J. J. Thomson

J.J. ThomsonJoseph John ThomsonSir J. J. ThomsonThomsonJ J ThomsonSir J.J. ThomsonSir Joseph John ThomsonJJ ThomsonJoseph John "J. J." ThomsonJoseph John (J. J.) Thomson
Sir Joseph John Thomson (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) was an English physicist and Nobel Laureate in Physics, credited with the discovery and identification of the electron, the first subatomic particle to be discovered.wikipedia
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Cathode ray

electron beamcathode rayselectron beams
In 1897, Thomson showed that cathode rays were composed of previously unknown negatively charged particles (now called electrons), which he calculated must have bodies much smaller than atoms and a very large charge-to-mass ratio.
In 1897, British physicist J. J. Thomson showed that cathode rays were composed of a previously unknown negatively charged particle, which was later named the electron.

Electron

electronse − electron mass
Sir Joseph John Thomson (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) was an English physicist and Nobel Laureate in Physics, credited with the discovery and identification of the electron, the first subatomic particle to be discovered. He called the particles "corpuscles", but later scientists preferred the name electron which had been suggested by George Johnstone Stoney in 1891, prior to Thomson's actual discovery.
Irish physicist George Johnstone Stoney named this charge 'electron' in 1891, and J. J. Thomson and his team of British physicists identified it as a particle in 1897.

George Paget Thomson

George ThomsonSir George Paget ThomsonGeorge P. Thomson
They had one son, George Paget Thomson, and one daughter, Joan Paget Thomson.
Thomson was born in Cambridge, England, the son of physicist and Nobel laureate J. J. Thomson and Rose Elisabeth Paget, daughter of George Edward Paget.

Francis William Aston

Francis AstonF.W. AstonFrancis W. Aston
His experiments to determine the nature of positively charged particles, with Francis William Aston, were the first use of mass spectrometry and led to the development of the mass spectrograph. In addition to Thomson himself, six of his research assistants (Charles Glover Barkla, Niels Bohr, Max Born, William Henry Bragg, Owen Willans Richardson and Charles Thomson Rees Wilson) won Nobel Prizes in physics, and two (Francis William Aston and Ernest Rutherford) won Nobel prizes in chemistry.
After the death of his father, and a trip around the world in 1908, he was appointed lecturer at the University of Birmingham in 1909 but moved to the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge on the invitation of J. J. Thomson in 1910.

Electromagnetic mass

4/3 problem of the electromagnetic mass of electronsClassical charged particleselectromagnetic mass of a charged particle
He examined the electromagnetic theory of light of James Clerk Maxwell, introduced the concept of electromagnetic mass of a charged particle, and demonstrated that a moving charged body would apparently increase in mass.
It was first derived by J. J. Thomson in 1881 and was for some time also considered as a dynamical explanation of inertial mass per se.

Subatomic particle

subatomicparticlesubatomic particles
Sir Joseph John Thomson (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) was an English physicist and Nobel Laureate in Physics, credited with the discovery and identification of the electron, the first subatomic particle to be discovered.

Ernest Rutherford

RutherfordLord RutherfordSir Ernest Rutherford
Joseph John Thomson died on 30 August 1940; his ashes rest in Westminster Abbey, near the graves of Sir Isaac Newton and his former student, Ernest Rutherford. In addition to Thomson himself, six of his research assistants (Charles Glover Barkla, Niels Bohr, Max Born, William Henry Bragg, Owen Willans Richardson and Charles Thomson Rees Wilson) won Nobel Prizes in physics, and two (Francis William Aston and Ernest Rutherford) won Nobel prizes in chemistry.
He was among the first of the 'aliens' (those without a Cambridge degree) allowed to do research at the university, under the leadership of J. J. Thomson, which aroused jealousies from the more conservative members of the Cavendish fraternity.

Victoria University of Manchester

University of ManchesterOwens CollegeManchester University
In 1870, he was admitted to Owens College in Manchester (now University of Manchester) at the unusually young age of 14.
It also educated the young J. J. Thomson before he went to Trinity College, Cambridge

Romanes Lecture

Romanes Lectures1998 Romanes Lecture
In 1914, he gave the Romanes Lecture in Oxford on "The atomic theory".

Niels Bohr

BohrNiels Henrik David BohrBohr, Niels
In addition to Thomson himself, six of his research assistants (Charles Glover Barkla, Niels Bohr, Max Born, William Henry Bragg, Owen Willans Richardson and Charles Thomson Rees Wilson) won Nobel Prizes in physics, and two (Francis William Aston and Ernest Rutherford) won Nobel prizes in chemistry.
He met J. J. Thomson of the Cavendish Laboratory and Trinity College, Cambridge.

Cavendish Professor of Physics

Cavendish Professor of Experimental PhysicsCavendish ProfessorCavendish Professors
On 22 December 1884, Thomson was appointed Cavendish Professor of Physics at the University of Cambridge.
J. J. Thomson was made Cavendish Professor in 1884 at the age of 28, leading one senior member of the University to comment that "Matters have come to a pretty pass when they elect mere boys Professors."

Richard Glazebrook

Richard Tetley GlazebrookRichard T. GlazebrookSir Richard Glazebrook
The appointment caused considerable surprise, given that candidates such as Osborne Reynolds or Richard Glazebrook were older and more experienced in laboratory work.
He hoped to succeed Rayleigh as Cavendish Professor of Physics in 1884, but was surprisingly (given that he was also Rayleigh's choice) passed over in favour of Sir J. J. Thomson, which was a great disappointment to him.

University of Cambridge

Cambridge UniversityCambridgeUniversity
On 22 December 1884, Thomson was appointed Cavendish Professor of Physics at the University of Cambridge.
In physics, Ernest Rutherford who is regarded as the father of nuclear physics, spent much of his life at the university where he worked closely with E. J. Williams and Niels Bohr, a major contributor to the understanding of the atom, J. J. Thomson, discoverer of the electron, Sir James Chadwick, discoverer of the neutron, and Sir John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton, responsible for first splitting the atom.

Max Born

BornBorn, M.Born M
In addition to Thomson himself, six of his research assistants (Charles Glover Barkla, Niels Bohr, Max Born, William Henry Bragg, Owen Willans Richardson and Charles Thomson Rees Wilson) won Nobel Prizes in physics, and two (Francis William Aston and Ernest Rutherford) won Nobel prizes in chemistry.
He then travelled to England, where he was admitted to Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, and studied physics for six months at the Cavendish Laboratory under J. J. Thomson, George Searle and Joseph Larmor.

Trinity College, Cambridge

Trinity CollegeTrinityTrinity College Cambridge
He moved on to Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1876.

Charles Glover Barkla

Charles BarklaBarkla, Charles GloverCharles G. Barkla
In addition to Thomson himself, six of his research assistants (Charles Glover Barkla, Niels Bohr, Max Born, William Henry Bragg, Owen Willans Richardson and Charles Thomson Rees Wilson) won Nobel Prizes in physics, and two (Francis William Aston and Ernest Rutherford) won Nobel prizes in chemistry.
In 1899 Barkla was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge, with an 1851 Research Fellowship from the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851, to work in the Cavendish Laboratory under the physicist J. J. Thomson (discoverer of the electron).

Cathode-ray tube

cathode ray tubeCRTcathode ray tubes
Thomson believed that the corpuscles emerged from the atoms of the trace gas inside his cathode ray tubes.
In 1897, J. J. Thomson succeeded in measuring the mass of cathode rays, showing that they consisted of negatively charged particles smaller than atoms, the first "subatomic particles", which were later named electrons.

Robert Andrews Millikan

Robert MillikanRobert A. MillikanMillikan
(The charge itself was not measured until Robert A. Millikan's oil drop experiment in 1909.)
J. J. Thomson had already discovered the charge-to-mass ratio of the electron.

Plum pudding model

plum-pudding modelanalogous to a plum puddingcorpuscles
Thomson imagined the atom as being made up of these corpuscles orbiting in a sea of positive charge; this was his plum pudding model.
First proposed by J. J. Thomson in 1904 soon after the discovery of the electron, but before the discovery of the atomic nucleus, the model tried to explain two properties of atoms then known: that electrons are negatively-charged particles and that atoms have no net electric charge.

Crookes tube

CrookesCrookes focus tubeCrookes' tube
While supporters of the aetherial theory accepted the possibility that negatively charged particles are produced in Crookes tubes, they believed that they are a mere by-product and that the cathode rays themselves are immaterial.
It was used by Crookes, Johann Hittorf, Julius Plücker, Eugen Goldstein, Heinrich Hertz, Philipp Lenard, Kristian Birkeland and others to discover the properties of cathode rays, culminating in J.J. Thomson's 1897 identification of cathode rays as negatively charged particles, which were later named electrons.

George Johnstone Stoney

George StoneyG. Johnstone StoneyG. J. Stoney
He called the particles "corpuscles", but later scientists preferred the name electron which had been suggested by George Johnstone Stoney in 1891, prior to Thomson's actual discovery.
In 1891, he proposed the term 'electron' to describe the fundamental unit of electrical charge, and his contributions to research in this area laid the foundations for the eventual discovery of the particle by J. J. Thomson in 1897.

Cheetham, Manchester

Cheetham HillCheethamCheetham Hill Road
Joseph John Thomson was born on 18 December 1856 in Cheetham Hill, Manchester, Lancashire, England.

Hughes Medal

David Edward Hughes Medal
The medal was first awarded in 1902 to J. J. Thomson "for his numerous contributions to electric science, especially in reference to the phenomena of electric discharge in gases", and has since been awarded over one-hundred times.

Philipp Lenard

Philipp Eduard Anton von LenardLenard effectPhillipp Lenard
Thomson made his suggestion on 30 April 1897 following his discovery that cathode rays (at the time known as Lenard rays) could travel much further through air than expected for an atom-sized particle.
He confirmed some of J.J. Thomson's work, which eventually arrived at the understanding that cathode rays were streams of negatively charged energetic particles.

Cavendish Laboratory

Theory of Condensed Matter groupCavendishCavendish Laboratories
Several important early physics discoveries were made here, including the discovery of the electron by J.J. Thomson (1897) the Townsend discharge by John Sealy Townsend, and the development of the cloud chamber by C.T.R. Wilson.