A report on Jainism

The hand symbolizes Ahiṃsā, the wheel dharmachakra, the resolve to halt saṃsāra (transmigration).
Classification of Saṃsāri Jīvas (transmigrating souls) in Jainism
Lord Neminatha, Akota Bronzes (7th century)
Jain miniature painting of 24 tirthankaras, Jaipur, c. 1850
Jain temple painting explaining Anekantavada with Blind men and an elephant
A Jain monk in meditation, wearing the characteristic white robe and face covering
Nishidhi stone, depicting the vow of sallekhana, 14th century, Karnataka
Praying at the feet of a statue of Bahubali
Jain worship may include ritual offerings and recitals.
Celebrating Das Lakshana (Paryushana), Jain Center of America, New York City
The birth of Mahavira, from the Kalpa Sūtra (c.1375–1400 CE)
Shikharji
Idol of Suparśvanātha
A symbol to represent the Jain community was chosen in 1975 as part of the commemoration of the 2,500th anniversary of Mahavira’s nirvana.
Rishabhdev, believed to have lived over 592.704×1018 years ago, is considered the traditional founder of Jainism.
The ruins of Gori Jain temples in Nagarparkar, Pakistan, a pilgrimage site before 1947.
Ranakpur Jain Temple
Dilwara Temples
Parshvanath Temple in Khajuraho
Girnar Jain temples
Jal Mandir, Pawapuri
Lodhurva Jain temple
Palitana temples
Saavira Kambada Basadi, Moodbidri, Karnataka
Jain temple, Antwerp, Belgium
Brahma Jinalaya, Lakkundi
Hutheesing Jain Temple

Ancient Indian religion.

- Jainism
The hand symbolizes Ahiṃsā, the wheel dharmachakra, the resolve to halt saṃsāra (transmigration).

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Padmanabh Jaini

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Padmanabh Shrivarma Jaini (October 23, 1923 - May 25, 2021) was an Indian born scholar of Jainism and Buddhism, living in Berkeley, California, United States.

The Jain flag in India

Samvatsari

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Saṃvatsari (संवत्सरी) (lit.

Saṃvatsari (संवत्सरी) (lit.

The Jain flag in India

Annual Day or fig. Forgiveness Day) is the last day of Paryushana Shwetambar sect of Jainism.

A Jain monk

Śramaṇa

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Śramaṇa (Sanskrit; Pali: samaṇa) means "one who labours, toils, or exerts themselves (for some higher or religious purpose)" or "seeker, one who performs acts of austerity, ascetic".

Śramaṇa (Sanskrit; Pali: samaṇa) means "one who labours, toils, or exerts themselves (for some higher or religious purpose)" or "seeker, one who performs acts of austerity, ascetic".

A Jain monk
23rd Jain Tirthankar, Parshwanatha re-organized the shraman sangha in 9th century BCE.

The Śramaṇa tradition includes primarily Jainism, Buddhism, and others such as the Ājīvika.

Micchami Dukkadam

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, also written as michchha mi dukkadam, is an ancient Indian Prakrit language phrase, found in historic Jain texts.

Caves on the cliff above Agastya Lake

Badami cave temples

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Caves on the cliff above Agastya Lake
Epigraphy in the Kannada language (c. 578) dating the carving of Cave3
Entrance to Cave1
Nataraja or Dancing Shiva in Cave1
Layout of Cave 3 temple; 1: Vishnu; 2: Trivikrama; 3: Vishnu on sesha; 4: Vishnu avatar Varaha rescuing earth; 5: Harihara (half Shiva, half Vishnu); 6: Vishnu avatar Narasimha standing; 7: Garbha ghriya (sacrum sanctum); Blue O: ceiling carvings of Vedic and Puranic Hindu gods and goddesses.
Ceiling in the Cave-3 with images of Swasthika on two ends with a Matsya avatara of Vishnu in the middle
Artwork shows a collapsing sorrowful woman being helped.
A small cave rock carving of Anantashayana Vishnu.

The Badami cave temples are a complex of Hindu and Jain cave temples located in Badami, a town in the Bagalkot district in northern part of Karnataka, India.

Omniciencia, mural by José Clemente Orozco

Omniscience

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Capacity to know everything.

Capacity to know everything.

Omniciencia, mural by José Clemente Orozco

In Jainism, omniscience is an attribute that any individual can eventually attain.

Rashtrakuta dynasty

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Rashtrakuta (IAST: ) (r.

Rashtrakuta (IAST: ) (r.

Kashivishvanatha temple at Pattadakal, Karnataka
Jain Narayana temple at Pattadakal, Karnataka
A stanza from the 9th century Kannada classic Kavirajamarga, praising the people for their literary skills
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Interior and arcades
Kailasa temple, is one of the largest rock-cut ancient Hindu temples located in Ellora.
Shikhara of Indra Sabha at Ellora.

The early kings of this dynasty were influenced by Hinduism and the later kings by Jainism.

A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72

Hindu calendar

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One of various lunisolar calendars that are traditionally used in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, with further regional variations for social and Hindu religious purposes.

One of various lunisolar calendars that are traditionally used in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, with further regional variations for social and Hindu religious purposes.

A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72
The Hindu calendar saka samvat system is found in Indonesian inscriptions, such as the Kedukan Bukit inscription (pictured above) dated to 604 Śaka, which is equivalent to 682 CE.
Calendar usage across India

Similarly, the ancient Jain traditions have followed the same lunisolar system as the Hindu calendar for festivals, texts and inscriptions.

Om

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Sound of a sacred spiritual symbol in Indic religions.

Sound of a sacred spiritual symbol in Indic religions.

Om in Tamil script with a trishula at Sri Veeramakaliamman Temple, Singapore; Om appears frequently as an icon in temples (mandirs) and spiritual retreats
A rangoli featuring Om surrounded by stylised peacocks; Om often features prominently in the religious art and iconography of Indic religions
Statue depicting Shiva as the Nataraja dancing in a posture resembling the Devangari ligature for Om; Joseph Campbell argued that the Nataraja statue represents Om as a symbol of the entirety of "consciousness, universe" and "the message that God is within a person and without"
Om appears frequently in Hindu texts and scriptures, notably appearing in the first verse of the Rigveda
Om is given many meanings and layers of symbolism in the Upanishads including "the sacred sound, the Yes!, the Vedas, the udgitha (song of the universe), the infinite, the all encompassing, the whole world, the truth, the ultimate reality, the finest essence, the cause of the universe, the essence of life, the Brahman, the Atman (Hinduism), the vehicle of deepest knowledge, and self-knowledge (atma jnana)".
A Pahari painting of Om (ओं), c. 1780-1800, decorated with deities: Shiva and Shakti (could be Vaishnavi or Siddhidatri); Vishnu and Lakshmi seated upon Shesha; Harihara (Vishnu-Shiva fusion deity); Brahma; and Dattatreya as a representation of the Trimurti (top-to-bottom, left-to-right)
Shri Yantra with Om (ௐ) at its center, Sri Mariamman Temple, Singapore; yantras are frequently used as aids in Hindu meditation
The Hindu deity Ganesha is sometimes referred to as "" (Omkara is his form) and used as the symbol for Upanishadic concept of Brahman.
An illustration of Om from a Mahabharata manuscript, 1795, decorated with murtis of Surya, Brahma, and Vishnu to the left, Shakti (could be Maheshwari) on the chandrabindu point, and Shiva (holding a trishula) to the right
Om symbol with a trishula at Kanaka Durga Temple, Vijayawada
Radha and Krishna intertwined with an Om and surrounded by scenes from their life
Painting illustrating the Jain Om symbol, from Jaipur, c. 1840
The mantra om mani padme hum written in Tibetan script on the petals of a sacred lotus around the syllable hrih at the center; Om is written on the top petal in white
Nio statues in Kyoto prefecture of Japan, are interpreted as saying the start (open mouth) and the end (closed mouth) of syllable "AUM"

It is part of the iconography found in ancient and medieval era manuscripts, temples, monasteries, and spiritual retreats in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.

Didarganj Yakshi
3rd century BCE – 2nd century CE Patna Museum, Patna

Yakshini

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Didarganj Yakshi
3rd century BCE – 2nd century CE Patna Museum, Patna
The Bhutesvara Yakshis, Mathura, 2nd century CE.
Yakshi under a flowering asoka tree. Shunga, 2nd-1st century BC, India
A Yakshin, 10th century, Mathura, India. Guimet Museum.
The Besnagar Yakshi, 3rd-1st century BC.
Reserve Bank of India headquarters, Delhi entrance with a yakshini sculpture (c. 1960) depicting "Prosperity through agriculture".
Statue of Yakshi by Kanayi Kunjiraman at Malampuzha Dam
Red sandstone 2nd century Kushan empire, mathura region, Dallas Museum of Art.

Yakshinis (यक्षिणी yakṣiṇī or yakṣī; yakkhiṇī or yakkhī) are a class of nature spirits in Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain religious mythologies that are different from devas (gods), asuras (demons), and gandharvas or apsaras (celestial nymphs).