JAK-STAT signaling pathway

JAK-STAT pathwayJAK-STATJAK/STATJAK/STAT pathwayJAK-STAT signalling pathwayIFNγ-induced JAK-STAT1 mediated pathwayJak-STAT signal transduction pathwayJAK/STAT signalingJAK/STAT signaling pathwayJAK/STATs
The JAK-STAT signalling pathway is a chain of interactions between proteins in a cell, and is involved in processes such as immunity, cell division, cell death and tumour formation.wikipedia
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Janus kinase

JAKJAK kinasesJanus Kinases
There are three key parts of JAK-STAT signalling: Janus kinases (JAKs), signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins (STATs), and receptors (which bind the chemical signals).
Janus kinase (JAK) is a family of intracellular, nonreceptor tyrosine kinases that transduce cytokine-mediated signals via the JAK-STAT pathway.

Interferon gamma

IFN-γinterferon-gammaIFNγ
IFNγ binding to the receptor activates the JAK-STAT pathway.

Interferon

interferonsIFNIFN-γ
The binding of various ligands, usually cytokines, such as interferons and interleukins, to cell-surface receptors, causes the receptors to dimerize, which brings the receptor-associated JAKs into close proximity.
STAT activation initiates the most well-defined cell signaling pathway for all IFNs, the classical Janus kinase-STAT (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway.

STAT5A

There are 7 STAT proteins: STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT4, STAT5A, STAT5B and STAT6.
Therapy schemes currently focus on STAT5a/b, targeting and inhibiting different mediators of the JAK2-STAT5 pathway.

Interleukin 2

IL-2interleukin-2IL2
One example of JAK-STAT signalling integrating with other pathways is Interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor signaling in T cells.
The pleiotropic effects of IL-2 are enabled due to the fact that IL-2 signal can be transduced via 3 different signaling pathways; JAK-STAT, PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathway.

STAT protein

STATSTAT transcription factorsstat1 transcription factor
There are three key parts of JAK-STAT signalling: Janus kinases (JAKs), signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins (STATs), and receptors (which bind the chemical signals).

Prolactin

PRLlactationprolactin secretion
This results in the activation of Janus kinase 2, a tyrosine kinase that initiates the JAK-STAT pathway.

Suppressor of cytokine signalling

SOCSsuppressor of cytokine signalingSOCS box domain
Three major groups of proteins that cells use to regulate this signalling pathway are protein inhibitors of activated STAT (PIAS), protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS). There are 8 protein members of the SOCS family: cytokine-inducible SH2 domain-containing protein (CISH), SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, SOCS4, SOCS5, SOCS6, and SOCS7, each protein has an SH2 domain and a 40-amino-acid region called the SOCS box.
SOCS (suppressor of cytokine signaling proteins) refers to a family of genes involved in inhibiting the JAK-STAT signaling pathway.

Interleukin 10

IL-10interleukin-10IL10
Also, one study indicates that JAK1 is needed to carry out signalling for receptors of the cytokines IFNγ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10.
IL-10 can block NF-κB activity, and is involved in the regulation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway.

Janus kinase inhibitor

inhibitorinhibitor of JAK1inhibitor of janus kinase
Since excessive JAK-STAT signalling is responsible for some cancers and immune disorders, JAK inhibitors have been proposed as drugs for therapy.
Janus kinase inhibitors, also known as JAK inhibitors or jakinibs, are a type of medication that functions by inhibiting the activity of one or more of the Janus kinase family of enzymes (JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, TYK2), thereby interfering with the JAK-STAT signaling pathway.

Protein inhibitor of activated STAT

PIASprotein inhibitors of activated STAT
Three major groups of proteins that cells use to regulate this signalling pathway are protein inhibitors of activated STAT (PIAS), protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS).
Additionally, PIAS proteins are important transcriptional co-regulators of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway.

Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1

SOCS1SOCS-1
There are 8 protein members of the SOCS family: cytokine-inducible SH2 domain-containing protein (CISH), SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, SOCS4, SOCS5, SOCS6, and SOCS7, each protein has an SH2 domain and a 40-amino-acid region called the SOCS box.

SOCS3

SOCS-3Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3)
There are 8 protein members of the SOCS family: cytokine-inducible SH2 domain-containing protein (CISH), SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, SOCS4, SOCS5, SOCS6, and SOCS7, each protein has an SH2 domain and a 40-amino-acid region called the SOCS box.

Tofacitinib

tasocitinibTofacitinib citrateXeljanz
Another drug, called Tofacitinib, has been used for psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis treatment.
It is an inhibitor of the enzyme janus kinase 1 (JAK1) and janus kinase 3 (JAK 3), which means that it interferes with the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, which transmits extracellular information into the cell nucleus, influencing DNA transcription.

Immunity (medical)

immunityimmuneimmune response
The JAK-STAT signalling pathway is a chain of interactions between proteins in a cell, and is involved in processes such as immunity, cell division, cell death and tumour formation.

Cell growth

proliferationcell proliferationgrowth
The JAK-STAT signalling pathway is a chain of interactions between proteins in a cell, and is involved in processes such as immunity, cell division, cell death and tumour formation.

Apoptosis

apoptoticprogrammed cell deathcell death
The JAK-STAT signalling pathway is a chain of interactions between proteins in a cell, and is involved in processes such as immunity, cell division, cell death and tumour formation.

Carcinogenesis

tumorigenesisoncogenesisoncogenic
The JAK-STAT signalling pathway is a chain of interactions between proteins in a cell, and is involved in processes such as immunity, cell division, cell death and tumour formation.

Cell nucleus

nucleusnucleinuclear
The pathway communicates information from chemical signals outside of a cell to the cell nucleus, resulting in the activation of genes through a process called transcription.

Transcription (biology)

transcriptiontranscribedtranscriptional
The pathway communicates information from chemical signals outside of a cell to the cell nucleus, resulting in the activation of genes through a process called transcription.

Cancer

cancersmalignanciescancerous
Disrupted JAK-STAT signalling may lead to a variety of diseases, such as skin conditions, cancers, and disorders affecting the immune system.

Janus kinase 1

JAK1JAKJAK 1
Also, one study indicates that JAK1 is needed to carry out signalling for receptors of the cytokines IFNγ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10. There are 4 JAK proteins: JAK1, JAK2, JAK3 and TYK2.

Janus kinase 2

JAK22JAK
There are 4 JAK proteins: JAK1, JAK2, JAK3 and TYK2.

Janus kinase 3

JAK3
There are 4 JAK proteins: JAK1, JAK2, JAK3 and TYK2.

Tyrosine kinase 2

TYK2TYK
There are 4 JAK proteins: JAK1, JAK2, JAK3 and TYK2.