JOSS

JOSS IIJOSS I
JOSS, an acronym for JOHNNIAC Open Shop System, was one of the very first interactive, time-sharing programming languages.wikipedia
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Time-sharing

timesharingtime sharingtime-sharing system
JOSS, an acronym for JOHNNIAC Open Shop System, was one of the very first interactive, time-sharing programming languages. The memo gained the interest of the US Air Force, Rand's primary sponsors, and in 1960 they formed the Information Processor Project to explore this concept, what would soon be known as time-sharing.
JOSS began time-sharing service in January 1964.

TELCOMP

Some remained similar to the original, like TELCOMP and STRINGCOMP, CAL, CITRAN, ISIS, PIL/I, JEAN (ICT 1900 series), AID (PDP-10); while others, such as FOCAL and MUMPS, developed in distinctive directions.
It was an interactive, conversational language based on JOSS, developed by BBN after Cliff Shaw from RAND visited the labs in 1964 as part of the NIH survey.

FOCAL (programming language)

FOCALFOCAL-69FOCAL Mod V
Some remained similar to the original, like TELCOMP and STRINGCOMP, CAL, CITRAN, ISIS, PIL/I, JEAN (ICT 1900 series), AID (PDP-10); while others, such as FOCAL and MUMPS, developed in distinctive directions.
FOCAL is an interactive interpreted programming language based on JOSS and primarily used on Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-series machines.

MUMPS

MDSM-11M technology
Some remained similar to the original, like TELCOMP and STRINGCOMP, CAL, CITRAN, ISIS, PIL/I, JEAN (ICT 1900 series), AID (PDP-10); while others, such as FOCAL and MUMPS, developed in distinctive directions.
Some aspects of MUMPS can be traced from Rand Corporation's JOSS through BBN's TELCOMP and STRINGCOMP.

JEAN

JEAN (programming language)
Some remained similar to the original, like TELCOMP and STRINGCOMP, CAL, CITRAN, ISIS, PIL/I, JEAN (ICT 1900 series), AID (PDP-10); while others, such as FOCAL and MUMPS, developed in distinctive directions.
JEAN was a dialect of the JOSS programming language developed for and used on ICT 1900 series computers in the late 1960s and early 1970s; it was implemented under the MINIMOP operating system.

CAL (programming language)

CAL
Some remained similar to the original, like TELCOMP and STRINGCOMP, CAL, CITRAN, ISIS, PIL/I, JEAN (ICT 1900 series), AID (PDP-10); while others, such as FOCAL and MUMPS, developed in distinctive directions.
CAL is a version of the seminal JOSS language with a number of cleanups and new features to take advantage of the SDS platform.

STRINGCOMP

Some remained similar to the original, like TELCOMP and STRINGCOMP, CAL, CITRAN, ISIS, PIL/I, JEAN (ICT 1900 series), AID (PDP-10); while others, such as FOCAL and MUMPS, developed in distinctive directions.
It was one of the three variants of JOSS II (along with TELCOMP and FILECOMP) that were developed by BBN.

JOHNNIAC

JOSS was initially implemented on the JOHNNIAC machine at Rand Corporation and put online in 1963.
One JOHNNIAC legacy was the JOSS programming language (the JOHNNIAC Open Shop System), an easy-to-use language which catered to novices.

ICT 1900 series

ICL 19001900 series1906A
Some remained similar to the original, like TELCOMP and STRINGCOMP, CAL, CITRAN, ISIS, PIL/I, JEAN (ICT 1900 series), AID (PDP-10); while others, such as FOCAL and MUMPS, developed in distinctive directions.

Cliff Shaw

J. C. ShawJ. Clifford ShawJ.C. Shaw
JOSS was implemented almost entirely by J. Clifford Shaw, a mathematician who worked in Rand's growing computation division.
It is considered the true "father" of the JOSS language.

BASIC

BASIC programming languageGOSUBcompiled BASIC
It also bears a strong resemblance to the BASIC interpreters found on microcomputers in the 1980s, differing primarily in syntax details.

Programming language

programming languageslanguagedialect
JOSS, an acronym for JOHNNIAC Open Shop System, was one of the very first interactive, time-sharing programming languages.

Line number

line numberingLine numbersline-numbered
It pioneered a number of features that would become common in languages from the 1960s into the 1980s, including line numbers as both editing instructions and targets for branches, statements predicated by boolean decisions, and a built-in editor that can perform instructions in "direct" or "immediate" mode, a conversational user interface.

Conversational user interface

Conversational computingConversational interfacesconversational interface
It pioneered a number of features that would become common in languages from the 1960s into the 1980s, including line numbers as both editing instructions and targets for branches, statements predicated by boolean decisions, and a built-in editor that can perform instructions in "direct" or "immediate" mode, a conversational user interface.

PDP-6

JOHNNIAC was retired in 1966 and replaced by a PDP-6, which ultimately grew to support hundreds of computer terminals based on the IBM Selectric. Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) won the contest with their new PDP-6 system, and Air Force funding was released for the purchase.

Computer terminal

terminalterminalsdumb terminal
JOHNNIAC was retired in 1966 and replaced by a PDP-6, which ultimately grew to support hundreds of computer terminals based on the IBM Selectric.

PDP-10

DECsystem-10DEC PDP-10DEC-10
Some remained similar to the original, like TELCOMP and STRINGCOMP, CAL, CITRAN, ISIS, PIL/I, JEAN (ICT 1900 series), AID (PDP-10); while others, such as FOCAL and MUMPS, developed in distinctive directions.

Microcomputer

microcomputersmicrocomputingmicro-computer
It also bears a strong resemblance to the BASIC interpreters found on microcomputers in the 1980s, differing primarily in syntax details.

Willis Ware

Willis H. WareWare, WillisWillis Howard Ware
In 1959, Willis Ware wrote a Rand memo on the topic of computing in which he stated future computers would have "a multiplicity of personal input-output stations, so that many people can interact with the machine at the same time."

United States Air Force

U.S. Air ForceAir ForceUSAF
The memo gained the interest of the US Air Force, Rand's primary sponsors, and in 1960 they formed the Information Processor Project to explore this concept, what would soon be known as time-sharing.

Assembly language

assemblerassemblyassembly code
It was written in a symbolic assembly language called EasyFox (E and F in the US military's phonetic alphabet of that time), also developed by Shaw.

Digital Equipment Corporation

DECDigitalDigital Equipment
Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) won the contest with their new PDP-6 system, and Air Force funding was released for the purchase.

IBM Selectric typewriter

IBM SelectricSelectricIBM Selectric Composer
JOHNNIAC was retired in 1966 and replaced by a PDP-6, which ultimately grew to support hundreds of computer terminals based on the IBM Selectric.

Las Vegas

Las Vegas, NevadaLas Vegas, NVVegas
In December, a terminal in Las Vegas was connected to the machine remotely for the first time.