A report on Jakarta and Suharto

Official portrait, 1973
Replica of the Padrão of Sunda Kalapa (1522), a stone pillar with a cross of the Order of Christ commemorating a treaty between the Portuguese Empire and the Hindu Sunda Kingdom, at Jakarta History Museum.
Official portrait, 1993
The 5th-century Tugu inscription discovered in Tugu district, North Jakarta
Lieutenant Colonel Suharto, c. 1947
Batavia around 1780
Official portrait of Suharto and Siti Hartinah, c. date unknown
The City Hall of Batavia (Stadhuis van Batavia), the seat of the Governor-General of the VOC in the late 18th century by Johannes Rach c. 1770. The building now houses the Jakarta History Museum, Jakarta Old Town.
Suharto with his wife and six children, c. 1967
One of the most monumental projects launched by Sukarno was the demolition of government buildings in Merdeka Square to make way for the National Monument.
In his office as the head of the Strategic Reserve, c. 1963
Aerial view of North Jakarta
President Sukarno (with glasses) 
in Disneyland, c. 1961
Ancol beach
As Major General, Suharto (at right, foreground) attends funeral for assassinated generals, 5 October 1965
Facade of the Museum Bank Indonesia in Kota Tua
The Supersemar document transferring the authority to restore security to Suharto in 1966
Wisma 46 in post-modernist architecture, the fourth tallest building in Jakarta
Suharto taking the presidential oath of office, 27 March 1968
view of Monas, Jakarta's landmark
Suharto's right-hand man Ali Murtopo, c. 1982
Bundaran HI, a 1960s landmark of Jakarta located at the west end of Menteng District.
Street art depicting Suharto as the father of development, c. 1985
Boat ride at Indonesian archipelago lake in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah
Official portrait, c. 1983
Ancol Gondola
Official portrait, c. 1988
Chinese in Jakarta praying during Chinese New Year in Glodok, Jakarta
Suharto and his wife in Islamic attire after performing the hajj in 1991
The Indonesian Stock Exchange (Bursa Efek Indonesia) building in Jakarta, one of the oldest in Asia.
Official portrait, c. 1998
Bank Indonesia head office
Suharto reads his resignation speech at Merdeka Palace on 21 May 1998. His vice president and successor, B. J. Habibie, is on his left hand side
Gandaria City Mall in South Jakarta
Suharto in 1998
Jakarta Old City Post Office at Fatahillah Square, Central Jakarta
Most visitors to Jakarta are domestic tourists, and Taman Mini Indonesia Indah is aimed at supporting national identity and patriotism.
The main TV tower of TVRI at its headquarters in Jakarta
Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia campus at Semanggi
University of Indonesia campus
Tanjidor music of Betawi culture demonstrate European influence
Gado-gado is a popular Indonesian salad dish.
Football match at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium
Asian Games 2018 opening ceremony in Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, 2018
Jakarta Merdeka Palace
Map of the administrative cities (Kota administratif) in Jakarta province. The Thousand Islands Regency (to the north) is not shown. Each administrative city is further divided into districts (Kecamatan).
Batavia map of Meester Cornelis (now Jatinegara)
The Secretariat of ASEAN at Jl. Sisingamangaraja No.70A, South Jakarta, Indonesia
Jakarta Street in Tripoli, Libya
Al-Azhar Great Mosque, It was Jakarta's largest mosque when it was built until it was surpassed by the Istiqlal Mosque.
The Jakarta Cathedral, one of the oldest churches in Jakarta.
Kim Tek Ie, the oldest Taoist and Buddhist temple in Jakarta.
Aditya Jaya Hindu temple, Rawamangun, East Jakarta.
Ondel-Ondel, often used as a symbol of Betawi culture
Chinese paifang in Mangga Dua, Central Jakarta
The Golden Snail IMAX theatre at Taman Mini Indonesia Indah
Jakarta Fair of 2007
Japanese community celebrating Ennichisai in Blok M, South Jakarta
Traditional Betawi dance, Tari Yapong

As company commander, he conducted training for new PETA recruits in Surakarta, Jakarta, and Madiun.

- Suharto

After three decades in power, support for President Suharto began to wane.

- Jakarta

19 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Official portrait, 1949

Sukarno

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Indonesian statesman, orator, revolutionary, and nationalist who was the first president of Indonesia, serving from 1945 to 1967.

Indonesian statesman, orator, revolutionary, and nationalist who was the first president of Indonesia, serving from 1945 to 1967.

Official portrait, 1949
Sukarno as a HBS student in Surabaya, 1916
Sukarno with fellow defendants and attorneys during his trial in Bandung, 1930.
Sukarno at his home in exile, Bengkulu.
Sukarno shakes hands with the Japanese director of the Interior for occupied Dutch East Indies, General Moichiri Yamamoto, September 1944
Sukarno during a visit to Makassar, 30 April 1945
Sukarno, accompanied by Mohammad Hatta (right), declaring the independence of Indonesia.
Sukarno addressing the KNIP (parliament) in Malang, March 1947
Sukarno and Foreign Minister Agus Salim in Dutch custody, Parapat 1949.
Sukarno's return to Yogyakarta in June 1949
Sukarno (right) with John Foster Dulles (left) and Richard Nixon (center) in 1956.
Sukarno and Nixon in 1956.
Sukarno casting his vote at the 1955 elections
Sukarno (on top of the steps) reading his decree on 5 July 1959
Sukarno's official portrait used in the 1960s, complete with military-style decorations.
The structure of Sukarno's guided democracy in 1962
Sukarno addresses the U.S. Congress on 17 May 1956. Sitting behind him the U.S. vice president/Senate president Richard Nixon and U.S. House speaker Sam Rayburn.
Sukarno and Fidel Castro in 1960, Havana, Cuba
Sukarno (center) with John F. Kennedy (left) and Lyndon B. Johnson (right) in 1961.
Soekarno with Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Maxwell Taylor at The Merdeka Palace on August 2, 1963.
Sukarno
Sukarno with Fatmawati and five of their children. Clockwise from center: Sukarno, Sukmawati, Fatmawati, Guruh, Megawati, Guntur, Rachmawati

After the events surrounding the 30 September Movement of 1965, the military general Suharto largely took control of the country in a Western backed military overthrow of the Sukarno-led government.

The Soekarno–Hatta International Airport, which serves the area near Indonesia's capital, Jakarta, still uses the Dutch spelling.

Dutch East Indies

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Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.

Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.

Map of the Dutch East Indies showing its territorial expansion from 1800 to its fullest extent prior to Japanese occupation in 1942
Expansion of the Dutch East Indies in the Indonesian Archipelago
Map of the Dutch East Indies showing its territorial expansion from 1800 to its fullest extent prior to Japanese occupation in 1942
The Submission of Prince Dipo Negoro to General De Kock, by Nicolaas Pieneman
Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer and B. C. de Jonge, the last and penultimate governor-general of the Dutch East Indies, before the Japanese invasion
The governor-general's palace in Batavia (1880–1900)
House of the Resident (colonial administrator) in Surabaya
The Supreme Court Building, Batavia
The Aceh War (1873–1914) between the Netherlands and the Aceh Sultanate
Decorated indigenous KNIL soldiers, 1927
Volksraad members in 1918: D. Birnie (Dutch), Kan Hok Hoei (Chinese), R. Sastro Widjono and M. N. Dwidjo Sewojo (Javanese)
Students of the School Tot Opleiding Van Indische Artsen (STOVIA) aka Sekolah Doctor Jawa
Dutch, Eurasian and Javanese professors of law at the opening of the Rechts Hogeschool in 1924
Headquarters of the Deli Company in Medan circa 1925
De Javasche Bank in Banjarmasin
Workers pose at the site of a railway tunnel under construction in the mountains, 1910
Perhimpunan Pelajar-Pelajar Indonesia (Indonesian Students Union) delegates in Youth Pledge, an important event where Indonesian language was decided to be the national language, 1928
The romantic depiction of De Grote Postweg near Buitenzorg
Bioscoop Mimosa cinema in Batu, Java, 1941
Museum and lab of the Buitenzorg Plantentuin
Dutch family enjoying a large Rijsttafel dinner, 1936
Ceremonial Hall, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, designed by architect Henri Maclaine-Pont
Javanese nobles adopted and mixed some aspects of European fashion, such as this couple in 1890.
Dutch colonial couple in the early 20th century wearing native batik and kebaya fashion
Dutch imperial imagery representing the Dutch East Indies (1916). The text reads "Our most precious jewel."

A capital was established in Batavia (now Jakarta), which became the center of the VOC's Asian trading network.

Key officers in the Indonesian National Armed Forces that were former KNIL soldiers include: Suharto second president of Indonesia, A. H. Nasution, commander of the Siliwangi Division and Chief of Staff of the Indonesian army and A. E. Kawilarang founder of the elite special forces Kopassus.

The Army General Staff at the time of the coup attempt. The generals who were killed are shown in grey.

30 September Movement

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Self-proclaimed organization of Indonesian National Armed Forces members who, in the early hours of 1 October 1965, assassinated six Indonesian Army generals in an abortive coup d'état, resulting in the unofficial but more accurate name of Gestok, for Gerakan Satu Oktober, or First of October Movement.

Self-proclaimed organization of Indonesian National Armed Forces members who, in the early hours of 1 October 1965, assassinated six Indonesian Army generals in an abortive coup d'état, resulting in the unofficial but more accurate name of Gestok, for Gerakan Satu Oktober, or First of October Movement.

The Army General Staff at the time of the coup attempt. The generals who were killed are shown in grey.
Key locations around Merdeka Square (now Monas) on 30 September 1965.
Contemporary anti-PKI literature blaming the party for the coup attempt
The editorial cartoon from the front page of the PKI newspaper "Harian Rakyat" published 2 October 1965

By the end of the day, the coup attempt had failed in Jakarta.

Investigations and questioning of Suharto's version of the events were long obstructed in Indonesia.

Indonesian National Revolution

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Armed conflict and diplomatic struggle between the Republic of Indonesia and the Dutch Empire and an internal social revolution during postwar and postcolonial Indonesia.

Armed conflict and diplomatic struggle between the Republic of Indonesia and the Dutch Empire and an internal social revolution during postwar and postcolonial Indonesia.

Bendera Pusaka, the first Indonesian flag, is raised on 17 August 1945.
Clockwise from the top right:
* Remains of the car of Brigadier Aubertin Walter Sothern Mallaby, where he was killed on 30 October 1945 during the Battle of Surabaya
* A village near Bandung, a number of houses are on fire. Two Indonesian soldiers are visible on the left of the picture.
* Delegations of Indonesia and Netherlands arriving at Linggarjati hill to hold Linggadjati Agreement
* Padang, West Sumatra, after Operation Kraai
* Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta before exilement to Brastagi, North Sumatra
* Queen Juliana of the Netherlands signing the Soevereiniteitsoverdracht (Transfer of Sovereignty) of Indonesia.
Indian and British troops move cautiously along a jungle track round the town of Gresik.
Dutch soldiers in the East Indies, 1946
Destruction in Bandung's Chinese quarter
A soldier of an Indian armoured regiment examines a Marmon-Herrington CTLS light tank used by Indonesian nationalists and captured by British forces during the fighting in Surabaya.
Javanese revolutionaries armed with bamboo spears and a few Japanese rifles, 1946
An old Indonesian couple with Dutch soldiers in a Bren Carrier
A Dutch military column during Operation Product
The Van Mook line in Java. Areas in red were under Republican control.
Two men with rope around their necks are handcuffed by TNI officers in September 1948 in Madiun, Indonesia.
Dutch forces in the East Indies, 1948
Graffiti in Java, 1948: "Freedom is for us Indonesians", "Liberty or Death", "Hollanders go to Hel".
Australia's The Northern Star newspaper regarding the independence of Indonesia date 28 December 1949
The United States of Indonesia, December 1949 – the Republic of Indonesia is shown in red.
Indonesian Vice-president Hatta and Dutch Queen Juliana at the signing ceremony which took place at the Royal Palace of Amsterdam. With the treaty signed, the Dutch officially recognised Indonesian sovereignty.
Memorial to Dutch losses in the war at the Prinsenhof in Delft

It was mid-September before news of the declaration of independence spread to the outer islands, and many Indonesians far from the capital Jakarta did not believe it.

Republican troops and militia led by Lt. Colonel (later President) Suharto attacked Dutch positions in Yogyakarta at dawn on 1 March 1949.

Anti-PKI propaganda literature

Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66

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The Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66, also known as the Indonesian genocide, Indonesian Communist Purge, or Indonesian politicide (Pembunuhan Massal Indonesia & Pembersihan G.30.S/PKI), were large-scale killings and civil unrest that occurred in Indonesia over several months, targeting Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) party members, communist sympathisers, Gerwani women, ethnic Javanese Abangan, ethnic Chinese, atheists, alleged "unbelievers" and alleged leftists, often at the instigation of the armed forces and government, which were supported by Western NATO countries, such as the United States and the United Kingdom.

The Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66, also known as the Indonesian genocide, Indonesian Communist Purge, or Indonesian politicide (Pembunuhan Massal Indonesia & Pembersihan G.30.S/PKI), were large-scale killings and civil unrest that occurred in Indonesia over several months, targeting Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) party members, communist sympathisers, Gerwani women, ethnic Javanese Abangan, ethnic Chinese, atheists, alleged "unbelievers" and alleged leftists, often at the instigation of the armed forces and government, which were supported by Western NATO countries, such as the United States and the United Kingdom.

Anti-PKI propaganda literature
Major General Suharto (at right, foreground) attends a funeral for generals assassinated on 5 October 1965
A certificate of gratitude from the Regent of Sleman for financial donations to the elimination of the PKI

The upheavals led to the fall of President Sukarno and the commencement of Suharto's three-decade authoritarian presidency.

They started in the capital, Jakarta, and spread to Central and East Java, and later Bali.

Chinese junks Sin Tong Heng and Tek Hwa Seng in the Sambu Island, Singapore Strait, c. undefined 1936

Chinese Indonesians

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Chinese Indonesians (Orang Tionghoa Indonesia;, for full Chinese descent; , for partial Chinese descent) Chindo colloquially, are Indonesians with full or partial Chinese ancestry.

Chinese Indonesians (Orang Tionghoa Indonesia;, for full Chinese descent; , for partial Chinese descent) Chindo colloquially, are Indonesians with full or partial Chinese ancestry.

Chinese junks Sin Tong Heng and Tek Hwa Seng in the Sambu Island, Singapore Strait, c. undefined 1936
Chinese workers from Swatow await the preparation of their contracts by immigration officials at Medan's labor inspectorate, Belawan c. undefined 1920–1940
The first Dutch Chinese Schools were established in 1892 following a split in curriculum from the native population.
Chinese-language school owned by the Tiong Hoa Hwe Koan in Sungailiat, Bangka
Early draft of the Indonesia Raya, later adopted as a national anthem, in a 1928 weekly edition of the Sin Po newspaper
Pao An Tui or "The Chinese Police" in Bagansiapiapi, which played a major role in maintaining peace and order among Chinese community
Restrictions on rural non-indigenous retail businesses in 1959 led to rapid urbanization of the ethnic Chinese community.
1967 photo of a Chinese-Indonesian family of Hubei ancestry
Anti-Chinese sentiment reached its peak in May 1998, when major riots swept over Jakarta.
Mari Elka Pangestu, Chinese Indonesian minister during the 2004-2014 cabinet.
During the 2000 census, the peak of the ethnic Chinese population pyramid occurred in the 15–19 age group. The male population is shown in blue, and the female is in pink.
The Chinese district of Medan, North Sumatra, in 1925; The city is home to the largest Chinese population by number in Sumatra, also the second largest nationally after Jakarta.
The Chinese New Year celebration in Chinese Town in Senapelan, Pekanbaru, Riau.
Population estimates of the peranakan (shown in red) and totok (in pink) throughout the 20th century
Identity card of The Hong Eng, c. undefined 1943, indicating her Chinese ethnicity during the occupation of the Dutch East Indies by Japan
The tin mines of Bangka Island almost entirely employed Chinese workers.
Shophouses in Batavia with Chinese signs along the front of the shophouse
Hakka Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta
Tjhoen Tjhioe; (春秋), was one of a Chinese Peranakan newspaper during colonial era
Ouw Peh Tjoa, one of early chinese folktale-based story which was made and released in the colonial Indonesia, directed by The Teng Chun
Two storey Chinese-style shophouses in Glodok, Jakarta, c.1972
Traditional Peranakan-style house in Bagansiapiapi, Riau
Local Chinese-Indonesian students writing in Chinese calligraphy
Kong Miao Confucian Temple in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta
Vihara Eka Dharma Manggala, a Buddhist Temple in Samarinda, East Kalimantan
Geredja Keristen Tionghoa or Chinese Christian Church in Jakarta, c.1952
Cheng Ho Mosque in Surabaya, East Java
Shopping street in the Chinese districts on Java island, circa 1940-1950
The distribution map of the origins of Chinese Indonesians. Majority of their ancestral are from Fujian or Guangdong province origins with small community from Hainan island, Guangxi and the rest are from other provinces in Northern China
The Gate paifang of Kampung Ketandan Chinatown, Yogyakarta, 2018
Benteng Chinese wedding in Jakarta, 2012. Benteng people are one of Peranakan community that still exist until today, mostly concentrated in Tangerang, Jakarta and its outskirt area

Under the New Order of President Suharto, citizens of Chinese descent were formally classified as "Indonesian citizens of foreign descent" (Warga Negara Indonesia keturunan asing).

According to 2010 population census, 22.3 percent of Chinese Indonesians lived in the capital city of Jakarta, located on the island of Java.

Photograph, c. 1954

Mohammad Hatta

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Indonesian statesman who served as the country's first vice president.

Indonesian statesman who served as the country's first vice president.

Photograph, c. 1954
Bung Hatta's Birth House which is now located on Sukarno-Hatta street, Bukittinggi
Leaders of Perhimpoenan Indonesia. Left to right: Gunawan Mangunkusumo, Mohammad Hatta, Iwa Kusumasumantri, Sastro Mulyono, and R.M. Sartono
Hatta on a 2002 Indonesian postage stamp
Hatta's home in Bandaneira, currently a museum.
Sukarno, accompanied by Mohammad Hatta, declaring the independence of Indonesia.
Indonesian Vice-president Hatta and Dutch Queen Juliana signing the recognition of sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia

When he was thirteen, he passed an exam that entitled him to enroll in the Dutch secondary school (HBS or Hogere burgerschool) in Batavia (now Jakarta).

During the tumultuous time which saw the presidency changed hands from Sukarno to General Suharto, Hatta remained in the background.

Mount Bromo in East Java

Java

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One of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

One of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

Mount Bromo in East Java
Parahyangan highland near Buitenzorg, c. 1865–1872
Banteng at Alas Purwo, eastern edge of Java
Male Javan rhino shot in 1934 in West Java. Today only small numbers of Javan rhino survive in Ujung Kulon; it is the world's rarest rhino.
Mount Sumbing surrounded by rice fields. Java's volcanic topography and rich agricultural lands are the fundamental factors in its history.
Cangkuang Hindu temple a shrine for Shiva, dated from the 8th century the Galuh Kingdom.
The 9th century Borobudur Buddhist stupa in Central Java
Tea plantation in Java during Dutch colonial period, in or before 1926
Japanese prepare to discuss surrender terms with British-allied forces in Java 1945
Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia
Betawi mask dance (Tari Topeng Betawi)
SambaSunda music performance, featuring traditional Sundanese music instruments.
Lakshmana, Rama and Shinta in Ramayana ballet at Prambanan, Java.
Languages spoken in Java (Javanese is shown in white). "Malay" refers to Betawi, the local dialect as one of Malay creole dialect.
Water buffalo ploughing rice fields near Salatiga, in Central Java.
Java transport network
"Welcome!" statue in Central Jakarta
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor.
Mendut Vihara, a Buddhist monastery near Mendut temple, Magelang.
Masjid Gedhe Kauman in Yogyakarta, build in traditional Javanese multi-tiered roof.
Ganjuran Church in Bantul, built in traditional Javanese architecture.

Indonesia's capital city, Jakarta, is on Java's northwestern coast.

From the 1970s to the fall of the Suharto regime in 1998, the Indonesian government ran transmigration programs aimed at resettling the population of Java on other less populated islands of Indonesia.

Rioters burning office furniture on the streets of Jakarta on 14 May 1998

May 1998 riots of Indonesia

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Rioters burning office furniture on the streets of Jakarta on 14 May 1998
Students march to reject a special session of the MPR in November 1998.
Trisakti University students and police forces clash in May 1998
Destroyed DPR/MPR courtroom, after being occupied by students.
B. J. Habibie takes the presidential oath of office following Suharto's resignation, one week after the violence. He later appointed a fact-finding team to investigate the May riots.
According to the fact-finding team, Prabowo Subianto was a key figure in military involvement with rioters in Jakarta.
A portrait of ethnic Chinese tycoon Sudono Salim—one of the world's wealthiest men at the time—and his wife is burned by rioters when his Jakarta house was ransacked during the riots.

The May 1998 riots of Indonesia (Kerusuhan Mei 1998), also known as the 1998 tragedy (Tragedi 1998) or simply the 1998 event (Peristiwa 1998), were incidents of mass violence, demonstrations, and civil unrest that occurred throughout Indonesia, mainly in Medan in the province of North Sumatra (4–8 May), the capital city of Jakarta (12–15 May), and Surakarta (also called Solo) in the province of Central Java (13–15 May).

It eventually led to the resignation of President Suharto and the fall of the New Order government, which had been in power for 32 years.

As Major General, Suharto (at right, foreground) attends the funeral of assassinated generals on 5 October 1965. (Photo by the Department of Information, Indonesia)

Transition to the New Order

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Indonesia's transition to the New Order in the mid-1960s ousted the country's first president, Sukarno, after 22 years in the position.

Indonesia's transition to the New Order in the mid-1960s ousted the country's first president, Sukarno, after 22 years in the position.

As Major General, Suharto (at right, foreground) attends the funeral of assassinated generals on 5 October 1965. (Photo by the Department of Information, Indonesia)
KAMI, KAPPI mass demonstration, 1966
President Sukarno
General Suharto is sworn in as Indonesia's second president on 27 March 1968 (Photo by the Department of Information, Indonesia)
General Suharto

One of the most tumultuous periods in the country's modern history, it was the commencement of Suharto's 31-year presidency.

The killings started in the capital Jakarta, spread to Central and East Java, and later Bali.