JPEG

JPG.jpgJPG/JPEG.jpeg.mpoJPEG Interchange FormatMinimum coded unitprogressive JPEG*.jpeg.jfi
JPEG is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital images, particularly for those images produced by digital photography.wikipedia
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Discrete cosine transform

DCTiDCTinverse discrete cosine transform
The basis for JPEG is the discrete cosine transform (DCT), a lossy image compression technique that was first proposed by Nasir Ahmed in 1972. Among several transform coding techniques they examined, they selected the discrete cosine transform (DCT), as it was by far the most efficient practical compression technique.
It is used in most digital media, including digital images (such as JPEG and HEIF, where small high-frequency components can be discarded), digital video (such as MPEG, H.26x and Vorbis), digital audio (such as Dolby Digital, MP3 and AAC), digital television (such as SDTV, HDTV and VOD), digital radio (such as AAC+ and DAB+), and speech coding (such as AAC-LD, Siren and Opus).

Image file formats

image file formatgraphics file formatimage file
JPEG compression is used in a number of image file formats.
JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) is a lossy compression method; JPEG-compressed images are usually stored in the JFIF (JPEG File Interchange Format) file format.

JPEG 2000

JPEG2000JPEG-2000Motion JPEG 2000
In 2000, the JPEG group introduced a format intended to be a successor, JPEG 2000, but it was unable to replace the original JPEG as the dominant image standard.
It was developed from 1997 to 2000 by a Joint Photographic Experts Group committee chaired by Touradj Ebrahimi (later the JPEG president), with the intention of superseding their original discrete cosine transform (DCT) based JPEG standard (created in 1992) with a newly designed, wavelet-based method.

Digital image

digital imagesimagesimage
JPEG is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital images, particularly for those images produced by digital photography.
Web browsers can display standard internet image formats including JPEG, GIF and PNG.

Digital camera

digital camerasdigitalcompact digital camera
JPEG/Exif is the most common image format used by digital cameras and other photographic image capture devices; along with JPEG/JFIF, it is the most common format for storing and transmitting photographic images on the World Wide Web.
Practical digital cameras were enabled by DCT-based compression standards, including the H.26x and MPEG video coding standards introduced from 1988 onwards, and the JPEG image compression standard introduced in 1992.

Digital photography

digital photodigitaldigital photograph
JPEG is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital images, particularly for those images produced by digital photography. JPEG was largely responsible for the proliferation of digital images and digital photos across the Internet, and later social media.
DCT compression later became the basis for JPEG image standard, which was introduced by the Joint Photographic Experts Group in 1992.

Image compression

compressionimagecompressed
Since its introduction in 1992, JPEG has been the most widely used image compression standard in the world, and the most widely used digital image format, with several billion JPEG images produced every day as of 2015.
DCT compression became the basis for JPEG, which was introduced by the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) in 1992.

Social media

socialsocial media platformsocial media campaign
JPEG was largely responsible for the proliferation of digital images and digital photos across the Internet, and later social media.
DCT-based compression standards include the H.26x and MPEG video coding standards introduced from 1988 onwards, and the JPEG image compression standard introduced in 1992.

Internet Explorer

Microsoft Internet ExplorerIEMSIE
The MIME media type for JPEG is image/jpeg, except in older Internet Explorer versions, which provides a MIME type of image/pjpeg when uploading JPEG images.
It is a major update to its developer tools, enhanced scaling for high DPI screens, HTML5 prerender and prefetch, hardware-accelerated JPEG decoding, closed captioning, HTML5 full screen, and is the first Internet Explorer to support WebGL and Google's protocol SPDY (starting at v3).

ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29

SC 29
Currently on the JTC1 side, JPEG is one of two sub-groups of ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 29, Working Group 1 (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1) – titled as Coding of still pictures.
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 has published 475 standards, including standards for JPEG (ISO/IEC 10918-1), JPEG-2000 (ISO/IEC 15444-1), MPEG-1 (ISO/IEC 11172-1), MPEG-2 (ISO/IEC 13818), MPEG-4 (ISO/IEC 14996-1), MPEG-4 AVC (ISO/IEC 14496-10), JBIG (ISO/IEC 11544), and MHEG-5 (ISO/IEC 13522-5).

Nasir Ahmed (engineer)

Nasir AhmedN. Ahmed
The basis for JPEG is the discrete cosine transform (DCT), a lossy image compression technique that was first proposed by Nasir Ahmed in 1972.
It is a core component of the 1992 JPEG image compression technology developed by the JPEG Experts Group working group and standardized jointly by the ITU, ISO and IEC.

Asure Software

Forgent NetworksCompression LabsCompression Labs Inc.
Other companies cited as patent holders include AT&T (two patents) and Canon Inc. Absent from the list is, filed by Compression Labs' Wen-Hsiung Chen and Daniel J. Klenke in October 1986.
In 2002, while known as Forgent, the company claimed that through its subsidiary, Compression Labs, it owned the patent rights on the JPEG image compression standard, which is widely used on the World Wide Web.

ITU-T

CCITTITU Telecommunication Standardization SectorTelecommunication Standardization Sector
The original JPEG specification published in 1992 implements processes from various earlier research papers and patents cited by the CCITT (now ITU-T) and Joint Photographic Experts Group.

Raw image format

RAWraw imageraw images
Such images are better saved in a lossless graphics format such as TIFF, GIF, PNG, or a raw image format.
Normally, the image is processed by a raw converter in a wide-gamut internal color space where precise adjustments can be made before conversion to a "positive" file format such as TIFF or JPEG for storage, printing, or further manipulation.

Codec

codecsdecoderdecoders
The JPEG standard specifies the codec, which defines how an image is compressed into a stream of bytes and decompressed back into an image, but not the file format used to contain that stream.
The most widely used lossy data compression technique in digital media is based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT), used in compression standards such as JPEG images, H.26x and MPEG video, and MP3 and AAC audio.

Photograph

photographsphotophotos
JPEG/Exif is the most common image format used by digital cameras and other photographic image capture devices; along with JPEG/JFIF, it is the most common format for storing and transmitting photographic images on the World Wide Web.
These prints are created from stored graphic formats such as JPEG, TIFF, and RAW.

Portable Network Graphics

PNG.pngPNG image
Such images are better saved in a lossless graphics format such as TIFF, GIF, PNG, or a raw image format.
In this thread, Oliver Fromme, author of the popular DOS JPEG viewer QPEG, proposed the PING name, eventually becoming PNG, a recursive acronym meaning PING is not GIF, and also the PNG extension.

JPEG File Interchange Format

JFIFJPG
JPEG/Exif is the most common image format used by digital cameras and other photographic image capture devices; along with JPEG/JFIF, it is the most common format for storing and transmitting photographic images on the World Wide Web.
It is a format for exchanging JPEG encoded files compliant with the JPEG Interchange Format (JIF) standard.

Exif

Exchangeable image file formatExif metadataembedded tags
JPEG/Exif is the most common image format used by digital cameras and other photographic image capture devices; along with JPEG/JFIF, it is the most common format for storing and transmitting photographic images on the World Wide Web.
The specification uses the following existing file formats with the addition of specific metadata tags: JPEG discrete cosine transform (DCT) for compressed image files, TIFF Rev. 6.0 (RGB or YCbCr) for uncompressed image files, and RIFF WAV for audio files (Linear PCM or ITU-T G.711 μ-Law PCM for uncompressed audio data, and IMA-ADPCM for compressed audio data).

Transform coding

transformtransform codectransform coder
Among several transform coding techniques they examined, they selected the discrete cosine transform (DCT), as it was by far the most efficient practical compression technique.
It is the basis for the common JPEG image compression standard, which examines small blocks of the image and transforms them to the frequency domain for more efficient quantization (lossy) and data compression.

IrfanView

Irfan ŠkiljanIrfan Skiljan
It supports viewing and saving of numerous file types including image formats such as BMP, GIF, JPEG, JP2 & JPM (JPEG2000), PNG (includes the optimizer PNGOUT; APNG can be read), TIFF, raw photo formats from digital cameras, ECW (Enhanced Compressed Wavelet), EMF (Enhanced Windows Metafile), FSH (EA Sports format), ICO (Windows icon), PCX (Zsoft Paintbrush), PBM (Portable BitMap), PDF (Portable Document Format), PGM (Portable GrayMap), PPM (Portable PixelMap), TGA (Truevision Targa), WebP, FLIF (Free Lossless Image Format) and viewing of media files such as Flash, Ogg Vorbis, MPEG, MP3, MIDI, and text files.

Arithmetic coding

arithmetic coderarithmetic encodingarithmetic code
The JPEG standard also allows, but does not require, decoders to support the use of arithmetic coding, which is mathematically superior to Huffman coding.
Also, encoders and decoders of the JPEG file format, which has options for both Huffman encoding and arithmetic coding, typically only support the Huffman encoding option, which was originally because of patent concerns; the result is that nearly all JPEG images in use today use Huffman encoding although JPEG's arithmetic coding patents have expired due to the age of the JPEG standard (the design of which was approximately completed by 1990).

TIFF

Tagged Image File FormatTIF.tiff
Such images are better saved in a lossless graphics format such as TIFF, GIF, PNG, or a raw image format.
Today, TIFF, along with JPEG and PNG, is a popular format for deep-color images.

Digital image processing

image processingimageprocessing
As the typical use of JPEG is a lossy compression method, which reduces the image fidelity, it is inappropriate for exact reproduction of imaging data (such as some scientific and medical imaging applications and certain technical image processing work).
DCT compression became the basis for JPEG, which was introduced by the Joint Photographic Experts Group in 1992.