A report on Jakarta

Replica of the Padrão of Sunda Kalapa (1522), a stone pillar with a cross of the Order of Christ commemorating a treaty between the Portuguese Empire and the Hindu Sunda Kingdom, at Jakarta History Museum.
The 5th-century Tugu inscription discovered in Tugu district, North Jakarta
Batavia around 1780
The City Hall of Batavia (Stadhuis van Batavia), the seat of the Governor-General of the VOC in the late 18th century by Johannes Rach c. 1770. The building now houses the Jakarta History Museum, Jakarta Old Town.
One of the most monumental projects launched by Sukarno was the demolition of government buildings in Merdeka Square to make way for the National Monument.
Aerial view of North Jakarta
Ancol beach
Facade of the Museum Bank Indonesia in Kota Tua
Wisma 46 in post-modernist architecture, the fourth tallest building in Jakarta
view of Monas, Jakarta's landmark
Bundaran HI, a 1960s landmark of Jakarta located at the west end of Menteng District.
Boat ride at Indonesian archipelago lake in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah
Ancol Gondola
Chinese in Jakarta praying during Chinese New Year in Glodok, Jakarta
The Indonesian Stock Exchange (Bursa Efek Indonesia) building in Jakarta, one of the oldest in Asia.
Bank Indonesia head office
Gandaria City Mall in South Jakarta
Jakarta Old City Post Office at Fatahillah Square, Central Jakarta
Most visitors to Jakarta are domestic tourists, and Taman Mini Indonesia Indah is aimed at supporting national identity and patriotism.
The main TV tower of TVRI at its headquarters in Jakarta
Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia campus at Semanggi
University of Indonesia campus
Tanjidor music of Betawi culture demonstrate European influence
Gado-gado is a popular Indonesian salad dish.
Football match at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium
Asian Games 2018 opening ceremony in Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, 2018
Jakarta Merdeka Palace
Map of the administrative cities (Kota administratif) in Jakarta province. The Thousand Islands Regency (to the north) is not shown. Each administrative city is further divided into districts (Kecamatan).
Batavia map of Meester Cornelis (now Jatinegara)
The Secretariat of ASEAN at Jl. Sisingamangaraja No.70A, South Jakarta, Indonesia
Jakarta Street in Tripoli, Libya
Al-Azhar Great Mosque, It was Jakarta's largest mosque when it was built until it was surpassed by the Istiqlal Mosque.
The Jakarta Cathedral, one of the oldest churches in Jakarta.
Kim Tek Ie, the oldest Taoist and Buddhist temple in Jakarta.
Aditya Jaya Hindu temple, Rawamangun, East Jakarta.
Ondel-Ondel, often used as a symbol of Betawi culture
Chinese paifang in Mangga Dua, Central Jakarta
The Golden Snail IMAX theatre at Taman Mini Indonesia Indah
Jakarta Fair of 2007
Japanese community celebrating Ennichisai in Blok M, South Jakarta
Traditional Betawi dance, Tari Yapong

Capital and largest city of Indonesia.

- Jakarta

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Indonesia

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Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur temple, c. 800 CE. Outrigger boats from the archipelago may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830
Mount Semeru and Mount Bromo in East Java. Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest.
Rainforest in Mount Palung National Park, West Kalimantan
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Indonesia
Major volcanoes in Indonesia. Indonesia is in the Pacific Ring of Fire area.
Low visibility in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, due to deforestation-related haze.
A presidential inauguration by the MPR in the Parliament Complex Jakarta, 2014
Embassy of Indonesia, Canberra, Australia
Vast palm oil plantation in Bogor, West Java. Indonesia is the world's largest producer of palm oil.
A proportional representation of Indonesia exports, 2019
Jatiluhur Dam, Indonesia's first and largest dam.
Palapa satellite launch in 1984
Borobudur in Central Java, the world's largest Buddhist temple, is the single most visited tourist attraction in Indonesia.
Raja Ampat Islands, West Papua, has the highest recorded level of diversity in marine life, according to Conservation International.
Population pyramid 2016
A map of ethnic groups in Indonesia
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor. Hinduism has left a legacy on Indonesian art and culture.
Menara Kudus, a mosque with a traditional Indonesian architectural style.
Catholic Mass at the Jakarta Cathedral
Bandung Institute of Technology in West Java
Riots on the streets of Jakarta on 14 May 1998.
Traditional Balinese painting depicting cockfighting
An avenue of Tongkonan houses in a Torajan village, South Sulawesi
An Indonesian batik
Pandava and Krishna in an act of the Wayang Wong performance
Advertisement for Loetoeng Kasaroeng (1926), the first fiction film produced in the Dutch East Indies
Metro TV at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, reporting the 2010 AFF Championship
Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist. Many considered him to be Southeast Asia's leading candidate for a Nobel Prize in Literature.
Nasi Padang with rendang, gulai and vegetables
A demonstration of Pencak Silat, a form of martial arts
A Hindu prayer ceremony at Besakih Temple in Bali, the only Indonesian province where Hinduism is the predominant religion.
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in Banda Aceh, Aceh. The spread of Islam in Indonesia began in the region.

The country's capital, Jakarta, is the world's second-most populous urban area.

Mount Bromo in East Java

Java

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One of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

One of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

Mount Bromo in East Java
Parahyangan highland near Buitenzorg, c. 1865–1872
Banteng at Alas Purwo, eastern edge of Java
Male Javan rhino shot in 1934 in West Java. Today only small numbers of Javan rhino survive in Ujung Kulon; it is the world's rarest rhino.
Mount Sumbing surrounded by rice fields. Java's volcanic topography and rich agricultural lands are the fundamental factors in its history.
Cangkuang Hindu temple a shrine for Shiva, dated from the 8th century the Galuh Kingdom.
The 9th century Borobudur Buddhist stupa in Central Java
Tea plantation in Java during Dutch colonial period, in or before 1926
Japanese prepare to discuss surrender terms with British-allied forces in Java 1945
Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia
Betawi mask dance (Tari Topeng Betawi)
SambaSunda music performance, featuring traditional Sundanese music instruments.
Lakshmana, Rama and Shinta in Ramayana ballet at Prambanan, Java.
Languages spoken in Java (Javanese is shown in white). "Malay" refers to Betawi, the local dialect as one of Malay creole dialect.
Water buffalo ploughing rice fields near Salatiga, in Central Java.
Java transport network
"Welcome!" statue in Central Jakarta
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor.
Mendut Vihara, a Buddhist monastery near Mendut temple, Magelang.
Masjid Gedhe Kauman in Yogyakarta, build in traditional Javanese multi-tiered roof.
Ganjuran Church in Bantul, built in traditional Javanese architecture.

Indonesia's capital city, Jakarta, is on Java's northwestern coast.

Official portrait, 1949

Sukarno

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Indonesian statesman, orator, revolutionary, and nationalist who was the first president of Indonesia, serving from 1945 to 1967.

Indonesian statesman, orator, revolutionary, and nationalist who was the first president of Indonesia, serving from 1945 to 1967.

Official portrait, 1949
Sukarno as a HBS student in Surabaya, 1916
Sukarno with fellow defendants and attorneys during his trial in Bandung, 1930.
Sukarno at his home in exile, Bengkulu.
Sukarno shakes hands with the Japanese director of the Interior for occupied Dutch East Indies, General Moichiri Yamamoto, September 1944
Sukarno during a visit to Makassar, 30 April 1945
Sukarno, accompanied by Mohammad Hatta (right), declaring the independence of Indonesia.
Sukarno addressing the KNIP (parliament) in Malang, March 1947
Sukarno and Foreign Minister Agus Salim in Dutch custody, Parapat 1949.
Sukarno's return to Yogyakarta in June 1949
Sukarno (right) with John Foster Dulles (left) and Richard Nixon (center) in 1956.
Sukarno and Nixon in 1956.
Sukarno casting his vote at the 1955 elections
Sukarno (on top of the steps) reading his decree on 5 July 1959
Sukarno's official portrait used in the 1960s, complete with military-style decorations.
The structure of Sukarno's guided democracy in 1962
Sukarno addresses the U.S. Congress on 17 May 1956. Sitting behind him the U.S. vice president/Senate president Richard Nixon and U.S. House speaker Sam Rayburn.
Sukarno and Fidel Castro in 1960, Havana, Cuba
Sukarno (center) with John F. Kennedy (left) and Lyndon B. Johnson (right) in 1961.
Soekarno with Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Maxwell Taylor at The Merdeka Palace on August 2, 1963.
Sukarno
Sukarno with Fatmawati and five of their children. Clockwise from center: Sukarno, Sukmawati, Fatmawati, Guruh, Megawati, Guntur, Rachmawati

The Soekarno–Hatta International Airport, which serves the area near Indonesia's capital, Jakarta, still uses the Dutch spelling.

Dutch East Indies

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Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.

Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.

Map of the Dutch East Indies showing its territorial expansion from 1800 to its fullest extent prior to Japanese occupation in 1942
Expansion of the Dutch East Indies in the Indonesian Archipelago
Map of the Dutch East Indies showing its territorial expansion from 1800 to its fullest extent prior to Japanese occupation in 1942
The Submission of Prince Dipo Negoro to General De Kock, by Nicolaas Pieneman
Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer and B. C. de Jonge, the last and penultimate governor-general of the Dutch East Indies, before the Japanese invasion
The governor-general's palace in Batavia (1880–1900)
House of the Resident (colonial administrator) in Surabaya
The Supreme Court Building, Batavia
The Aceh War (1873–1914) between the Netherlands and the Aceh Sultanate
Decorated indigenous KNIL soldiers, 1927
Volksraad members in 1918: D. Birnie (Dutch), Kan Hok Hoei (Chinese), R. Sastro Widjono and M. N. Dwidjo Sewojo (Javanese)
Students of the School Tot Opleiding Van Indische Artsen (STOVIA) aka Sekolah Doctor Jawa
Dutch, Eurasian and Javanese professors of law at the opening of the Rechts Hogeschool in 1924
Headquarters of the Deli Company in Medan circa 1925
De Javasche Bank in Banjarmasin
Workers pose at the site of a railway tunnel under construction in the mountains, 1910
Perhimpunan Pelajar-Pelajar Indonesia (Indonesian Students Union) delegates in Youth Pledge, an important event where Indonesian language was decided to be the national language, 1928
The romantic depiction of De Grote Postweg near Buitenzorg
Bioscoop Mimosa cinema in Batu, Java, 1941
Museum and lab of the Buitenzorg Plantentuin
Dutch family enjoying a large Rijsttafel dinner, 1936
Ceremonial Hall, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, designed by architect Henri Maclaine-Pont
Javanese nobles adopted and mixed some aspects of European fashion, such as this couple in 1890.
Dutch colonial couple in the early 20th century wearing native batik and kebaya fashion
Dutch imperial imagery representing the Dutch East Indies (1916). The text reads "Our most precious jewel."

A capital was established in Batavia (now Jakarta), which became the center of the VOC's Asian trading network.

West Java

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Province of Indonesia on the western part of the island of Java, with its provincial capital in Bandung.

Province of Indonesia on the western part of the island of Java, with its provincial capital in Bandung.

Rice fields terrace in Priangan highland, West Java, Dutch East Indies. In/before 1926.
Parahyangan highland near Buitenzorg (Bogor), c. 1865–1872
2nd-level Administrative map of West Java Province
View of the mount and the crater of Tangkuban Parahu, Bandung
Tea plantations in Malabar, southern Bandung. Tea plantations are common sight across mountainous West Java
Rancabali, Bandung Regency
Kawah Putih
Gamelan Degung Orchestra
SambaSunda performance in Cologne 2010
Angklung as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
Wayang Golek, a traditional Sundanese puppetry.
Jaipongan dance performance accompanied by Sundanese degung mixed with modern instruments.
A painting depicting Nyai Loro Kidul
Cities and regencies of West Java by Human Development Index in 2020
Jagorawi Toll Road.
West hall of Bandung Institute of Technology

West Java is bordered by the province of Banten and the country's capital region of Jakarta to the west, the Java Sea to the north, the province of Central Java to the east and the Indian Ocean to the south.

Official portrait, 1973

Suharto

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Indonesian army officer and politician, who served as the second and the longest serving president of Indonesia.

Indonesian army officer and politician, who served as the second and the longest serving president of Indonesia.

Official portrait, 1973
Official portrait, 1993
Lieutenant Colonel Suharto, c. 1947
Official portrait of Suharto and Siti Hartinah, c. date unknown
Suharto with his wife and six children, c. 1967
In his office as the head of the Strategic Reserve, c. 1963
President Sukarno (with glasses) 
in Disneyland, c. 1961
As Major General, Suharto (at right, foreground) attends funeral for assassinated generals, 5 October 1965
The Supersemar document transferring the authority to restore security to Suharto in 1966
Suharto taking the presidential oath of office, 27 March 1968
Suharto's right-hand man Ali Murtopo, c. 1982
Street art depicting Suharto as the father of development, c. 1985
Official portrait, c. 1983
Official portrait, c. 1988
Suharto and his wife in Islamic attire after performing the hajj in 1991
Official portrait, c. 1998
Suharto reads his resignation speech at Merdeka Palace on 21 May 1998. His vice president and successor, B. J. Habibie, is on his left hand side
Suharto in 1998

As company commander, he conducted training for new PETA recruits in Surakarta, Jakarta, and Madiun.

Banten

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Westernmost province on the island of Java, Indonesia.

Westernmost province on the island of Java, Indonesia.

Sultan Maulana Hasanuddin of Banten. Together with his father, Sunan Gunungjati, Hasanuddin founded the Sultanate of Banten
Bird's-eye view of the city of Banten, 1599.
Warriors of Banten, 1596.
François Valentijn painting of Banten, in 1694.
In 1808, Dutch Governor-General Herman Williem Daendels ordered the annexation of the Banten Sultanate. This marked the demise of the four-century-old Sultanate and the beginning of direct Dutch rule in the region for the next 150 years
Rōmusha after being freed by the Dutch. Thousands of labores died during the construction of the Saketi-Bayah railway under the Japanese
Tanjung Lesung beach, Pandegelang Regency
Mangrove forest in Ujung Kulon National Park
Sawarna Banten Green View, Lebak Regency
Rawa Danau, Lebak Regency
Administrative Map of Banten Province
Baduy people in Serang during the Seba Baduy event
Mass wedding ceremony of Benteng Chinese
Languages map of Banten
Students from a pesantren wearing Islamic dress. Most of the people in Banten are Muslims
Rampak bedug performance at event of Culinary Festival of Serang
Selection of Kang Nong Banten in 2017. The finalists wear Bantenese traditional dress.
Betawi men performing pencak silat
Bantenese men during a debus performance
The Great Mosque of Banten
Jojorong, a food originated from Pandeglang. This food is made from rice flour, brown sugar, coconut milk, and pandan leaves which served into a bowl made from banana leaves.
Soekarno–Hatta International Airport in Tangerang. It is the main airport of the province, as well as the main gateway to Jakarta and Indonesia
A Commuter Line in the Tangerang railway station
A public bus in Poris terminal, Tangerang
The Port of Merak serves ferries to and from Sumatra

The province borders West Java and the Special Capital Region of Jakarta to the east, the Java Sea to the north, the Indian Ocean to the south, and the Sunda Strait to the west, which separates Java from the neighbouring island of Sumatra.

The territory of Sunda Kingdom

Sunda Kingdom

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The territory of Sunda Kingdom
The word Sunda written in Sundanese script
Batutulis inscription (dated 1533), in Bogor, commemorate the great King of Sunda Sri Baduga Maharaja (rule 1482-1521).
The Sundanese royal party arrived at the port of Hujung Galuh by Junk Sassana, a type of Javanese junk, which also incorporates Chinese techniques, such as using iron nails alongside wooden dowels, the construction of watertight bulkhead, and addition of central rudder.
Sundanese traditional house with Julang Ngapak roof in Garut circa 1920s. It was built on poles and having a thatched roof, as described in a 12th-century Chinese source.
Old map of Java still thought that land of Sunda in the west is separated from the rest of Java island. Here the capital of Sunda is called Daio which refer to Dayeuh Pakuan Pajajaran
The ruin of Bojongmenje Hindu temple in Priangan highlands, estimated was built in the 7th century.
Citarum River separates Sunda and Galuh
Cangkuang Hindu temple a shrine for Shiva, dated from the 8th century the Galuh Kingdom.
Sanghyang Tapak inscription
One of Kawali inscriptions
Statue of a Hindu god from Talaga near Kuningan, West Java, dated from the Sunda Kingdom.
Keraton Kasepuhan of Cirebon. By 1482, the Sunda kingdom lost its important eastern port of Cirebon.
The port of Sunda Kelapa, the cradle of Jakarta. For centuries it was the royal port of Sunda Kingdom serving the capital Dayeuh Pakuan Pajajaran 60 kilometres inland to the south until it fell to Demak and Cirebon forces in 1527.
The Port of Banten in the 16th century. The Islamic Sultanate of Banten was responsible for the demise of Hindu Sunda Kingdom, and supplant it as the dominant polity in western parts of Java in the following centuries.
Hindu Brahmin's ritual objects, including bronze bell and holy water container from Kawali, the historic capital of Galuh Kingdom.
Location of Pakuan Pajajaran copied from book "Kabudayaan Sunda Zaman Pajajaran" Part 2", 2005
Makuta Binokasih Sanghyang Paké, the royal crown of Sunda kingdom. After the fall of Pajajaran to Banten, the crown was evacuated to Sumedang Larang and become their regalia.
A Sundanese woman retrieving rice from a leuit, Sundanese economy mainly rely on rice agriculture
The statue of Shiva Mahadeva from Cibodas village, Cicalengka Subdistrict, Bandung Regency, West Java. Possibly from the Sunda Kingdom period 8th to 9th century.
A bronze statue of Hindu god Shiva discovered in Talaga near Kuningan, West Java. Sunda kingdom period, circa 14th century.
Padrão of Sunda Kalapa (1522), a stone pillar with a cross of the Order of Christ commemorating a treaty between Portuguese Kingdom and Hindu Sunda Kingdom, at National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta.
Lontar palm-leaf manuscript written in Sundanese

The Sunda Kingdom (Karajaan Sunda, ) was a Sundanese Hindu kingdom located in the western portion of the island of Java from 669 to around 1579, covering the area of present-day Banten, Jakarta, West Java, and the western part of Central Java.

Batavia around 1780 (note this a mirror image - for example the castle should be placed left of the canal)

Batavia, Dutch East Indies

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The capital of the Dutch East Indies.

The capital of the Dutch East Indies.

Batavia around 1780 (note this a mirror image - for example the castle should be placed left of the canal)
Batavia around 1780 (this image is now in the correct order after horizontally flipping that mirror image - for example, the castle is correctly placed left of the canal)
Batavia between 1675 and 1725
Replica of an East Indiaman of the Dutch East India Company/United East Indies Company (VOC).
Coat of arms of Batavia
Batavia and its eastern expansion
The coconut-tree-lined Tijgersgracht canal
Batavia in 1667
Contemporary etching of the massacre
Southern expansion, 1840
Batavia in 1897
Batavia, Weltevreden, Koningsplein, Hotel der Nederlanden c. 1912
Batavia c. 1914
Drawing of the imagined Japanese entry into Batavia
Many coolies and slaves were employed from outside Java.
Trams in Molenvliet

The area corresponds to present-day Jakarta, Indonesia.

Jakarta metropolitan area

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Tangerang
Bekasi
Sudirman Central Business District
KA Commuter Jabodetabek system map
Soekarno–Hatta International Airport
Jakarta Kota railway station
The facade of Pasar Senen Station

The Jakarta metropolitan area or Greater Jakarta, known locally as Jabodetabek (an acronym of Jakarta–Bogor–Depok–Tangerang–Bekasi), and sometimes extended to Jabodetabekjur (with the acronym extended to include part of Cianjur Regency), or Jabodetabekpunjur (further extended to include Puncak and the Cipanas district), is the most populous metropolitan area in Indonesia.