J. B. S. Haldane

J.B.S. HaldaneHaldaneJohn Burdon Sanderson HaldaneJBS HaldaneJ B S HaldaneJack HaldaneHaldane's principleA Meal with a MagicianHaldane, J. B. S.Haldane, John Burdon Sanderson
John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (5 November 1892 – 1 December 1964) was a British-Indian scientist known for his work in the study of physiology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and mathematics.wikipedia
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Primordial soup

prebiotic soupprimeval slimesoup" theory
His article on abiogenesis in 1929 introduced the "primordial soup theory", and it became the foundation to build physical models for the chemical origin of life.
It is a fundamental aspect to the heterotrophic theory of the origin of life, first proposed by Alexander Oparin in 1924, and John Burdon Sanderson Haldane in 1929.

Haldane's rule

generally sterileHaldane's theory
Haldane established human gene maps for haemophilia and colour blindness on the X chromosome, and codified Haldane's rule on sterility in the heterogametic sex of hybrids in species.
Haldane's rule is an observation about the early stage of speciation, formulated in 1922 by the British evolutionary biologist J.B.S. Haldane, that states that if in a species hybrid only one sex is inviable or sterile, that sex is more likely to be the heterogametic sex.

Hydrogen economy

hydrogenhydrogen-based economyHydrogen energy
He was the first to suggest the central idea of in vitro fertilisation, as well as concepts such as hydrogen economy, cis and trans-acting regulation, coupling reaction, molecular repulsion, the darwin (as a unit of evolution) and organismal cloning.
The concept was proposed earlier by geneticist J.B.S. Haldane.

Human cloning

cloneclonedclones
He is also remembered for coining the words "clone" and "cloning" in human biology, and "ectogenesis".
J. B. S. Haldane was the first to introduce the idea of human cloning, for which he used the terms "clone" and "cloning", which had been used in agriculture since the early 20th century.

Population genetics

population geneticistevolutionary geneticspopulation genetic
Subsequent works established a unification of Mendelian genetics and Darwinian evolution by natural selection whilst laying the groundwork for modern evolutionary synthesis and thus helped to create population genetics. He was one of the three major figures to develop the mathematical theory of population genetics, along with Ronald Fisher and Sewall Wright.
Its primary founders were Sewall Wright, J. B. S. Haldane and Ronald Fisher, who also laid the foundations for the related discipline of quantitative genetics.

John Scott Haldane

J.S. HaldaneHaldanehaldanean
He was the son of John Scott Haldane.
He also experimented on his son, the equally famous J. B. S. Haldane (both for extending his father's interest in diving and as a key figure in population genetics and the development of the modern synthesis), even when he was quite young.

Darwin (unit)

Darwindarwins
He was the first to suggest the central idea of in vitro fertilisation, as well as concepts such as hydrogen economy, cis and trans-acting regulation, coupling reaction, molecular repulsion, the darwin (as a unit of evolution) and organismal cloning.
The darwin (d) is a unit of evolutionary change, defined by J.B.S. Haldane in 1949.

Haldane's dilemma

alternative solutionsimplausiblysubstitution load
In 1957 he articulated Haldane's dilemma, a limit on the speed of beneficial evolution which subsequently proved incorrect.
Haldane's dilemma is a limit on the speed of beneficial evolution, calculated by J. B. S. Haldane in 1957.

Ectogenesis

He is also remembered for coining the words "clone" and "cloning" in human biology, and "ectogenesis".
The term was coined by British scientist J.B.S. Haldane in 1924.

Naomi Mitchison

Naomi (née Haldane)Mitchison, N.Naomi Haldane
His younger sister, Naomi Mitchison, became a writer, and his uncle was Viscount Haldane and his aunt the author Elizabeth Haldane.
Like her father John Scott Haldane and elder brother J. B. S. Haldane, Naomi Haldane initially pursued a scientific career.

Abiogenesis

origin of lifeorigins of lifeformation
His article on abiogenesis in 1929 introduced the "primordial soup theory", and it became the foundation to build physical models for the chemical origin of life.

Richard Haldane, 1st Viscount Haldane

Richard HaldaneLord HaldaneViscount Haldane
His younger sister, Naomi Mitchison, became a writer, and his uncle was Viscount Haldane and his aunt the author Elizabeth Haldane.
He was the grandson of the Scottish evangelist James Alexander Haldane, the brother of respiratory physiologist John Scott Haldane, Sir William Haldane and author Elizabeth Haldane, and the uncle of J. B. S. Haldane and Naomi Mitchison.

Evolution

evolvedtheory of evolutionevolutionary
In 1957 he articulated Haldane's dilemma, a limit on the speed of beneficial evolution which subsequently proved incorrect.
In the 1930s, pioneers in the field of population genetics, such as Ronald Fisher, Sewall Wright and J. B. S. Haldane set the foundations of evolution onto a robust statistical philosophy.

Natural selection

selectionselectiveselected
Subsequent works established a unification of Mendelian genetics and Darwinian evolution by natural selection whilst laying the groundwork for modern evolutionary synthesis and thus helped to create population genetics.
J. B. S. Haldane introduced the concept of the "cost" of natural selection.

Charlotte Haldane

Charlotte Franken
In 1924, Haldane met Charlotte Franken.
Her second husband was the biologist J.B.S. Haldane.

Helen Spurway

Later that year he married Helen Spurway.
Helen Spurway Haldane (12 June 1915 – 15 February 1978) was a British biologist and the second wife of J. B. S. Haldane.

Modern synthesis (20th century)

modern synthesismodern evolutionary synthesisevolutionary synthesis
Subsequent works established a unification of Mendelian genetics and Darwinian evolution by natural selection whilst laying the groundwork for modern evolutionary synthesis and thus helped to create population genetics.
His efforts stimulated the biologist J. B. S. Haldane to push for the axiomatisation of biology, and by influencing thinkers such as Huxley, helped to bring about the modern synthesis.

Biostatistics

biostatisticianbiometrybiometrician
He made innovative contributions to the fields of statistics and biostatistics. In 1956, Haldane left University College London, and joined the Indian Statistical Institute (ISI) in Kolkata, India, where he headed the biometry unit.

Indian Statistical Institute

ISIIndian Statistical Institute, Delhi CentreIndian Statistical Institute (ISI)
In 1956, Haldane left University College London, and joined the Indian Statistical Institute (ISI) in Kolkata, India, where he headed the biometry unit.
J. B. S. Haldane joined the ISI as a research professor from August 1957, and stayed on until February 1961, when he had a falling out with ISI Director P.C. Mahalanobis over Haldane's going on a much-publicized hunger strike to protest the United States pressuring U.S. National Science Fair winners Gary Botting and Susan Brown from attending an ISI banquet to which many prominent Indian scientists had been invited.

Arthur C. Clarke

Arthur C ClarkeSir Arthur C. ClarkeClarke
Arthur C. Clarke credited him as "perhaps the most brilliant science populariser of his generation".
J. B. S. Haldane, near the end of his life, suggested in a personal letter to Clarke that Clarke should receive a prize in theology for being one of the few people to write anything new on the subject, and went on to say that if Clarke's writings did not contain multiple contradictory theological views, he might have been a menace.

Gary Botting

In January 1961 he befriended Gary Botting, 1960 U.S. Science Fair winner in zoology (who had first visited the Haldanes along with Susan Brown, 1960 U.S. National Science Fair winner in botany), inviting him to share the results of his experiments hybridising Antheraea silk moths.
While in India in January 1961, Botting was befriended by J. B. S. Haldane, who decades earlier had applied statistical research to the natural selection of moths.

Miller–Urey experiment

Miller-Urey experimentMiller-Ureydevelopment of organic life from non-living matter
The gained some empirical support in 1953 with the classic Miller–Urey experiment.
The experiment at the time supported Alexander Oparin's and J. B. S. Haldane's hypothesis that putative conditions on the primitive Earth favoured chemical reactions that synthesized more complex organic compounds from simpler inorganic precursors.

Enzyme

enzymologyenzymesenzymatic
During his nine years at Cambridge, Haldane worked on enzymes and genetics, particularly the mathematical side of genetics.
This work was further developed by G. E. Briggs and J. B. S. Haldane, who derived kinetic equations that are still widely used today.

Sewall Wright

WrightSewall G. WrightS. Wright
He was one of the three major figures to develop the mathematical theory of population genetics, along with Ronald Fisher and Sewall Wright.
He was a founder of population genetics alongside Ronald Fisher and J. B. S. Haldane, which was a major step in the development of the modern synthesis combining genetics with evolution.

On Being the Right Size

In his essay On Being the Right Size he outlines Haldane's principle, which states that the size very often defines what bodily equipment an animal must have: "Insects, being so small, do not have oxygen-carrying bloodstreams. What little oxygen their cells require can be absorbed by simple diffusion of air through their bodies. But being larger means an animal must have complicated oxygen pumping and distributing systems to reach all the cells."
"On Being the Right Size" is a 1926 essay by J. B. S. Haldane which discusses proportions in the animal world and the essential link between the size of an animal and these systems an animal has for life.