A report on Jainism

The hand symbolizes Ahiṃsā, the wheel dharmachakra, the resolve to halt saṃsāra (transmigration).
Classification of Saṃsāri Jīvas (transmigrating souls) in Jainism
Lord Neminatha, Akota Bronzes (7th century)
Jain miniature painting of 24 tirthankaras, Jaipur, c. 1850
Jain temple painting explaining Anekantavada with Blind men and an elephant
A Jain monk in meditation, wearing the characteristic white robe and face covering
Nishidhi stone, depicting the vow of sallekhana, 14th century, Karnataka
Praying at the feet of a statue of Bahubali
Jain worship may include ritual offerings and recitals.
Celebrating Das Lakshana (Paryushana), Jain Center of America, New York City
The birth of Mahavira, from the Kalpa Sūtra (c.1375–1400 CE)
Shikharji
Idol of Suparśvanātha
A symbol to represent the Jain community was chosen in 1975 as part of the commemoration of the 2,500th anniversary of Mahavira’s nirvana.
Rishabhdev, believed to have lived over 592.704×1018 years ago, is considered the traditional founder of Jainism.
The ruins of Gori Jain temples in Nagarparkar, Pakistan, a pilgrimage site before 1947.
Ranakpur Jain Temple
Dilwara Temples
Parshvanath Temple in Khajuraho
Girnar Jain temples
Jal Mandir, Pawapuri
Lodhurva Jain temple
Palitana temples
Saavira Kambada Basadi, Moodbidri, Karnataka
Jain temple, Antwerp, Belgium
Brahma Jinalaya, Lakkundi
Hutheesing Jain Temple

Ancient Indian religion.

- Jainism
The hand symbolizes Ahiṃsā, the wheel dharmachakra, the resolve to halt saṃsāra (transmigration).

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Timeline of various denominations in Jainism

Jain schools and branches

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Timeline of various denominations in Jainism
Digambar Jain monk

Jainism is an Indian religion which is traditionally believed to be propagated by twenty-four spiritual teachers known as tirthankara.

Temples of Pattadakal

Pattadakal

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Temples of Pattadakal
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Ardhanarishvara (left half Shiva, right half Parvati) at the Kadasiddheswara temple.
The Nataraja sukanasa on Jambulingeshwara temple spire.
Chandrashekhara temple.
Incomplete Vishnu avatar Varaha relief on Sangameswara Shaiva temple wall.
Kashi Vishwanatha temple with Nandi facing the sanctum.
Lovers inside Mallikarjuna temple.
A relief at Virupaksha temple
A Virupaksha frieze showing two Panchatantra fables.
Papanatha temple
Jain Narayana temple
Mahabharata frieze

Pattadakal, also called Paṭṭadakallu or Raktapura, is a complex of 7th and 8th century CE Hindu and Jain temples in northern Karnataka (India).

Padmavati, 10th century, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Padmavati (Jainism)

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Padmavati, 10th century, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Padmavati, 10th century, Metropolitan Museum of Art
9th century Padmavati relief in Chitharal Jain Monuments
'Mandala of Padmavati', bronze, Walters Art Museum, 11th century
Goddess Padmavati at Hanumantal Bada Jain Mandir, Jabalpur
Sculpture of Goddess Padmavati in Akkana Basadi, 12th century
Goddess Padmavati at Walkeshwar Jain Temple
Padmavati at Shri Mahavirji
Padmavati Basadi, Karkala, Karnataka
Padmavati temple, Humcha

Padmāvatī is the protective goddess or śāsana devī (शासनदेवी) of Pārśvanātha, the twenty-third Jain tīrthāṅkara, complimenting Parshwa yaksha, the shasan deva.

Indian Cultural Influence (Greater India)

History of India

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According to consensus in modern genetics, anatomically modern humans first arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa between 73,000 and 55,000 years ago.

According to consensus in modern genetics, anatomically modern humans first arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa between 73,000 and 55,000 years ago.

Indian Cultural Influence (Greater India)
Dholavira, a city of Indus Valley Civilisation, with stepwell steps to reach the water level in artificially constructed reservoirs.
Archaeological remains of washroom drainage system at Lothal.
Sinauli "chariot", photograph of the Archaeological Survey of India.
An early 19th century manuscript in the Devanagari script of the Rigveda, originally transmitted orally with fidelity
Late Vedic era map showing the boundaries of Āryāvarta with Janapadas in northern India, beginning of Iron Age kingdoms in India – Kuru, Panchala, Kosala, Videha.
City of Kushinagar in the 5th century BCE according to a 1st-century BCE frieze in Sanchi Stupa 1 Southern Gate.
Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra.
The Mahajanapadas were the sixteen most powerful and vast kingdoms and republics of the era, located mainly across the Indo-Gangetic plains.
The Mauryan carved door of Lomas Rishi, one of the Barabar Caves, c. 250 BCE.
Silk Road and Spice trade, ancient trade routes that linked India with the Old World; carried goods and ideas between the ancient civilisations of the Old World and India. The land routes are red, and the water routes are blue.
Copper Plate Seal of Kamarupa Kings at Madan Kamdev ruins.
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Kadamba shikara (tower) with Kalasa (pinnacle) on top, Doddagaddavalli.
Coin of Emperor Harsha, c. 606–647 CE.
Rohtasgarh Fort
Excavated ruins of Nalanda, a centre of Buddhist learning from 450 to 1193 CE.
Chola Empire under Rajendra Chola, c. 1030 CE.
The Delhi Sultanate reached its zenith under the Turko-Indian Tughlaq dynasty.
The Dasam Granth (above) was composed by Sikh Guru Gobind Singh.
18th century political formation in India.
The route followed in Vasco da Gama's first voyage (1497–1499).
Literacy in India grew very slowly until independence in 1947. An acceleration in the rate of literacy growth occurred in the 1991–2001 period.
Mature Harappan Period, c. 2600 - 1900 BCE
Mehrgarh site, in Beluchistan, Pakistan
Mohenjo-daro, one of the largest Indus cities. View of the site's Great Bath, showing the surrounding urban layout.
Three stamp seals and their impressions bearing Indus script characters alongside animals: "unicorn" (left), bull (center), and elephant (right); Guimet Museum

This urbanisation was accompanied by the rise of new ascetic movements in Greater Magadha, including Jainism and Buddhism, which opposed the growing influence of Brahmanism and the primacy of rituals, presided by Brahmin priests, that had come to be associated with Vedic religion, and gave rise to new religious concepts.

(Om) signifies the essence of Brahman, the ultimate reality.

Brahman

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In Hinduism, Brahman (ब्रह्मन्) connotes the highest universal principle, the ultimate reality in the universe.

In Hinduism, Brahman (ब्रह्मन्) connotes the highest universal principle, the ultimate reality in the universe.

(Om) signifies the essence of Brahman, the ultimate reality.
A drop in the ocean: an analogy for Ātman merging into Brahman.
Swan (Hansa, हंस) is the symbol for Brahman-Atman in Hindu iconography.

Buddhism and Carvaka school of Hinduism deny that there exists anything called "a Self" (individual Atman or Brahman in the cosmic sense), while the orthodox schools of Hinduism, Jainism and Ajivikas hold that there exists "a Self".

Mahavir swami Jain Temple in Kobe

Jainism in Japan

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Mahavir swami Jain Temple in Kobe
Mahavir swami Jain Temple in Kobe

Jainism, unlike the closely related Buddhism, is a minority religion in Japan.

Achourya

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Sanskrit term for "non-stealing".

Sanskrit term for "non-stealing".

In Jainism, it is one of the five vows that all Śrāvakas and Śrāvikās (householders) as well as monastics must observe.

A Japanese Buddhist pilgrim on alms round (during Shikoku Pilgrimage in Shikoku, Japan)

Mendicant

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One who practices mendicancy, relying chiefly or exclusively on alms to survive.

One who practices mendicancy, relying chiefly or exclusively on alms to survive.

A Japanese Buddhist pilgrim on alms round (during Shikoku Pilgrimage in Shikoku, Japan)
A group of mendicant Christian friars
Mendicant monk reciting scriptures in Lhasa, Tibet, 1993
A young layperson providing monks with alms

Many religious orders adhere to a mendicant way of life, including the Catholic mendicant orders, Hindu ascetics, some Sufi dervishes of Islam, and the monastic orders of Jainism and Buddhism.

Dharmachakra in front of a statue of Padmasambhava. Lake Rewalsar, Himachal Pradesh, India

Dharmachakra

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Dharmachakra in front of a statue of Padmasambhava. Lake Rewalsar, Himachal Pradesh, India
Ten Indus characters from the northern gate of Dholavira, dubbed the Dholavira Signboard.
Worshipers and Dharmachakra, Sanchi Stupa, South Face, West Pillar.
The original Lion Capital of Ashoka, from Sarnath. It originally supported a large dhamachakra on the top.
Wheel of the chariot of the sun, Konark Sun Temple.
The Emblem of India, featuring the Ashoka Chakra on the base panel representing the Dharmachakra
Jain illustration with dharmachakra and the motto Ahiṃsā Paramo Dharma (non-violence is the highest dharma).
Reconstitution of approximate layout of Sanchi at the time of the Mauryas, showing the pillar topped by a dharmachakra.
Bharhut Pasenadi Pillar
Sanchi pillar capital wheel reconstitution
Bharhut Stupa at the Indian Museum, Kolkata
Sandstone depiction, c. 2nd Century BCE, Bharhut, Indian Museum – Kolkata.
Illustrated reconstruction of the pinnacles at Bharhut by Alexander Cunningham
Eastern gateway of Bharhut stupa topped with a dharmachakra pinnacle
Buddha represented by Dharmacakra, Sanchi Stupa no. 3.
Dharmacakra on Pillar, Sanchi Stupa no. 3
Adoration of the pillar of Ashoka, Sanchi Stupa no. 3.
Illustration from Sanchi Stupa
Sanchi Stupa
Amaravati Stupa relief at Museum in Chennai, India.
Limestone Pilaster, 2nd century CE, Amravati, Indian Museum, Kolkata.
Buddha footprints with dharmachakras, Archaeological Museum, Amaravati
1st century Gandhara Buddha footprint
Gandharan Stele illustrating the first sermon at Sarnath, 2nd century, Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Stele from Gandhara
A sculpture depicting the dharmachakra in the museum of Amaravathi
Taxila coin with wheel and Buddhist symbols
Coin found in Afghanistan, 50 BCE – c. 30 CE, at the latest before 50 CE.
Three Jewels, or Triratna. Eastern Afghanistan. Kushan period. 2–3 century.
Dharmachakra Pravartana Mudra, Gupta period, 5th CE.
Dhammacakka, National Museum, Bangkok, Thailand
Dhammacakka, National Museum, Bangkok, Thailand
Khao Klang Nai, Si Thep Historical Park, Thailand.
Mon dharmachakra, VII or IX century, Sandstone
Dharma wheel, Japan, Kamakura period, 1200s CE, bronze – Tokyo National Museum.
Part of a Buddha-statue, showing the first five disciples of the Buddha at Sarnath and dharmachakra.
Japanese dharmachakra, late 13th century.
Mandala Base, China, Ming dynasty, Cleveland Museum of Art.
Dharma wheel, China, Qing dynasty, Qianlong period, 1736–1795 CE.
Box with Ink Cakes: Yellow Ink Stick, China, Qing dynasty (1644–1912).
Shanti Stupa, Leh
Jokhang Monastery
Wat Phothivihan, Tumpat, Kelantan
Wat Maisuwankiri, Tumpat, Malaysia
Bhutanese Dharmachakra, Thimphu
Entrance to Wat Phra Sing
Garuda upholding the Dhammacakka, Wat Sri Suphan, Chiang Mai
Dharmachakra at Boudanath
Dhammacakka on Main Gable, Wat Phra Putthabat Tak Pha, Lamphun
Entrance to the Global Vipassana Pagoda
The Emblem of Mongolia includes the dharmachakra, a cintamani, a padma, blue khata and the Soyombo symbol
The Emblem of Sri Lanka, featuring a blue dharmachakra as the crest
Emblem of the Supreme Court of India, which shows the dharmachakra on top of the Lion Capital. It was found broken during the excavations.
The Flag of India has the Ashoka Chakra at its center representing the Dharmachakra.
The flag of the former Kingdom of Sikkim featured a version of the Dharmachakra
Emblem of Central Tibetan Administration with Tibetan Buddhist style Dharmachakra
The dhammacakka flag, the symbol of Buddhism in Thailand
The seal of Thammasat University in Thailand consisting of a Constitution on phan with a twelve-spoked dhammacakkka
Colours of the National Scout Organization of Thailand
Flag used by the Indian Dalit Buddhist Movement
The insignia for Buddhist chaplains in the United States Armed Forces.
Wheel in Jain Symbol of Ahimsa represents dharmachakra
USVA headstone emblem 2
Wheel of Dharma symbol
The original Lion Capital of Ashoka, from Sarnath. It originally supported a large dhamachakra on the top (reconstitution).

The dharmachakra (Sanskrit: धर्मचक्र; Pali: dhammacakka) or wheel of dharma is a widespread symbol used in South Asian religions such as Hinduism, Jainism, and especially Buddhism.

Structure of Universe according to the Jain scriptures.

Ākāśa (Jainism)

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Structure of Universe according to the Jain scriptures.

Ākāśa is space in the Jain conception of the cosmos.