Jackie Robinson

42JackieJack RobinsonJack Roosevelt "Jackie" RobinsonJack Roosevelt (Jackie) RobinsonJack Roosevelt RobinsonJackie R. RobinsonJackie Robinson All-StarsJackie's Lamentthe baseball player of the same name
Jack Roosevelt Robinson (January 31, 1919 – October 24, 1972) was an American professional baseball player who became the first African American to play in Major League Baseball (MLB) in the modern era.wikipedia
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Major League Baseball

MLBMajor LeagueMajor Leagues
Jack Roosevelt Robinson (January 31, 1919 – October 24, 1972) was an American professional baseball player who became the first African American to play in Major League Baseball (MLB) in the modern era.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, and survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier.

Baseball color line

color linecolor barrierintegration
Robinson broke the baseball color line when the Brooklyn Dodgers started him at first base on April 15, 1947.
The color line was broken for good when Jackie Robinson signed with the Brooklyn Dodgers organization for the 1946 season.

Jackie Robinson Day

April 15wore No. 42 on their jerseysJackie Robinson Day Weekend
MLB also adopted a new annual tradition, "Jackie Robinson Day", for the first time on April 15, 2004, on which every player on every team wears No. 42.
Jackie Robinson Day is a traditional event which occurs annually in Major League Baseball, commemorating and honoring the day Jackie Robinson made his major league debut.

1962 Baseball Hall of Fame balloting

19621962 National Baseball Hall of Fame inducteeHall of Fame (1962)
Robinson was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962.
The provision for a runoff election was not necessary yet, for the writers elected two new candidates on their first ballot, Bob Feller and Jackie Robinson.

History of the Brooklyn Dodgers

Brooklyn DodgersBrooklynDodgers
Robinson broke the baseball color line when the Brooklyn Dodgers started him at first base on April 15, 1947. In the mid-1940s, Branch Rickey, club president and general manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers, began to scout the Negro leagues for a possible addition to the Dodgers' roster.
The team is noted for signing Jackie Robinson in 1947 as the first black player in the modern major leagues.

Harlem

Harlem, New YorkWest HarlemHarlem, NY
In the 1960s, he helped establish the Freedom National Bank, an African-American-owned financial institution based in Harlem, New York.
A chain of three large linear parks—Morningside Park, St. Nicholas Park and Jackie Robinson Park—are situated on steeply rising banks and form most of the district's western boundary.

Rachel Robinson

Rachelhis wifeRachel A. Robinson
While a senior at UCLA, Robinson met his future wife, Rachel Isum (b.1922), a UCLA freshman who was familiar with Robinson's athletic career at PJC.
Rachel Annetta Robinson (née Isum; born July 19, 1922) is a former professor, registered nurse, and the widow of baseball player Jackie Robinson.

Woody Strode

Woodrow "Woody" StrodeWoodrow Strode
He was one of four black players on the Bruins' 1939 football team; the others were Woody Strode, Kenny Washington, and Ray Bartlett.
Strode, Kenny Washington, and Jackie Robinson starred on the 1939 UCLA Bruins football team, in which they made up three of the four backfield players.

Mack Robinson (athlete)

Mack RobinsonMackMatthew
He was the youngest of five children born to Mallie (McGriff) and Jerry Robinson, after siblings Edgar, Frank, Matthew (nicknamed "Mack"), and Willa Mae.
He was the older brother of Baseball Hall of Fame member Jackie Robinson.

1955 World Series

1955World Series1955 world champion
Robinson played in six World Series and contributed to the Dodgers' 1955 World Series championship.
Jackie Robinson then tripled with one out and scored on Don Zimmer's single, but in the bottom of the inning, after a walk, rookie Elston Howard, in his first World Series at bat, homered to tie the game off Don Newcombe.

John Muir High School

John MuirMuir High SchoolJohn Muir HS
In 1935, Robinson graduated from Washington Junior High School and enrolled at John Muir High School (Muir Tech).
Jackie Robinson (1936), first black major league baseball player

Baseball

playerbaseball playerbaseball team
Jack Roosevelt Robinson (January 31, 1919 – October 24, 1972) was an American professional baseball player who became the first African American to play in Major League Baseball (MLB) in the modern era.
The first crack in the unwritten agreement barring blacks from white-controlled professional ball occurred in 1945: Jackie Robinson was signed by the National League's Brooklyn Dodgers and began playing for their minor league team in Montreal.

Paul L. Bates

After Robinson's commander in the 761st, Paul L. Bates, refused to authorize the legal action, Robinson was summarily transferred to the 758th Battalion—where the commander quickly consented to charge Robinson with multiple offenses, including, among other charges, public drunkenness, even though Robinson did not drink.
He also became well known as the white colonel who refused to court-martial future Baseball Hall of Famer Jackie Robinson.

Pasadena City College

Pasadena Junior CollegePasadena CCHutto-Patterson Gym
After Muir, Robinson attended Pasadena Junior College (PJC), where he continued his athletic career by participating in basketball, football, baseball, and track.
Robinson Stadium is named for Jackie and Mack Robinson, both of whom were PCC alumni.

Branch Rickey

Rickey, Branch
In the mid-1940s, Branch Rickey, club president and general manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers, began to scout the Negro leagues for a possible addition to the Dodgers' roster.
He was perhaps best known for breaking Major League Baseball's color barriers by signing black player Jackie Robinson, as well as for creating the framework for the modern minor league farm system, for encouraging the Major Leagues to add new teams through his involvement in the proposed Continental League, and for introducing the batting helmet.

Kenny Washington (American football)

Kenny WashingtonKenneth Stanley WashingtonWashington
He was one of four black players on the Bruins' 1939 football team; the others were Woody Strode, Kenny Washington, and Ray Bartlett.
As a baseball player, Washington was rated better than his teammate Jackie Robinson.

Negro American League

NALLouisville BuckeyesMemphis Red Sox
While there, Robinson met a former player for the Kansas City Monarchs of the Negro American League, who encouraged Robinson to write the Monarchs and ask for a tryout.
This article covers the time up to 1957, ten years after Jackie Robinson broke the color line.

Pacific Coast Professional Football League

Pacific Coast LeagueHollywood WolvesPacific Coast Football League
After a short season, Robinson returned to California in December 1941 to pursue a career as running back for the Los Angeles Bulldogs of the Pacific Coast Football League.
The league became the “home” of African American football stars (including Kenny Washington, Woody Strode, and, briefly, Jackie Robinson) as the NFL had developed and enforced a color barrier in 1934 and extended until 1946.

761st Tank Battalion (United States)

761st Tank Battalion761st761st "Black Panthers" Tank Battalion
After receiving his commission, Robinson was reassigned to Fort Hood, Texas, where he joined the 761st "Black Panthers" Tank Battalion.
The most famous member of the 761st was First Lieutenant Jack Robinson.

Montreal Royals

MontrealMontréalteam in Montreal
Rickey selected Robinson from a list of promising black players and interviewed him for possible assignment to Brooklyn's International League farm club, the Montreal Royals.
A member of the International League, the Royals were the top farm club (Class AAA) of the Brooklyn Dodgers from 1939; pioneering African-American player Jackie Robinson was a member for the 1946 season.

Larry Doby

Larry Doby, who broke the color line in the American League the same year as Robinson, said, "One of the things that was disappointing and disheartening to a lot of the black players at the time was that Jack was not the best player. The best was Josh Gibson. I think that's one of the reasons why Josh died so early – he was heartbroken."
In July 1947—three months after Jackie Robinson made history with the Brooklyn Dodgers—Doby broke the MLB color barrier in the American League when he signed a contract to play with Bill Veeck's Cleveland Indians.

Wendell Smith

Among those Rickey discussed prospects with was Wendell Smith, writer for the black weekly Pittsburgh Courier, who according to Cleveland Indians owner and team president Bill Veeck "influenced Rickey to take Jack Robinson, for which he's never completely gotten credit."
Wendell Smith (March 23, 1914 – November 26, 1972) was an African American sportswriter who was influential in the choice of Jackie Robinson to become the first African American player in Major League Baseball in the 20th century.

Moses Fleetwood Walker

Fleet WalkerMoses WalkerFleet
No black man had played in the major leagues since Moses Fleetwood Walker in 1884, but the Boston Red Sox nevertheless held a tryout at Fenway Park for Robinson and other black players on April 16. The tryout, however, was a farce chiefly designed to assuage the desegregationist sensibilities of powerful Boston City Councilman Isadore H. Y. Muchnick.
Walker played in the minor leagues until 1889, and was the last African-American to participate on the major league level before Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color line in 1947.

Chock full o'Nuts

Chock full o' NutsChock Full O'BoozeChock Full o'Nuts Coffee
Robinson also was the first black television analyst in MLB and the first black vice president of a major American corporation, Chock full o'Nuts.
Several years later baseball star Jackie Robinson became the company's vice president and director of personnel, after retiring from the game.

Huston–Tillotson University

Samuel Huston CollegeHuston-Tillotson CollegeTillotson College
While at Fort Hood, Robinson often used his weekend leave to visit the Rev. Karl Downs, President of Sam Huston College (now Huston-Tillotson University) in nearby Austin, Texas; Downs had been Robinson's pastor at Scott United Methodist Church while Robinson attended PJC.
Before the merger, future baseball legend Jackie Robinson accepted an offer from his old friend and pastor Rev. Karl Downs who was president of the college, to be the athletic director at Samuel Huston College, then of the Southwestern Athletic Conference (SWAC).