A report on Jainism

The hand symbolizes Ahiṃsā, the wheel dharmachakra, the resolve to halt saṃsāra (transmigration).
Classification of Saṃsāri Jīvas (transmigrating souls) in Jainism
Lord Neminatha, Akota Bronzes (7th century)
Jain miniature painting of 24 tirthankaras, Jaipur, c. 1850
Jain temple painting explaining Anekantavada with Blind men and an elephant
A Jain monk in meditation, wearing the characteristic white robe and face covering
Nishidhi stone, depicting the vow of sallekhana, 14th century, Karnataka
Praying at the feet of a statue of Bahubali
Jain worship may include ritual offerings and recitals.
Celebrating Das Lakshana (Paryushana), Jain Center of America, New York City
The birth of Mahavira, from the Kalpa Sūtra (c.1375–1400 CE)
Shikharji
Idol of Suparśvanātha
A symbol to represent the Jain community was chosen in 1975 as part of the commemoration of the 2,500th anniversary of Mahavira’s nirvana.
Rishabhdev, believed to have lived over 592.704×1018 years ago, is considered the traditional founder of Jainism.
The ruins of Gori Jain temples in Nagarparkar, Pakistan, a pilgrimage site before 1947.
Ranakpur Jain Temple
Dilwara Temples
Parshvanath Temple in Khajuraho
Girnar Jain temples
Jal Mandir, Pawapuri
Lodhurva Jain temple
Palitana temples
Saavira Kambada Basadi, Moodbidri, Karnataka
Jain temple, Antwerp, Belgium
Brahma Jinalaya, Lakkundi
Hutheesing Jain Temple

Ancient Indian religion.

- Jainism
The hand symbolizes Ahiṃsā, the wheel dharmachakra, the resolve to halt saṃsāra (transmigration).

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Jain emblem with the motto: परस्परोपग्रहो जीवानाम् (Parasparopagraho Jīvānām)

Parasparopagraho Jivanam

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Jain emblem with the motto: परस्परोपग्रहो जीवानाम् (Parasparopagraho Jīvānām)

Parasparopagraho Jīvānām (Sanskrit) is a Jain aphorism from the Tattvārtha Sūtra [5.21].

Jarasandha's Akhara

Rajgir

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Historic town in the district of Nalanda in Bihar, India.

Historic town in the district of Nalanda in Bihar, India.

Jarasandha's Akhara
Gautama Buddha spent a substantial amount of time here.
The historic locality is surrounded by the Rajgir hills and remains of cyclopean walls.
Boar's Cave
Closeup of Buddha at Vishwa Shanti Stupa
Rope way from the 1960s
One of the caves. (Caddy 1895)

The town is also notable in Jainism and Buddhism.

Image of Umaswami / Umaswati

Umaswati

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Image of Umaswami / Umaswati
Chart showing Samyak Darsana as per Tattvarthasutra

Umaswati, also spelled as Umasvati and known as Umaswami, was an Indian scholar, possibly between 2nd-century and 5th-century CE, known for his foundational writings on Jainism.

The food choices of Jains are based on the value of Ahimsa (non-violence), which means Jains prefer food that inflicts the least amount of violence.

Jain vegetarianism

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The food choices of Jains are based on the value of Ahimsa (non-violence), which means Jains prefer food that inflicts the least amount of violence.

Jain vegetarianism is practised by the followers of Jain culture and philosophy.

Detail of a leaf with, The Birth of God Mahavira (the 24th Jain Tirthankara), from the Kalpa Sutra, c.1375–1400.

Kalpa Sūtra

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Detail of a leaf with, The Birth of God Mahavira (the 24th Jain Tirthankara), from the Kalpa Sutra, c.1375–1400.
Kalpasutra folio on Mahavira Nirvana. Note the crescent-shaped Siddhashila, a place where all siddhas reside after Nirvana.

The Kalpa Sūtra (कल्पसूत्र) is a Jain text containing the biographies of the Jain Tirthankaras, notably Parshvanatha and Mahavira.

Ashtamangala: first row (left to right): parasol, pair of golden fish, conch; second row: treasure vase, lotus; Last row: infinite knot, victory banner and wheel.

Ashtamangala

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Ashtamangala: first row (left to right): parasol, pair of golden fish, conch; second row: treasure vase, lotus; Last row: infinite knot, victory banner and wheel.
Carved wooden door with 8 auspicious signs (Ashtamangala) in Nepal
Śaṅkha
Auspicious symbol - conch Rewalsar
Endless knot
Pair of golden fish
Auspicious symbol. Two Golden Fish. Likir Monastery, Ladakh
The lotus flower, or padma.
Auspicious symbol. Lotus - Padma. Likir Monastery.
Jewelled parasol
Auspicious symbol - Parasol. Rewalsar.
Treasure vase
Auspicious symbol - Vase. Rewalsar.
The dharmachakra
Dhvaja
Auspicious symbol - Victory Banner. Likir Monastery.
Four auspicious symbols. Mandi.
Auspicious symbols. Mandi.
Adinath image with Ashtamangala placed in front of it, according to Digambara tradition
Ashtamangala, according to Svetambara tradition, on Jain manuscript cover, LACMA M.72.53.22 (from left) : Swastika, Vardhmanaka (food vessel), Pair of fish, Kalasha (pot), Bhadrasana (seat), Srivatsa, Nandavarta, Darpan (mirror)

The Ashtamangala is a sacred suite of Eight Auspicious Signs endemic to a number of religions such as Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism.

Purusha-Pakriti

Nondualism

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Fuzzy concept for which many definitions can be found, including: a rejection of dualistic thinking originating in Indian philosophy; the nondifference of subject and object; the common identity of metaphysical phenomena and the Absolute; the "nonduality of duality and nonduality"; the unity of God and man; or simply monism, the nonplurality of the world, or double-aspect theory.

Fuzzy concept for which many definitions can be found, including: a rejection of dualistic thinking originating in Indian philosophy; the nondifference of subject and object; the common identity of metaphysical phenomena and the Absolute; the "nonduality of duality and nonduality"; the unity of God and man; or simply monism, the nonplurality of the world, or double-aspect theory.

Purusha-Pakriti
The layman Vimalakīrti Debates Manjusri, Dunhuang Mogao Caves
Nagarjuna (right), Aryadeva (middle) and the Tenth Karmapa (left).
Asaṅga (fl. 4th century C.E.), a Mahayana scholar who wrote numerous works which discuss the Yogacara view and practice.
Saṃvara with Vajravārāhī in Yab-Yum. These tantric Buddhist depictions of sexual union symbolize the non-dual union of compassion and emptiness.
A 3D rendering of Indra's net, an illustration of the Huayan concept of interpenetration.
Dogen
Swans are important figures in Advaita
Ramanuja, founder of Vishishtadvaita Vedanta, taught 'qualified nondualism' doctrine.
Ramana Maharshi (1879–1950) explained his insight using Shaiva Siddhanta, Advaita Vedanta and Yoga teachings.
Taijitu
The Mystic Marriage of St Catherine, St John the Baptist, St Antony Abbot

The original and early Buddhist concepts of nirvana may have been similar to those found in competing Śramaṇa (strivers/ascetics) traditions such as Jainism and Upanishadic Vedism.

Śvētāmbara Jain bhagwan, 23rd Tirthankar, Parsvanatha at a Mysuru temple. In contrast to Digambara icons, the Svetambara icons are more lifelike, with crown, red lips and inlaid eyes.

Śvētāmbara

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Śvētāmbara Jain bhagwan, 23rd Tirthankar, Parsvanatha at a Mysuru temple. In contrast to Digambara icons, the Svetambara icons are more lifelike, with crown, red lips and inlaid eyes.
A 1st- to 2nd–century CE water tank relief panel showing two ardhaphalaka Jain monks carrying colapatta cloth on their left hand found in the ruins of Mathura (Brooklyn Museum 87.188.5). This cloth carrying tradition to cover genitalia by ancient Jain monks in principle resembles the beliefs of the Svetambara and now extinct Yapaniya subtradition.
Tirth Pat on display at Prince of Wales museum, Mumbai

The Śvētāmbara (śvētapaṭa; also spelled Shwethambara, Svetambar, Shvetambara or Swetambar) is one of the two main branches of Jainism, the other being the Digambara.

Transtheism

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Neither theistic nor atheistic, but is beyond them.

Neither theistic nor atheistic, but is beyond them.

Zimmer applies the term to Jainism, which is theistic in the limited sense that gods exist but are irrelevant as they are transcended by moksha (that is, a system that is not non-theistic, but in which the gods are not the highest spiritual instance).

Core Western Ganga Territory

Western Ganga dynasty

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Important ruling dynasty of ancient Karnataka in India which lasted from about 350 to 1000 CE.

Important ruling dynasty of ancient Karnataka in India which lasted from about 350 to 1000 CE.

Core Western Ganga Territory
Old Kannada inscription of c. 726 CE, discovered in Talakad, from the rule of King Shivamara I or Sripurusha
Ganga Dynasty emblem on a 10th-century copper plate
The Panchakuta Basadi, Kambadahalli was an important center of Jainism during the Ganga period.
Gangas of Talakad (Western Gangas). Circa 1080-1138 AD
Footprint worship at Shravanabelagola
A mantapa (hall) at the Jain Panchakuta basadi of 9th–10th century at Kambadahalli
Gommateshwara at Shravanabelagola (982–983) C.E.
Kalleshwara Temple Complex, built in the 10th century by the Nolambas, a Western Ganga feudatory, at Aralaguppe in the Tumkur district
Seeyamangalam Mahavira Rock Cut Temple
Hero stone (870–906 A.D.) with old Kannada inscription at Kalleshvara temple in Aralaguppe
The famous Atakur inscription (949 C.E.), a classical Kannada composition pertaining to the Western Ganga-Rashtrakuta victory over the Chola dynasty of Tanjore in the famous battle of Takkolam
Mahasthambha (pillar) and Chandragupta Basadi at Chandragiri Hill in Shravanabelagola
Chandragiri hill temple complex at Shravanabelagola
Ceiling sculpture, Panchakuta Basadi, Kambadahalli
Chavundaraya basadi on Chandragiri hill in Shravanabelagola temple complex
Old Kannada inscription at the base of Gomateshwara monolith in Shravanabelagola (981 CE.)
The famous Begur inscription in old Kannada, dated to c. 908–938 CE, from the rule of Western Ganga dynasty King Ereyappa.

The Western Ganga kings showed benevolent tolerance to all faiths but are most famous for their patronage toward Jainism resulting in the construction of monuments in places such as Shravanabelagola and Kambadahalli.