A report on Jainism and Parshvanatha

The hand symbolizes Ahiṃsā, the wheel dharmachakra, the resolve to halt saṃsāra (transmigration).
Image of Tirthankara Parshvanatha (Victoria and Albert Museum, 6th–7th century)
Classification of Saṃsāri Jīvas (transmigrating souls) in Jainism
Parshvanatha was born in Varanasi, a historic city on the Ganges.
Lord Neminatha, Akota Bronzes (7th century)
Parshvanatha and his yaksha, Dharanendra, in the 8th-century Tamil Nadu Kalugumalai Jain Beds
Jain miniature painting of 24 tirthankaras, Jaipur, c. 1850
8th-century stone relief of Parshvanatha at Thirakoil
Jain temple painting explaining Anekantavada with Blind men and an elephant
Parshvanatha with Padmavati and Dharnendra in a 16th-century manuscript
A Jain monk in meditation, wearing the characteristic white robe and face covering
Parshvanatha iconography is identified by a sesha hood above his head and a cobra stamped (or carved) beneath his feet. At the center of his chest is a shrivatsa, which identifies Jain statues.
Nishidhi stone, depicting the vow of sallekhana, 14th century, Karnataka
Jal Mandir, Shikharji, Parasnath
Praying at the feet of a statue of Bahubali
Parsvanatha ayagapata - Jina Parsvanatha, Mathura art, {{circa|15 CE}}.{{sfn|Quintanilla|2007|p=201}}{{sfn|Quintanilla|2007|p=406}}
Jain worship may include ritual offerings and recitals.
alt=Stone relief|Uttar Pradesh, 2nd century (Museum of Oriental Art)
Celebrating Das Lakshana (Paryushana), Jain Center of America, New York City
Parshvanath relief of Kahaum pillar, 5th century
The birth of Mahavira, from the Kalpa Sūtra (c.1375–1400 CE)
alt=Lotus position|5th century (Satna, Madhya Pradesh)
Shikharji
alt=Lotus position|6th century, Uttar Pradesh
Idol of Suparśvanātha
alt=Lotus position|7th-century Akota Bronze (Honolulu Museum of Art)
A symbol to represent the Jain community was chosen in 1975 as part of the commemoration of the 2,500th anniversary of Mahavira’s nirvana.
6th-7th century bronze statue in Asian Civilisations Museum
Rishabhdev, believed to have lived over 592.704×1018 years ago, is considered the traditional founder of Jainism.
9th century - Cleveland Museum of Art
The ruins of Gori Jain temples in Nagarparkar, Pakistan, a pilgrimage site before 1947.
alt=Lotus position|10th-century copper, inlaid with silver and gemstones (LACMA)
Ranakpur Jain Temple
alt=Lotus position|11th century, Maharaja Chhatrasal Museum
Dilwara Temples
alt=Lotus position|Karnataka, 12th century (Art Institute of Chicago)
Parshvanath Temple in Khajuraho
alt=Lotus position|1813 engraving
Girnar Jain temples
{{convert|61|ft}} colossal at Navagraha Jain Temple
Jal Mandir, Pawapuri
alt=Outdoor standing statue|Vahelna statue
Lodhurva Jain temple
alt=Standing statue in niche|Parshvanatha basadi, Shravanabelgola
Palitana temples
alt=Standing statue|Parshvanatha temple in Halebidu
Saavira Kambada Basadi, Moodbidri, Karnataka
Parshvanatha temple, Khajuraho, UNESCO World Heritage Site
Jain temple, Antwerp, Belgium
Pattadakal Jain Temple, UNESCO World Heritage Site
Brahma Jinalaya, Lakkundi
Parshavanth temple, Jaisalmer Fort, UNESCO World Heritage Site as part of Hill Forts of Rajasthan
Hutheesing Jain Temple
Parshvanatha basadi at Halebidu: tentative list for UNESCO World Heritage Site
Calcutta Jain Temple
Antwerp Jain Temple, Belgium
Shri Nakodaji
Samovsaran Mandir, Palitana
Lodhurva Jain temple
Lal Mandir
Kere Basadi
alt=Godiji Parshwanath (Gori) Temple at Tharparkar - tentative list for UNESCO World Heritage|Godiji (Gori) Temple in Tharparkar - tentative list for UNESCO World Heritage
Parshwanath at Jirawala, Rajasthan

Parshvanatha, also known as Parshva and Parasnath, was the 23rd of 24 Tirthankaras (ford-makers or propagators of dharma) of Jainism.

- Parshvanatha

Jainism traces its spiritual ideas and history through the succession of twenty-four Tirthankaras (supreme preachers of Dharma), with the first in the current time cycle being Rishabhadeva, whom the tradition holds to have lived millions of years ago; the twenty-third tirthankara Parshvanatha, whom historians date to 9th century BCE; and the twenty-fourth tirthankara, Mahavira around 600 BCE.

- Jainism
The hand symbolizes Ahiṃsā, the wheel dharmachakra, the resolve to halt saṃsāra (transmigration).

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Statue of Mahavira meditating in the lotus position at Shri Mahavirji, Rajasthan, India.

Mahavira

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Statue of Mahavira meditating in the lotus position at Shri Mahavirji, Rajasthan, India.
Mahavira in Padmasana meditation posture
Ancient kingdoms and cities of India at the time of Mahavira
Mahavira in Padmasana meditation posture
The birth of Mahavira, from the Kalpa Sūtra (c.1375–1400 CE)
Lord Mahavira's Jal Mandir (water temple) in Pawapuri, Bihar, India
The "Charan Paduka" or foot impression of Mahavira at Jal Mandir
Folio from the Kalpa Sūtra, 15th century
The swastika and five vows
Mahavira worship in a manuscript c.1825
Mahavira iconography is distinguished by a lion stamped (or carved) beneath his feet; a Shrivatsa is on his chest.
Mahavira temple, Tirumalai
alt=See caption|Rock-cut sculpture of Mahavira in Samanar Hills, Madurai, Tamil Nadu
Rock-cut sculpture of Mahavira in Kalugumalai Jain Beds, 8th century
alt=See caption|Tallest known image of the seated Mahavira, Patnaganj
alt=See caption|Four-sided sculpture of Mahavira in Kankali Tila, Mathura
alt=Two nude statues|Tirthankaras Rishabhanatha (left) and Mahavira, 11th century (British Museum)
alt=Mahavira, seated|Temple relief of Mahavira, 14th century (Seattle Asian Art Museum)
alt=See caption|Relief of Mahavira in Thirakoil, Tamil Nadu
16-foot, 2-inch stone statue of Mahavira in Ahinsa Sthal, Mehrauli, New Delhi{{sfn|Titze|1998|p=266}}|alt=Large outdoor statue of Mahavira, with a seated worshipper for scale
alt=See caption|Mahavira statue in Cave 32 of the Ellora Caves
Mahavira inside Ambapuram cave temple, 7th century
alt=Dharmachakra temple|Dharmachakra temple in Gajpanth
alt=Shri Mahavirji|Shri Mahavirji
Jain Center of Greater Phoenix
Jain temple, Potters Bar
Mahavir Swami at Manilaxmi Tirth, Gujarat

Mahavira (Sanskrit: महावीर) also known as Vardhamana, was the 24th Tirthankara (supreme preacher) of Jainism.

He was the spiritual successor of the 23rd Tirthankara Parshvanatha.

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Tirthankara

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Tirthankara images at Siddhachal Caves inside Gwalior Fort.
Auspicious dreams seen by a tirthankara's mother during pregnancy
Samavasarana of Tirthankara Rishabha (Ajmer Jain temple)
Tirthankars of present, previous and next cosmic ages (72 in total)
Jain chaumukha sculpture at LACMA, 6th century
Image of Mahavira at Shri Mahavirji

In Jainism, a Tirthankara (Sanskrit: ; English: literally a 'ford-maker') is a saviour and spiritual teacher of the dharma (righteous path).

History records the existence of Mahavira and his predecessor, Parshvanath, the twenty-third tirthankara.

Idol of Lord Rishabhdeva at Palitana Tirth, Gujarat

Rishabhanatha

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Idol of Lord Rishabhdeva at Palitana Tirth, Gujarat
Rishabha with mother Marudevi at Palitana
Janma kalyāṇaka from the Kalpa Sutra, c. 14th–15th Century CE
Ruins of ancient Jain settlement from 2nd century BCE in Kankali Tila, Mathura depicting the scene of Nilanjana's Dance from life of Lord Rishabhdeva.
Statuary representing meditation by Rishabhanatha in Kayotsarga posture. (Photo:Ajmer Jain temple)
Rishabhanatha's moving over lotus after attaining omniscience
Mount Kailash or Ashtapad, the Nirvana place of Rishabhdeva.
Svetambara iconography of Rishabhanatha, in which he is identified by the bull stamped or carved below his feet. On the center of his chest is a shrivatsa.
Carving at Ambika Gumpha, Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves, 2nd century BCE
The famous 15 ft "Bade Baba" idol at Bade Baba temple, Kundalpur
Palitana temples
Statue of Ahimsa, Maharashtra, {{convert|108|feet}}
Bawangaja, Madhya Pradesh, {{convert|84|feet}}
The {{convert|58.4|feet}} colossal at Gopachal Hill
The {{convert|45|feet}} tall rock cut idol at Chanderi
{{convert|31|feet}} statue made up of Ashtadhatu, Trilok Teerth Dham
The {{convert|25|feet}} idol at Dadabari, Kota
Ranakpur Jain temple, Ranakpur, Rajasthan
Adinatha temple, Khajuraho, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Vimal Vasahi, Dilwara temples
Panchakuta Basadi

Rishabhanatha, also ' (ऋषभदेव), Rishabhadeva, ' or Ikshvaku is the first Tīrthaṅkara (Supreme preacher) of Jainism and establisher of Ikshvaku dynasty.

Along with Mahavira, Parshvanath, Neminath, and Shantinath; Rishabhanath is one of the five Tirthankaras that attract the most devotional worship among the Jains.

Image of Neminatha at a Jain temple in Bateshwar, Uttar Pradesh

Neminatha

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Image of Neminatha at a Jain temple in Bateshwar, Uttar Pradesh
The birth of Aristanemi, Kalpa Sūtra
Depiction of wedding procession of Neminatha. His legend states that he renounced after hearing animal cries while they were being sacrificed to prepare his wedding feast.
Neminatha temple complex on Girnar hills near Junagadh, Gujarat.
Kalpa Sūtra recto Neminatha's blowing Krishna's conch verso text
The largest statue of Neminath with height of 16 meters at Tirumalai built in 12th century
Girnar Jain Temple
Neminatha, Nasik Caves, 6th century
Akota Bronzes, MET museum, 7th century
Pandavleni
Neminath Sculpture, National Museum, New Delhi, 11th Century
Image at Maharaja Chhatrasal Museum, 12th century
Neminath idol, Government Museum, Mathura, 12th Century
Depiction of Neminatha on Naag as bed, chakra on foot finger and conch played by nose at Parshvanath temple, Tijara
Brahma Jinalaya
Kulpakji
Arahanthgiri Jain Math
Chavundaraya Basadi in Shravanabelagola
Bhand Dewal
Kamal Basadi

Neminatha, also known as Nemi and Arishtanemi, is the twenty-second tirthankara (ford-maker) in Jainism.

Along with Mahavira, Parshvanatha and Rishabhanatha, Neminatha is one of the twenty four tirthankaras who attract the most devotional worship among the Jains.

Kevala jnana

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Kevala gyana (केवल ज्ञान) or Keval gyan means omniscience in Jainism and is roughly translated as complete understanding or supreme wisdom.

In the second Upanga Agama, the Rājapraśnīya, there is a dialogue between Kesi, a disciple of Pārśva, and Payasi, a materialist king.

Lord Mahavira, the torch-bearer of ahimsa

Ahimsa

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Ancient Indian principle of nonviolence which applies to all living beings.

Ancient Indian principle of nonviolence which applies to all living beings.

Lord Mahavira, the torch-bearer of ahimsa
The 5th-century CE Tamil scholar Valluvar, in his Tirukkural, taught ahimsa and moral vegetarianism as personal virtues. The plaque in this statue of Valluvar at an animal sanctuary at Tiruvallur describes the Kural's teachings on ahimsa and non-killing, summing them up with the definition of veganism.
Gandhi promoted the principle of Ahimsa by applying it to politics.
The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolises the Jain Vow of Ahimsa. The word in the middle is Ahimsa. The wheel represents the dharmacakra which stands for the resolve to halt the cycle of reincarnation through relentless pursuit of truth and non-violence.
Buddhist monk peace walk

It is a key virtue in the Dhārmic religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism.

Lord Parsvanatha, the twenty-third tirthankara of Jainism, revived and preached the concept of non-violence in the 9th century BCE.

Detail of a leaf with, The Birth of God Mahavira (the 24th Jain Tirthankara), from the Kalpa Sutra, c.1375–1400.

Kalpa Sūtra

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Detail of a leaf with, The Birth of God Mahavira (the 24th Jain Tirthankara), from the Kalpa Sutra, c.1375–1400.
Kalpasutra folio on Mahavira Nirvana. Note the crescent-shaped Siddhashila, a place where all siddhas reside after Nirvana.

The Kalpa Sūtra (कल्पसूत्र) is a Jain text containing the biographies of the Jain Tirthankaras, notably Parshvanatha and Mahavira.

Padmavati, 10th century, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Padmavati (Jainism)

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Padmavati, 10th century, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Padmavati, 10th century, Metropolitan Museum of Art
9th century Padmavati relief in Chitharal Jain Monuments
'Mandala of Padmavati', bronze, Walters Art Museum, 11th century
Goddess Padmavati at Hanumantal Bada Jain Mandir, Jabalpur
Sculpture of Goddess Padmavati in Akkana Basadi, 12th century
Goddess Padmavati at Walkeshwar Jain Temple
Padmavati at Shri Mahavirji
Padmavati Basadi, Karkala, Karnataka
Padmavati temple, Humcha

Padmāvatī is the protective goddess or śāsana devī (शासनदेवी) of Pārśvanātha, the twenty-third Jain tīrthāṅkara, complimenting Parshwa yaksha, the shasan deva.

Panch Kalyanaka

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Panch Kalyanaka (pan̄ca kalyāṇaka, "Five Auspicious Events") are the five chief auspicious events that occur in the life of tirthankara in Jainism.

It marks Janma kalyanaka (birth) of 23rd Tirthankara, Parshvanath.

Shravanabelagola

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Town located near Channarayapatna of Hassan district in the Indian state of Karnataka and is 144 km from Bengaluru.

Town located near Channarayapatna of Hassan district in the Indian state of Karnataka and is 144 km from Bengaluru.

The pond in the middle of the town, after which it is named, Beḷagoḷa “White Pond”
Statue of Emperor Bharata Chakravartin, after whom India was named Bharatvarsha.
Kannada inscription at Odegal Basadi
Odegal basadi on Vindhyagiri hill
Akkana Basadi
Mahamastakabhisheka of Gommateshwara statue
The tableau of Karnataka depicting Mahamastabhisheka of Lord Gommateshwara, during the Republic Day Parade in 2005

The Gommateshwara Bahubali statue at Shravanabelagola is one of the most important tirthas (pilgrimage destinations) in Jainism, one that reached a peak in architectural and sculptural activity under the patronage of Western Ganga dynasty of Talakad.

1) Chandragupta basadi was established in the 9th century. The middle cell of this temple has the figure of Parshvanatha, the one to the right the figure of Padmavathi and the one to the left the figure of Kushmandini, all in a seated posture.