Jacobin

Jacobin ClubJacobinsClub des Jacobinsleaders of the TerrorSociety of the Friends of the ConstitutionJacobin TerrorJacobin PartyAmis de la Constitution clubBreton ClubFrench republicans
The Society of the Friends of the Constitution (Société des amis de la Constitution), after 1792 renamed Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality (Société des Jacobins, amis de la liberté et de l'égalité), commonly known as the Jacobin Club (Club des Jacobins) or simply the Jacobins, became the most influential political club during the French Revolution of 1789 and following.wikipedia
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French Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionary FranceRevolutionary
The Society of the Friends of the Constitution (Société des amis de la Constitution), after 1792 renamed Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality (Société des Jacobins, amis de la liberté et de l'égalité), commonly known as the Jacobin Club (Club des Jacobins) or simply the Jacobins, became the most influential political club during the French Revolution of 1789 and following.
Internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution significantly, culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins.

Girondins

GirondistGirondinGirondists
The Jacobin Club was heterogeneous and included both prominent parliamentary factions of the early 1790s, the Mountain and the Girondins.
Together with the Montagnards, they initially were part of the Jacobin movement.

French Revolutionary Wars

French RevolutionaryFrench Revolutionary WarFrench Revolutionary troops
In 1792–1793 the Girondins were more prominent in leading France, the period when France declared war on Austria and on Prussia, overthrew the monarchy and set up the Republic.
The French suffered additional defeats in the remainder of the year and these difficult times allowed the Jacobins to rise to power and impose the Reign of Terror to unify the nation.

Federalist revolts

Federalist RevoltfederalismFederalist
The Mountain-dominated government executed 17,000 opponents nationwide, purportedly to suppress the Vendée insurrection and the Federalist revolts and to prevent any other insurrections.
They were prompted by resentments in France's provincial cities about increasing centralisation of power in Paris, and increasing radicalisation of political authority in the hands of the Jacobins.

Jacobin (politics)

JacobinJacobinsJacobinism
Today, the terms "Jacobin" and "Jacobinism" are used in a variety of senses.
A Jacobin was a member of the Jacobin Club, a revolutionary political movement that was the most famous political club during the French Revolution (1789–99).

The Mountain

MontagnardsMontagnardMountain
The Jacobin Club was heterogeneous and included both prominent parliamentary factions of the early 1790s, the Mountain and the Girondins. Together with his 25-year-old protégé Louis Antoine de Saint-Just, Marat, Danton and other associates they took places on the left side on the highest seats of the session room: therefore that group around and led by Robespierre was called The Mountain (French: la Montagne, les Montagnards).
Originally, members of The Mountain were the men who sat in the highest rows of the Jacobin Clubs, loosely organized political debate clubs open to the public.

Radicalism (historical)

radicalRadicalismradicals
In Britain, where the term "Jacobin" has been linked primarily to the Mountain, it is sometimes used as a pejorative for radical left-wing revolutionary politics, especially when it exhibits dogmatism and violent repression.
According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the first use of the word "Radical" in a political sense is generally ascribed to the English parliamentarian Charles James Fox, a leader of the left wing of the Whig party who dissented from the party's conservative-liberalism and looked favourably upon the radical reforms being undertaken by French republicans, such as universal male suffrage.

French First Republic

French RepublicFranceFirst French Republic
In 1792–1793 the Girondins were more prominent in leading France, the period when France declared war on Austria and on Prussia, overthrew the monarchy and set up the Republic.
After the arrest and execution of Robespierre on July 28, 1794, the Jacobin club was closed, and the surviving Girondins were reinstated.

Club Breton

When the Estates General of 1789 in France was convened in May–June 1789 at the Palace of Versailles, the club, originated as the Club Breton, was composed exclusively of a group of Breton representatives attending those Estates General.
Its influence was much greater than its size, and it became later the Société des amis de la constitution, which finally became the Club des Jacobins.

Reign of Terror

the TerrorTerrorFrench Terror
The period of their political ascendancy includes the Reign of Terror, during which time well over ten thousand people were put on trial and executed in France, many for political crimes.
On 13 July the assassination of Jean-Paul Marat – a Jacobin leader and journalist – resulted in a further increase in Jacobin political influence.

Louis Philippe I

Louis-PhilippeLouis PhilippeLouis-Philippe of France
Besides the teenage son of the Duc d'Orléans, Louis Philippe, a future king of France, liberal aristocrats such as the duc d'Aiguillon, the prince de Broglie, and the vicomte de Noailles, and the bourgeoisie formed the mass of the members.
In his diary, he reports that he himself took the initiative to join the Jacobin Club, a move that his father supported.

Louis Antoine de Saint-Just

Saint-JustLouis de Saint-JustLouis Saint-Just
Together with his 25-year-old protégé Louis Antoine de Saint-Just, Marat, Danton and other associates they took places on the left side on the highest seats of the session room: therefore that group around and led by Robespierre was called The Mountain (French: la Montagne, les Montagnards). Many of them, like Robespierre himself, were Jacobin: Fouché, Collot d'Herbois, Billaud-Varenne, Marat, Danton, Saint-Just.
Louis Antoine Léon de Saint-Just (25 August 1767 – 28 July 1794) was a Jacobin leader during the French Revolution.

Feuillant (political group)

FeuillantsFeuillantFeuillants Club
The departure of the conservative members of the Jacobin Club to form their own Feuillants Club in July 1791 to some extent radicalized the Jacobin Club.
It came into existence on 16 July 1791 when the left-wing Jacobins split between moderates (Feuillants), who sought to preserve the position of the king and supported the proposed plan of the National Constituent Assembly for a constitutional monarchy; and radicals (Jacobins), who wished to press for a continuation of direct democratic action to overthrow Louis XVI.

Cordeliers

Cordeliers ClubCordelierClub des Cordeliers
By early 1791, clubs like the Jacobins, the Club des Cordeliers and the Cercle Social were increasingly dominating French political life.
The membership fees of this society were fixed low and thus affordable to a more diverse range of citizens than those of many other political clubs at the time, including the Jacobin Club.

Antoine Barnave

BarnaveAntoine Pierre Joseph Marie BarnaveAntoine-Joseph Barnave
Among early members were the dominating comte de Mirabeau, Parisian deputy Abbé Sieyès, Dauphiné deputy Antoine Barnave, Jérôme Pétion, the Abbé Grégoire, Charles Lameth, Alexandre Lameth, Robespierre, the duc d'Aiguillon, and La Revellière-Lépeaux.
Until 1791, he was one of the preeminent members of the club known later as the Jacobin Club, of which he drew up the manifesto and first rulebook.

Jean-Paul Marat

Maratsection du Théâtre-Françaisdying revolutionary
Together with his 25-year-old protégé Louis Antoine de Saint-Just, Marat, Danton and other associates they took places on the left side on the highest seats of the session room: therefore that group around and led by Robespierre was called The Mountain (French: la Montagne, les Montagnards). Many of them, like Robespierre himself, were Jacobin: Fouché, Collot d'Herbois, Billaud-Varenne, Marat, Danton, Saint-Just.
His periodical L'Ami du peuple (Friend of the People) made him an unofficial link with the radical Jacobin group that came to power after June 1793.

National Legislative Assembly (France)

Legislative AssemblyFrench Legislative AssemblyLegislative Assembly (France)
Late 1791, a group of Jacobins in the Legislative Assembly advocated war with Prussia and Austria.
Prominent in the legislature were the Jacobin Club and its affiliated societies throughout France.

Committee of Public Safety

Comité de salut publicCommittee for Public SafetyC.P.S.
On 6 April 1793, the Convention established the Comité de salut public (Committee of Public Prosperity, also translated as Committee of Public Safety) as sort of executive government of nine, later twelve members, always accountable to the National Convention.
Following the defeat at the Convention of the Girondins in June 1793, a prominent Jacobin identified as a radical, Maximilien Robespierre, was added to the Committee.

Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth

Alexandre de LamethAlexandre LamethAlexander
Among early members were the dominating comte de Mirabeau, Parisian deputy Abbé Sieyès, Dauphiné deputy Antoine Barnave, Jérôme Pétion, the Abbé Grégoire, Charles Lameth, Alexandre Lameth, Robespierre, the duc d'Aiguillon, and La Revellière-Lépeaux.
He presented a famous report in the Constituent Assembly on the organization of the army, but is better known by his eloquent speech on 28 February 1791, at the Jacobin Club, against Honoré Mirabeau, whose relations with the court were beginning to be suspected, and who was a personal enemy of Lameth.

Joseph Fouché

FouchéJoseph FoucheJoseph Fouché, Duke of Otranto
Many of them, like Robespierre himself, were Jacobin: Fouché, Collot d'Herbois, Billaud-Varenne, Marat, Danton, Saint-Just.
His talents and anti-clericalism brought him into favour with the population of Nantes, especially after he became a leading member of the local Jacobin Club.

Society of the Friends of Truth

Cercle SocialLa Bouche de ferSocial Club of the Society of the Friends of Truth
By early 1791, clubs like the Jacobins, the Club des Cordeliers and the Cercle Social were increasingly dominating French political life.
It then became a meeting place for the Girondists, who rivaled the Jacobins for primacy of republican ideology and action.

Couvent des Jacobins de la rue Saint-Honoré

Couvent des Jacobinsmonastery of the Jacobins in the Rue Saint-Honoréconvent in Rue Saint-Honoré
As of October 1789, the group rented for its meetings the refectory of the monastery of the Jacobins in the Rue Saint-Honoré, adjacent to the seat of the Assembly.
It is notable as the meeting place of the Jacobin Club during the French Revolution.

Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans

Philippe ÉgalitéDuke of Orléansduc de Chartres
Besides the teenage son of the Duc d'Orléans, Louis Philippe, a future king of France, liberal aristocrats such as the duc d'Aiguillon, the prince de Broglie, and the vicomte de Noailles, and the bourgeoisie formed the mass of the members.
This was the causes of one of the rifts of the couple, as their first son, the future "King of the French", followed his father's footsteps and joined the Jacobin faction.

Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès

SieyèsAbbé SieyèsEmmanuel-Joseph Sieyès
Among early members were the dominating comte de Mirabeau, Parisian deputy Abbé Sieyès, Dauphiné deputy Antoine Barnave, Jérôme Pétion, the Abbé Grégoire, Charles Lameth, Alexandre Lameth, Robespierre, the duc d'Aiguillon, and La Revellière-Lépeaux.
He attempted to undermine the constitution, and thus caused the revived Jacobin Club to be closed while making offers to General Joubert for a coup d'état.

Jacques-Nicolas Billaud-Varenne

Billaud-VarenneJacques Nicolas Billaud-VarenneBillaud
Many of them, like Robespierre himself, were Jacobin: Fouché, Collot d'Herbois, Billaud-Varenne, Marat, Danton, Saint-Just.
Joining the Jacobin Club, Billaud-Varenne became, from 1790, one of the most violent anti-Royalist orators, closely linked to Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois.