for hundreds of years by Inuit people in northern Canada and Greenland for meat and ivory, and a regulated subsistence hunt continues.

Dentures

denturefalse teethdental plate
Ivory has been valued since ancient times in art or manufacturing for making a range of items from ivory carvings to false teeth, piano keys, fans, dominoes and joint tubes.
The earliest of these dentures were entirely wooden, but later versions used natural human teeth or sculpted pagodite, ivory, or animal horn for the teeth.

Scrimshaw

carvingscrimshanderskrimshaw
The trade in certain teeth and tusks other than elephant is well established and widespread; therefore, "ivory" can correctly be used to describe any mammalian teeth or tusks of commercial interest which are large enough to be carved or scrimshawed.
Ivory is a fragile medium; many 19th century pieces were preserved because they were kept in a barrel of oil onboard ship.

Tusk

tuskselephant tusksone-tusked
Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that consists mainly of dentine, one of the physical structures of teeth and tusks.
Tusks are used by humans to produce ivory, which is used in artifacts and jewellery, and formerly in other items such as piano keys.

Dentin

dentinedentin tubulesDentinal
Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that consists mainly of dentine, one of the physical structures of teeth and tusks.
Elephant ivory is solid dentin.

Piano

grand pianopianistacoustic piano
Ivory has been valued since ancient times in art or manufacturing for making a range of items from ivory carvings to false teeth, piano keys, fans, dominoes and joint tubes.
Black keys were traditionally made of ebony, and the white keys were covered with strips of ivory.

Billiard ball

billiard ballscue ballballs
It was formerly used to make cutlery handles, billiard balls, piano keys, Scottish bagpipes, buttons and a wide range of ornamental items.
Although affordable ox-bone balls were in common use in Europe, elephant ivory was favored since at least 1627 until the early 20th century; the earliest known written reference to ivory billiard balls is in the 1588 inventory of the Duke of Norfolk.

Netsuke

Japanese Netsukes
Examples of modern carved ivory objects are okimono, netsukes, jewelry, flatware handles, furniture inlays, and piano keys.

Chryselephantine sculpture

chryselephantineChryselephantine statuegold and ivory
During the Art Deco era from 1912 to 1940, dozens (if not hundreds) of European artists used ivory in the production of chryselephantine statues.
Chryselephantine sculpture (from Greek, and ) is sculpture made with gold and ivory.

Art Deco

art-decoArt DécoArt Deco architecture
During the Art Deco era from 1912 to 1940, dozens (if not hundreds) of European artists used ivory in the production of chryselephantine statues.
The early Art Deco style featured luxurious and exotic materials such as ebony, ivory and silk, very bright colors and stylized motifs, particularly baskets and bouquets of flowers of all colors, giving a modernist look.

Asian elephant

elephantAsian elephantselephants
The national and international trade in ivory of threatened species such as African and Asian elephants is illegal.
They are poached for ivory and a variety of other products including meat and leather.

Santo (art)

Santerosantossanto
In the Philippines, ivory was also used to craft the faces and hands of Catholic icons and images of saints prevalent in the Santero culture.
Ivory was often cited as the best and most expensive material for carving santos.

Thailand

ThaiSiamTHA
The Buddhist cultures of Southeast Asia, including Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia, traditionally harvested ivory from their domesticated elephants.
Poachers have long hunted elephants for ivory and hides, and now increasingly for meat.

Ivory trade

ivoryivory tradingtrade in ivory
The use and trade of elephant ivory have become controversial because they have contributed to seriously declining elephant populations in many countries.
The ivory trade is the commercial, often illegal trade in the ivory tusks of the hippopotamus, walrus, narwhal, mammoth, and most commonly, African and Asian elephants.

Ancient Rome

RomanRomansRome
Both the Greek and Roman civilizations practiced ivory carving to make large quantities of high value works of art, precious religious objects, and decorative boxes for costly objects.
Roman painting styles show Greek influences, and surviving examples are primarily frescoes used to adorn the walls and ceilings of country villas, though Roman literature includes mentions of paintings on wood, ivory, and other materials.

Destruction of ivory

ivory crushburned in 1989controversially
In June 2015, more than a ton of confiscated ivory was crushed in New York's Times Square by the Wildlife Conservation Society to send a message that the illegal trade will not be tolerated.
, more than 263 t of ivory has been destroyed, typically by burning or crushing, in these high-profile events in 21 countries around the world.

Plastic

plasticsadditivesadditive
Prior to the introduction of plastics, ivory had many ornamental and practical uses, mainly because of the white color it presents when processed.
By incorporating pigments into the product, it could be made to resemble ivory.

Woolly mammoth

Mammuthus primigeniuswooly mammothwoolly mammoths
Trade in the ivory from the tusks of dead woolly mammoths frozen in the tundra has occurred for 300 years and continues to be legal.
After its extinction, humans continued using its ivory as a raw material, a tradition that continues today.

Chad

Republic of ChadTchadChadian
The decision came after several mass slaughters of African elephants, most notably the 2006 Zakouma elephant slaughter in Chad.
Poaching is a serious problem in the country, particularly of elephants for the profitable ivory industry and a threat to lives of rangers even in the national parks such as Zakouma.

Vegetable ivory

It is sometimes called vegetable ivory, or tagua, and is the seed endosperm of the ivory nut palm commonly found in coastal rainforests of Ecuador, Peru and Colombia.
Vegetable ivory is named for its resemblance to animal ivory.

Seal (East Asia)

sealsealsChinese seal
In Japan, the increase in wealth sparked consumption of solid ivory hanko – name seals – which before this time had been made of wood.
Korean seals are made of wood, jade, or sometimes ivory for more value.

Phytelephas

taguatagua nutivory palm
It is sometimes called vegetable ivory, or tagua, and is the seed endosperm of the ivory nut palm commonly found in coastal rainforests of Ecuador, Peru and Colombia.
This and the first two of the common names refer to the very hard white endosperm of their seeds (tagua nuts or jarina seeds), which resembles elephant ivory.