Children's book from 1743, showing I and J considered as the same letter

Tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

- J

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Voiced palatal approximant

Type of consonant used in many spoken languages.


Because the English name of the letter J, jay, starts with (voiced palato-alveolar affricate), the approximant is sometimes instead called yod (jod), as in the phonological history terms yod-dropping and yod-coalescence.


Tenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Yōd /𐤉, Hebrew Yōd י, Aramaic Yod, Syriac Yōḏ ܝ, and Arabic Yāʾ ي.

10 px

The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Iota (Ι), Latin I and J, Cyrillic І, Coptic iauda (Ⲓ) and Gothic eis.

English alphabet

Latin-script alphabet consisting of 26 letters, each having an upper- and lower-case form.

Charles Morton's 1759 updated version of Edward Bernard's "Orbis eruditi", comparing all known alphabets as of 1689

The letters u and j, as distinct from v and i, were introduced in the 16th century, and w assumed the status of an independent letter.


Ninth letter and the third vowel letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.


The modern letter 'j' originated as a variation of 'i', and both were used interchangeably for both the vowel and the consonant, coming to be differentiated only in the 16th century.

Juventus F.C.

Professional football club based in Turin, Piedmont, Italy, that competes in the Serie A, the top tier of the Italian football league system.

Historic first ever Juventus club shot, circa 1897 to 1898
The Juventus team during the 1905 season in which they won their first league title
Omar Sívori, John Charles and Giampiero Boniperti: "Trio Magico" (the Magical Trio)
Star goalkeeper Gianluigi Buffon was among a group of players who remained with the club following their demotion to Serie B in 2006.
Playmaker Andrea Pirlo playing for Juventus in 2012
Juventus captain Giorgio Chiellini receiving the 2017 Coppa Italia from the President of Italy Sergio Mattarella
Scene from the Derby d'Italia in 1930
Pre-match display at the 2017 UEFA Champions League Final between Real Madrid and Juventus
Massimiliano Allegri returned as head coach of the club in 2021.
Giovanni Trapattoni, the longest serving and most successful manager in the history of Juventus with 14 trophies
A partial view of the club's trophy room with the titles won between 1905 and 2013 at J-Museum
Alessandro Del Piero made a record 705 appearances for Juventus, including 478 in Serie A and is the all-time leading goalscorer for the club, with 290 goals.
Italy's set up, with eight Juventus players, before the match against France in the 1978 FIFA World Cup

More specifically, it is a pictogram composed by a stylized Black and White "J" which Agnelli said reflects "the Juventus way of living."

Romanian language

Eastern Romance language spoken by approximately 22–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.

Official usage of Romanian language in Vojvodina, Serbia
Distribution of first-language native Romanian speakers by country—Voivodina is an autonomous province of northern Serbia bordering Romania, while Altele means "Other"
Romanian as secondary or foreign language in Central and Eastern Europe
Romanian language in the Romance language family
Romanian's core lexicon (2,581 words); Marius Sala, VRLR (1988)
Neacșu's letter is the oldest surviving document written in Romanian.
A sample of Romanian written in the Romanian Cyrillic alphabet, which was still in use in the early 19th century
A close shot of some keys with Romanian characters on the keyboard of a laptop


English language

West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by the inhabitants of early medieval England.

The West Germanic languages
The opening to the Old English epic poem Beowulf, handwritten in half-uncial script: Hƿæt ƿē Gārde/na ingēar dagum þēod cyninga / þrym ge frunon... "Listen! We of the Spear-Danes from days of yore have heard of the glory of the folk-kings..."
Graphic representation of the Great Vowel Shift, showing how the pronunciation of the long vowels gradually shifted, with the high vowels i: and u: breaking into diphthongs and the lower vowels each shifting their pronunciation up one level
Braj Kachru's Three Circles of English
Countries in which English Language is a Mandatory or an Optional Subject
In the English sentence The cat sat on the mat, the subject is the cat (a noun phrase), the verb is sat, and on the mat is a prepositional phrase (composed of a noun phrase the mat headed by the preposition on). The tree describes the structure of the sentence.
Map showing the main dialect regions in the UK and Ireland
Rhoticity dominates in North American English. The Atlas of North American English found over 50% non-rhoticity, though, in at least one local white speaker in each U.S. metropolitan area designated here by a red dot. Non-rhotic African American Vernacular English pronunciations may be found among African Americans regardless of location.

The modern English alphabet contains 26 letters of the Latin script: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z (which also have capital forms: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z).

Je (Cyrillic)

For the Cyrillic letter Е, е, see Ye (Cyrillic).

Example of the Cyrillic script. Excerpt from the manuscript "Bdinski Zbornik". Written in 1360.

Je (Ј ј; italics: Ј ј ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, taken over from the Latin letter J.

J with stroke

The Duenos inscription, dated to the 6th century BC, shows the earliest known forms of the Old Latin alphabet.

J with stroke (majuscule Ɉ, minuscule ɉ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, derived from J with the addition of a bar through the letter.

Dotless j

Uppercase J on the left; dotless lowercase j on the right.

ȷ is a modified letter of the Latin alphabet, obtained by writing the lowercase letter j without a dot.