A report on Jainism

The hand symbolizes Ahiṃsā, the wheel dharmachakra, the resolve to halt saṃsāra (transmigration).
Classification of Saṃsāri Jīvas (transmigrating souls) in Jainism
Lord Neminatha, Akota Bronzes (7th century)
Jain miniature painting of 24 tirthankaras, Jaipur, c. 1850
Jain temple painting explaining Anekantavada with Blind men and an elephant
A Jain monk in meditation, wearing the characteristic white robe and face covering
Nishidhi stone, depicting the vow of sallekhana, 14th century, Karnataka
Praying at the feet of a statue of Bahubali
Jain worship may include ritual offerings and recitals.
Celebrating Das Lakshana (Paryushana), Jain Center of America, New York City
The birth of Mahavira, from the Kalpa Sūtra (c.1375–1400 CE)
Shikharji
Idol of Suparśvanātha
A symbol to represent the Jain community was chosen in 1975 as part of the commemoration of the 2,500th anniversary of Mahavira’s nirvana.
Rishabhdev, believed to have lived over 592.704×1018 years ago, is considered the traditional founder of Jainism.
The ruins of Gori Jain temples in Nagarparkar, Pakistan, a pilgrimage site before 1947.
Ranakpur Jain Temple
Dilwara Temples
Parshvanath Temple in Khajuraho
Girnar Jain temples
Jal Mandir, Pawapuri
Lodhurva Jain temple
Palitana temples
Saavira Kambada Basadi, Moodbidri, Karnataka
Jain temple, Antwerp, Belgium
Brahma Jinalaya, Lakkundi
Hutheesing Jain Temple

Ancient Indian religion.

- Jainism
The hand symbolizes Ahiṃsā, the wheel dharmachakra, the resolve to halt saṃsāra (transmigration).

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Saraswati by Raja Ravi Varma

Saraswati

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Hindu goddess of knowledge, music, art, speech, wisdom, and learning.

Hindu goddess of knowledge, music, art, speech, wisdom, and learning.

Saraswati by Raja Ravi Varma
Images of the goddess Saraswati may be found not only in the temples of India, but also in those of Southeast Asia, the islands of Indonesia, China and Japan. In Japan, she is known as Benzaiten (shown), and is traditionally depicted playing a biwa, in keeping with her status as a deity of music, knowledge and all that flows.
Dancing Sarasvati with eight-hands (above) is depicted in three panels of the Hoysaleswara temple, Halebid Karnataka (c. 1150 CE). One of these is shown above. She is in a classical Indian dance posture, and in one of her eight hands she holds a pen, a palm leaf manuscript, a musical instrument and the tools of major arts. The shilpins thus depicted her as the goddess of knowledge and all arts.
A carved idol of the crowned goddess Sharada from late-9th century Kashmir.
Saraswati Puja at Baranagore Ramakrishna Mission Ashrama High School, Kolkata, West Bengal
Saraswathi Devi idol at home.
Statues of Chinese Buddhist gods, with Saraswati in the centre, at Jade Buddha Temple in Shanghai, China
Statue of Thurathadi at Kyauktawgyi Buddha Temple (Yangon)
Saraswati in an 18th-century C.E. Tibetan artwork, holding a stick zither.

The goddess is also revered by believers of the Jain religion of west and central India, as well as some Buddhist sects.

Abhisheka ritual with Panchamrita being conducted over a Hindu shrine

Abhisheka

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Offered."

Offered."

Abhisheka ritual with Panchamrita being conducted over a Hindu shrine
List of Abhiseka initiates in 812 at Takaosan-ji (高雄山寺)
Mahamastakabhisheka of Jain Gommateshwara statue is done every 12 years.

Abhisheka is common to Indian religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.

A c. 1st century BCE/CE relief from Sanchi, showing Ashoka on his chariot, visiting the Nagas at Ramagrama.

Ashoka

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Indian emperor of the Maurya Empire, son of Bindusara, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from c. 268 to 232 BCE.

Indian emperor of the Maurya Empire, son of Bindusara, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from c. 268 to 232 BCE.

A c. 1st century BCE/CE relief from Sanchi, showing Ashoka on his chariot, visiting the Nagas at Ramagrama.
Ashoka's Major Rock Edict at Junagadh contains inscriptions by Ashoka (fourteen of the Edicts of Ashoka), Rudradaman I and Skandagupta.
King Ashoka visits Ramagrama, to take relics of the Buddha from the Nagas, but in vain. Southern gateway, Stupa 1, Sanchi.
The Major Rock Edict No.13 of Ashoka, mentions the Greek kings Antiochus, Ptolemy, Antigonus, Magas and Alexander by name, as recipients of his teachings.
The Aramaic Inscription of Taxila probably mentions Ashoka.
The Saru Maru commemorative inscription seems to mention the presence of Ashoka in the area of Ujjain as he was still a Prince.
Kanaganahalli inscribed panel portraying Asoka with Brahmi label "King Asoka", 1st–3rd century CE.
Stupa of Sanchi. The central stupa was built during the Mauryas, and enlarged during the Sungas, but the decorative gateway is dated to the later dynasty of the Satavahanas.
Illustration of the original Mahabodhi Temple temple built by Asoka at Bodh Gaya. At the center, the Vajrasana, or "Enlightenment Throne of the Buddha", with its supporting columns, being the object of adoration. A Pillar of Ashoka topped by an elephant appears in the right corner. Bharhut relief, 1st century BCE.
The rediscovered Vajrasana, or "Enlightenment Throne of the Buddha", at the Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya. It was built by Ashoka to commemorate the enlightenment of the Buddha, about two hundred years before him.
Ashoka and Monk Moggaliputta-Tissa at the Third Buddhist Council. Nava Jetavana, Shravasti.
A king - most probably Ashoka - with his two queens and three attendants, in a relief at Sanchi. The king's identification with Ashoka is suggested by a similar relief at Kanaganahalli, which bears his name.
Ashoka with his queen, at Kanaganahalli near Sannati, 1st–3rd century CE. The relief bears the inscription "Rāya Asoko" (𑀭𑀸𑀬 𑀅𑀲𑁄𑀓𑁄, "King Ashoka") in Brahmi script. It depicts the king with his queen, two attendants bearing fly-whisks, and one attendant bearing an umbrella.
Emperor Ashoka and his Queen at the Deer Park. Sanchi relief.
The word Upāsaka (𑀉𑀧𑀸𑀲𑀓, "Buddhist lay follower", in the Brahmi script), used by Ashoka in his Minor Rock Edict No.1 to describe his affiliation to Buddhism (circa 258 BCE).
Territories "conquered by the Dhamma" according to Major Rock Edict No.13 of Ashoka (260–218 BCE).
Distribution of the Edicts of Ashoka, and location of the contemporary Greek city of Ai-Khanoum.
The Kandahar Edict of Ashoka, a bilingual inscription (in Greek and Aramaic) by King Ashoka, discovered at Kandahar (National Museum of Afghanistan).
The Minor Rock Edict of Maski mentions the author as "Devanampriya Asoka", definitively linking both names, and confirming Ashoka as the author of the famous Edicts.
A c. 1910 painting by Abanindranath Tagore (1871–1951) depicting Ashoka's queen standing in front of the railings of the Buddhist monument at Sanchi (Raisen district, Madhya Pradesh).
The Ashokan pillar at Lumbini, Nepal, Buddha's birthplace
The Diamond throne at the Mahabodhi Temple, attributed to Ashoka
Front frieze of the Diamond throne
Mauryan ringstone, with standing goddess. Northwest Pakistan. 3rd century BCE. British Museum
Rampurva bull capital, detail of the abacus, with two "flame palmettes" framing a lotus surrounded by small rosette flowers.
Caduceus symbol on a Maurya-era punch-marked coin
A punch-marked coin attributed to Ashoka<ref>{{cite book |last=Mitchiner |first=Michael |date=1978 |title=Oriental Coins & Their Values: The Ancient and Classical World 600 B.C. - A.D. 650 |publisher=Hawkins Publications |page=544 |isbn=978-0-9041731-6-1}}</ref>
A Maurya-era silver coin of 1 karshapana, possibly from Ashoka's period, workshop of Mathura. Obverse: Symbols including a sun and an animal Reverse: Symbol Dimensions: 13.92 x 11.75 mm Weight: 3.4 g.
The Lion Capital of Ashoka in Sarnath, showing its four Asiatic lions standing back to back, and symbolizing the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism, supporting the Wheel of Moral law (Dharmachakra, reconstitution per Sarnath Museum notice). The lions stand on a circular abacus, decorated with dharmachakras alternating with four animals in profile: horse, bull, elephant, and lion. The architectural bell below the abacus, is a stylized upside down lotus. Sarnath Museum.

This legend about Ashoka's search for a worthy teacher may be aimed at explaining why Ashoka did not adopt Jainism, another major contemporary faith that advocates non-violence and compassion.

Jinadattasuri

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Jinadattasuri was a Jain Apabhramsa poet.

Jain temples on Shatrunjaya hill near Palitana, Gujarat

Palitana temples

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Jain temples on Shatrunjaya hill near Palitana, Gujarat
Jain temples on Shatrunjaya hill near Palitana, Gujarat
General Plan of Jain temples on Mount Shatrunjaya
The idol of Rishabhanatha inside main temple
An 1866 sketch of Palitana temples
An archive photo of one tonk of the Palitana temples (1860)
Floor plan of the Adinatha Chaumukh temple, Palitana
Chaumukh temple on the northern ridge, Palitana
The deep reliefs on the outer walls of one of the Palitana temples
The entrance to the temples
View of the temples at the summit of Shatrunjaya hill
Shiva temple
Adishwar Temple
A temple in Palitana temples complex
Palitana temples complex
Palitana Temples distant view
Temple Inside Chaumukhji Tonk
Samovsaran Mandir, a modern temple and museum at the base of the hills (Tapa Gaccha subtradition of Jains){{sfn|Cort|2010|pp=120–121}}
Torana before the Samovsaran Mandir Palitana
Adinath temple depicted on 1949 Indian postage stamp

The Palitana temples are the large groups of Jain temples located on Shatrunjaya hills near Palitana in Bhavnagar district, Gujarat, India.

Painting of Indra on his elephant mount, Airavata, c. 1820.

Indra

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Indra (Sanskrit: इन्द्र) isthe king of Devas (gods) and Svarga (heaven) in the Hindu mythology.

Indra (Sanskrit: इन्द्र) isthe king of Devas (gods) and Svarga (heaven) in the Hindu mythology.

Painting of Indra on his elephant mount, Airavata, c. 1820.
Indra on his elephant, guarding the entrance of the 1st century BCE Buddhist Cave 19 at Bhaja Caves (Maharashtra).
Buddhist relief from Loriyan Tangai, showing Indra paying homage to the Buddha at the Indrasala Cave, 2nd century CE, Gandhara.
Banteay Srei temple's pediment carvings depict Indra mounts on Airavata, Cambodia, c. 10th century.
Indra is typically featured as a guardian deity on the east side of a Hindu temple.
Devraj Indra, Old Kalyan Print
Bimaran casket: the Buddha (middle) is flanked by Brahma (left) and Indra, in one of the earliest Buddhist depictions (1st century CE).
Many official seals in southeast Asia feature Indra. Above: seal of Bangkok, Thailand.

Indra is also depicted in Buddhist (Indā in Pali) and Jaina mythologies.

Jain communities

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The Jains in India are the last direct representatives of the ancient Shramana tradition.

Karnataka

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State in the southwestern region of India.

State in the southwestern region of India.

Mallikarjuna temple and Kashi Vishwanatha temple at Pattadakal, built successively by the kings of the Chalukya Empire and Rashtrakuta Empire, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Chief Minister Dr. Devaraj Urs announcing the new name of the Mysore state as 'Karnataka'
Jog Falls, formed by Sharavathi River, are the second-highest plunge waterfalls in India.
Political map of Indian state of Karnataka with the official names of its 31 districts.
emblem of Karnataka
Infosys, a Bengaluru-headquartered information-technology company,
A yakshagana artist
Vishnu image inside the Badami Cave Temple Complex number 3. The complex is an example of Indian rock-cut architecture.
Gomateswara (982–983) at Shravanabelagola is an important centre of Jain pilgrimage.
Halmidi inscription (450 CE) is the earliest attested inscription in the Kannada language.
Indian Institute of Science is one of the premier institutes of India.
Literacy rates of Karnataka districts
Anil Kumble, former captain of the Indian Test team and spin legend, is the highest wicket-taker for India in international cricket.
M. Chinnaswamy Stadium in Bangalore.
The state bird, Indian roller
Bengal tigers at Bannerghatta National Park near Bangalore
Chennakesava Temple is a model example of the Hoysala architecture, later repaired in the 16th century with financial support and grants by the Vijayanagara Emperors.
Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur has the second largest pre-modern dome in the world after the Byzantine Hagia Sophia.
Mysore Palace in the evening, the official residence and seat of the Wodeyar dynasty, the rulers of Mysore of the Mysore Kingdom, the royal family of Mysore.

The Jain philosophy and literature have contributed immensely to the religious and cultural landscape of Karnataka.

Diagram by the French esotericist Paul Sédir to explain clairvoyance

Clairvoyance

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Hypothetical ability to gain information about an object, person, location, or physical event through extrasensory perception.

Hypothetical ability to gain information about an object, person, location, or physical event through extrasensory perception.

Diagram by the French esotericist Paul Sédir to explain clairvoyance
Character reader and clairvoyant in a British travelling show of the 1940s, collected by Arthur James Fenwick (1878–1957)

In Jainism, clairvoyance is regarded as one of the five kinds of knowledge.

Samavasarana of Tirthankara

Samavasarana

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Samavasarana of Tirthankara
Samosharana of Tirthankara Rishabha (Ajmer Jain temple)
Samavasarana
Jain manuscript page with Mahavira teaching to all creatures in Samavasarana, western India, c. 1500–1600, gouache on paper
Samavsarana of Mahavira as depicted in 19th-century art from Mysore.
Painting of Samavasarana (Assembly hall) of a Jain Tirthankara. It depicts various beings who come to hear the preachings of the Jina peacefully
Samosharan depiction

In Jainism, Samavasarana or Samosharana ("Refuge to All") is the divine preaching hall of the Tirthankara, stated to have more than 20,000 stairs in it.