A report on Jainism and Tattvartha Sutra

The hand symbolizes Ahiṃsā, the wheel dharmachakra, the resolve to halt saṃsāra (transmigration).
Tattvartha sutra
Classification of Saṃsāri Jīvas (transmigrating souls) in Jainism
Chart showing Samyak Darsana as per Tattvarthasutra
Lord Neminatha, Akota Bronzes (7th century)
Jain miniature painting of 24 tirthankaras, Jaipur, c. 1850
Jain temple painting explaining Anekantavada with Blind men and an elephant
A Jain monk in meditation, wearing the characteristic white robe and face covering
Nishidhi stone, depicting the vow of sallekhana, 14th century, Karnataka
Praying at the feet of a statue of Bahubali
Jain worship may include ritual offerings and recitals.
Celebrating Das Lakshana (Paryushana), Jain Center of America, New York City
The birth of Mahavira, from the Kalpa Sūtra (c.1375–1400 CE)
Shikharji
Idol of Suparśvanātha
A symbol to represent the Jain community was chosen in 1975 as part of the commemoration of the 2,500th anniversary of Mahavira’s nirvana.
Rishabhdev, believed to have lived over 592.704×1018 years ago, is considered the traditional founder of Jainism.
The ruins of Gori Jain temples in Nagarparkar, Pakistan, a pilgrimage site before 1947.
Ranakpur Jain Temple
Dilwara Temples
Parshvanath Temple in Khajuraho
Girnar Jain temples
Jal Mandir, Pawapuri
Lodhurva Jain temple
Palitana temples
Saavira Kambada Basadi, Moodbidri, Karnataka
Jain temple, Antwerp, Belgium
Brahma Jinalaya, Lakkundi
Hutheesing Jain Temple

The Tattvārthasūtra is regarded as one of the earliest, most authoritative texts in Jainism.

- Tattvartha Sutra

Jain texts such as Acaranga Sūtra and Tattvarthasūtra state that one must renounce all killing of living beings, whether tiny or large, movable or immovable.

- Jainism
The hand symbolizes Ahiṃsā, the wheel dharmachakra, the resolve to halt saṃsāra (transmigration).

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Image of Umaswami / Umaswati

Umaswati

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Image of Umaswami / Umaswati
Chart showing Samyak Darsana as per Tattvarthasutra

Umaswati, also spelled as Umasvati and known as Umaswami, was an Indian scholar, possibly between 2nd-century and 5th-century CE, known for his foundational writings on Jainism.

He authored the Jain text Tattvartha Sutra (literally '"All That Is", also called Tattvarthadhigama Sutra).

Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. The red horizontal and vertical lines mark low and high pitch changes for chanting.

Sanskrit

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Classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages.

Classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages.

Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. The red horizontal and vertical lines mark low and high pitch changes for chanting.
A 17th-century birch bark manuscript of Pāṇini's grammar treatise from Kashmir
An early use of the word for "Sanskrit" in Late Brahmi script (also called Gupta script): Gupta ashoka sam.jpgGupta ashoka skrr.jpgGupta ashoka t.svg Saṃ-skṛ-ta 
Mandsaur stone inscription of Yashodharman-Vishnuvardhana, 532 CE.
Sanskrit's link to the Prakrit languages and other Indo-European languages
The Spitzer Manuscript is dated to about the 2nd century CE (above: folio 383 fragment). Discovered in the Kizil Caves, near the northern branch of the Central Asian Silk Route in northwest China, it is the oldest Sanskrit philosophical manuscript known so far.
A 5th-century Sanskrit inscription discovered in Java, Indonesia—one of the earliest in southeast Asia after the Mulavarman inscription discovered in Kutai, eastern Borneo. The Ciaruteun inscription combines two writing scripts and compares the king to the Hindu god Vishnu. It provides a terminus ad quem to the presence of Hinduism in the Indonesian islands. The oldest southeast Asian Sanskrit inscription—called the Vo Canh inscription—so far discovered is near Nha Trang, Vietnam, and it is dated to the late 2nd century to early 3rd century CE.
Sanskrit language's historical presence has been attested in many countries. The evidence includes manuscript pages and inscriptions discovered in South Asia, Southeast Asia and Central Asia. These have been dated between 300 and 1800 CE.
One of the oldest surviving Sanskrit manuscript pages in Gupta script (c. 828 CE), discovered in Nepal
One of the oldest Hindu Sanskrit inscriptions, the broken pieces of this early-1st-century BCE Hathibada Brahmi Inscription were discovered in Rajasthan. It is a dedication to deities Vāsudeva-Samkarshana (Krishna-Balarama) and mentions a stone temple.
in the form of a terracotta plaque
Sanskrit in modern Indian and other Brahmi scripts: May Śiva bless those who take delight in the language of the gods. (Kālidāsa)
One of the earliest known Sanskrit inscriptions in Tamil Grantha script at a rock-cut Hindu Trimurti temple (Mandakapattu, c. 615 CE)
The ancient Yūpa inscription (one of the earliest and oldest Sanskrit texts written in ancient Indonesia) dating back to the 4th century CE written by Brahmins under the rule of King Mulavarman of the Kutai Martadipura Kingdom located in eastern Borneo
Sanskrit festival at Pramati Hillview Academy, Mysore, India

Sanskrit is the sacred language of Hinduism, the language of classical Hindu philosophy, and of historical texts of Buddhism and Jainism.

Some of the revered texts of Jainism including the Tattvartha sutra, Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra, the Bhaktamara Stotra and later versions of the Agamas are in Sanskrit.

Broad classification of Karmas as per Jain philosophy

Karma in Jainism

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Broad classification of Karmas as per Jain philosophy
The soul travels to any one of the four states of existence after the death depending on its karmas
The common representation of the mango tree and men analogy of the lesyas.
Representation of a soul undergoing reincarnation.
Karma as moral action and reaction: goodness sown is reaped as goodness.

Karma is the basic principle within an overarching psycho-cosmology in Jainism.

This is explained by Tattvārthasūtra 6.7: "[The] intentional act produces a strong karmic bondage and [the] unintentional produces weak, shortlived karmic bondage."

Relief representing ahimsa

Ahimsa in Jainism

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Relief representing ahimsa
Painting in a Jain temple with the statement "ahinsā paramo dharma" (non-injury is the highest virtue/religion)
Violence (Himsa) gouache on paper, 17th century, Gujarat depicts animals of prey with their victims. The princely couple symbolises love, which is another occasion of violence.
Sculpture depicting the statement "ahimsā paramo dharma" (Photo:Ahinsa Sthal, Delhi)

Ahimsā (', alternatively spelled 'ahinsā', Sanskrit: अहिंसा IAST: ', Pāli: ) in Jainism is a fundamental principle forming the cornerstone of its ethics and doctrine.

Tattvārthasūtra defines hiṃsā or violence simply as removal of life by careless activity of mind, body and speech. Thus action in Jainism came to be regarded as truly violent only when accompanied by carelessness.

The Prakrit word "dha-ṃ-ma"/𑀥𑀁𑀫 (Sanskrit: Dharma धर्म) in the Brahmi script, as inscribed by Emperor Ashoka in his Edicts of Ashoka (3rd century BCE).

Dharma

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The Prakrit word "dha-ṃ-ma"/𑀥𑀁𑀫 (Sanskrit: Dharma धर्म) in the Brahmi script, as inscribed by Emperor Ashoka in his Edicts of Ashoka (3rd century BCE).
The Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription is from Indian Emperor Asoka in 258 BC, and found in Afghanistan. The inscription renders the word dharma in Sanskrit as eusebeia in Greek, suggesting dharma in ancient India meant spiritual maturity, devotion, piety, duty towards and reverence for human community.
Sikhism
The wheel in the centre of India's flag symbolises dharma.

Dharma (dharma, ; dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in Indian religions, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and others.

The Tattvartha Sutra, a major Jain text, mentions daśa dharma with referring to ten righteous virtues: forbearance, modesty, straightforwardness, purity, truthfulness, self-restraint, austerity, renunciation, non-attachment, and celibacy.

Jain emblem with the motto: परस्परोपग्रहो जीवानाम् (Parasparopagraho Jīvānām)

Parasparopagraho Jivanam

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Jain emblem with the motto: परस्परोपग्रहो जीवानाम् (Parasparopagraho Jīvānām)

Parasparopagraho Jīvānām (Sanskrit) is a Jain aphorism from the Tattvārtha Sūtra [5.21].

Green colour in the Jain flag stands for brahmacharya

Brahmacharya

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Concept within Indian religions that literally means to stay in conduct within one's own Self.

Concept within Indian religions that literally means to stay in conduct within one's own Self.

Green colour in the Jain flag stands for brahmacharya

In Yoga, Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism it generally refers to a lifestyle characterized by sexual continence or complete abstinence.

Brahmacharya is mentioned as one of the das dharma (ten virtues) in ancient Jain texts like Tattvartha Sutra, Sarvārthasiddhi and Puruşārthasiddhyupāya.

Depiction of Siddha Shila as per Jain cosmology which is abode of infinite Siddhas

Moksha (Jainism)

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Sanskrit or Prakrit mokkha refers to the liberation or salvation of a soul from saṃsāra, the cycle of birth and death.

Sanskrit or Prakrit mokkha refers to the liberation or salvation of a soul from saṃsāra, the cycle of birth and death.

Depiction of Siddha Shila as per Jain cosmology which is abode of infinite Siddhas

Such a soul is called siddha and is revered in Jainism.

According to the Sacred Jain Text, Tattvartha sutra:"Owing to the absence of the cause of bondage and with the functioning of the dissociation of karmas the annihilation of all karmas is liberation."

Asrava

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One of the tattva or the fundamental reality of the world as per the Jain philosophy.

One of the tattva or the fundamental reality of the world as per the Jain philosophy.

The karmic process in Jainism is based on seven truths or fundamental principles (tattva) of Jainism which explain the human predicament.

According to the Jain text, Tattvartha sutra, translates S.A. Jain: "yoga (activity) i.e. the action of the body, the organ of speech and the mind is the reason for asrava."