A report on Jakarta and Sunda Kelapa

Replica of the Padrão of Sunda Kalapa (1522), a stone pillar with a cross of the Order of Christ commemorating a treaty between the Portuguese Empire and the Hindu Sunda Kingdom, at Jakarta History Museum.
Harbormaster Tower of Sunda Kelapa.
The 5th-century Tugu inscription discovered in Tugu district, North Jakarta
Padrão of Sunda Kalapa (1522), a stone pillar commemorating a treaty between the kingdoms of Portugal and Sunda in Indonesian National Museum, Jakarta.
Batavia around 1780
Old warehouses near Sunda Kelapa port, now the (Maritime Museum).
The City Hall of Batavia (Stadhuis van Batavia), the seat of the Governor-General of the VOC in the late 18th century by Johannes Rach c. 1770. The building now houses the Jakarta History Museum, Jakarta Old Town.
One of the most monumental projects launched by Sukarno was the demolition of government buildings in Merdeka Square to make way for the National Monument.
Aerial view of North Jakarta
Ancol beach
Facade of the Museum Bank Indonesia in Kota Tua
Wisma 46 in post-modernist architecture, the fourth tallest building in Jakarta
view of Monas, Jakarta's landmark
Bundaran HI, a 1960s landmark of Jakarta located at the west end of Menteng District.
Boat ride at Indonesian archipelago lake in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah
Ancol Gondola
Chinese in Jakarta praying during Chinese New Year in Glodok, Jakarta
The Indonesian Stock Exchange (Bursa Efek Indonesia) building in Jakarta, one of the oldest in Asia.
Bank Indonesia head office
Gandaria City Mall in South Jakarta
Jakarta Old City Post Office at Fatahillah Square, Central Jakarta
Most visitors to Jakarta are domestic tourists, and Taman Mini Indonesia Indah is aimed at supporting national identity and patriotism.
The main TV tower of TVRI at its headquarters in Jakarta
Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia campus at Semanggi
University of Indonesia campus
Tanjidor music of Betawi culture demonstrate European influence
Gado-gado is a popular Indonesian salad dish.
Football match at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium
Asian Games 2018 opening ceremony in Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, 2018
Jakarta Merdeka Palace
Map of the administrative cities (Kota administratif) in Jakarta province. The Thousand Islands Regency (to the north) is not shown. Each administrative city is further divided into districts (Kecamatan).
Batavia map of Meester Cornelis (now Jatinegara)
The Secretariat of ASEAN at Jl. Sisingamangaraja No.70A, South Jakarta, Indonesia
Jakarta Street in Tripoli, Libya
Al-Azhar Great Mosque, It was Jakarta's largest mosque when it was built until it was surpassed by the Istiqlal Mosque.
The Jakarta Cathedral, one of the oldest churches in Jakarta.
Kim Tek Ie, the oldest Taoist and Buddhist temple in Jakarta.
Aditya Jaya Hindu temple, Rawamangun, East Jakarta.
Ondel-Ondel, often used as a symbol of Betawi culture
Chinese paifang in Mangga Dua, Central Jakarta
The Golden Snail IMAX theatre at Taman Mini Indonesia Indah
Jakarta Fair of 2007
Japanese community celebrating Ennichisai in Blok M, South Jakarta
Traditional Betawi dance, Tari Yapong

Sunda Kelapa (, Sunda Kalapa) is the old port of Jakarta located on the estuarine of Ciliwung River.

- Sunda Kelapa

Established in the fourth century as Sunda Kelapa, the city became an important trading port for the Sunda Kingdom.

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The territory of Sunda Kingdom

Sunda Kingdom

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The territory of Sunda Kingdom
The word Sunda written in Sundanese script
Batutulis inscription (dated 1533), in Bogor, commemorate the great King of Sunda Sri Baduga Maharaja (rule 1482-1521).
The Sundanese royal party arrived at the port of Hujung Galuh by Junk Sassana, a type of Javanese junk, which also incorporates Chinese techniques, such as using iron nails alongside wooden dowels, the construction of watertight bulkhead, and addition of central rudder.
Sundanese traditional house with Julang Ngapak roof in Garut circa 1920s. It was built on poles and having a thatched roof, as described in a 12th-century Chinese source.
Old map of Java still thought that land of Sunda in the west is separated from the rest of Java island. Here the capital of Sunda is called Daio which refer to Dayeuh Pakuan Pajajaran
The ruin of Bojongmenje Hindu temple in Priangan highlands, estimated was built in the 7th century.
Citarum River separates Sunda and Galuh
Cangkuang Hindu temple a shrine for Shiva, dated from the 8th century the Galuh Kingdom.
Sanghyang Tapak inscription
One of Kawali inscriptions
Statue of a Hindu god from Talaga near Kuningan, West Java, dated from the Sunda Kingdom.
Keraton Kasepuhan of Cirebon. By 1482, the Sunda kingdom lost its important eastern port of Cirebon.
The port of Sunda Kelapa, the cradle of Jakarta. For centuries it was the royal port of Sunda Kingdom serving the capital Dayeuh Pakuan Pajajaran 60 kilometres inland to the south until it fell to Demak and Cirebon forces in 1527.
The Port of Banten in the 16th century. The Islamic Sultanate of Banten was responsible for the demise of Hindu Sunda Kingdom, and supplant it as the dominant polity in western parts of Java in the following centuries.
Hindu Brahmin's ritual objects, including bronze bell and holy water container from Kawali, the historic capital of Galuh Kingdom.
Location of Pakuan Pajajaran copied from book "Kabudayaan Sunda Zaman Pajajaran" Part 2", 2005
Makuta Binokasih Sanghyang Paké, the royal crown of Sunda kingdom. After the fall of Pajajaran to Banten, the crown was evacuated to Sumedang Larang and become their regalia.
A Sundanese woman retrieving rice from a leuit, Sundanese economy mainly rely on rice agriculture
The statue of Shiva Mahadeva from Cibodas village, Cicalengka Subdistrict, Bandung Regency, West Java. Possibly from the Sunda Kingdom period 8th to 9th century.
A bronze statue of Hindu god Shiva discovered in Talaga near Kuningan, West Java. Sunda kingdom period, circa 14th century.
Padrão of Sunda Kalapa (1522), a stone pillar with a cross of the Order of Christ commemorating a treaty between Portuguese Kingdom and Hindu Sunda Kingdom, at National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta.
Lontar palm-leaf manuscript written in Sundanese

The Sunda Kingdom (Karajaan Sunda, ) was a Sundanese Hindu kingdom located in the western portion of the island of Java from 669 to around 1579, covering the area of present-day Banten, Jakarta, West Java, and the western part of Central Java.

Port of Sunda was highly possible to refer to port of Banten instead of Kalapa.

Banten Sultanate

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Bantenese Islamic trading kingdom founded in the 16th century and centred in Banten, a port city on the northwest coast of Java; the contemporary English name of both was Bantam.

Bantenese Islamic trading kingdom founded in the 16th century and centred in Banten, a port city on the northwest coast of Java; the contemporary English name of both was Bantam.

Rough extent of Banten at the death of Hasanudin, controlling both sides of Sunda Strait
Bird's-eye view of the city of Bantam, 1599.
Colonial era sketch of Grand Mosque of Banten
The reception of Cornelis de Houtman in Java in 1596 by Paulides.
Warriors of Banten, 1596.
The golden crown of the Sultan of Banten
The statue of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa
De Stad Bantam, engraving by François Valentijn, Amsterdam, 1726
Banten Residency after annexation to Dutch East Indies, with neighbouring Batavia (now Jakarta) and Buitenzorg (now Bogor)
The ruins of Kaibon palace, the former residence of Banten Sultan's queen mother.
Piper nigrum, the main commodity of Banten.
The Great Mosque of Banten, the remnant of Banten Sultanate, a popular destination for Indonesian Muslims.

It was likely his son, Hasanudin, who commanded this military operation in 1527, just as the Portuguese fleet was arriving of the coast at Sunda Kelapa, to capture these towns.

Ranamanggala restored the state's authority on commercial affairs; levying taxes, imposing price and volume of trade, and exiling the ponggawa elites to the port of Jayakarta in the east, stripping the merchants' power altogether.

Known range of Demak's military operation until the reign of Sultan Trenggana (1521-1546)

Demak Sultanate

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Javanese Muslim state located on Java's north coast in Indonesia, at the site of the present-day city of Demak.

Javanese Muslim state located on Java's north coast in Indonesia, at the site of the present-day city of Demak.

Known range of Demak's military operation until the reign of Sultan Trenggana (1521-1546)
Demak Great Mosque, built by Sultan Al-Fattah in the late 15th century with a traditional Javanese tajug stacked pyramidal roof
An early-18th century map of Java. Note that only major trading ports on the northern coast were known to the Europeans.
From west to east:
Map by Egnazio Danti (1573) showing Dema on the center north coast of Iava Magiore (Java)
The greatest extent of Demak Sultanate during Trenggana's reign.
Demak and nearby ports, with approximate coastline when Muria and Java were still separated
Interior of the Grand Mosque of Demak showing saka guru or four main wooden columns. The mosque was built using vernacular Javanese architecture.

Xacatara (Jayakarta)

Sunda Kelapa was later renamed Jayakarta.

Fatahillah (right) as depicted in 2008 Indonesian stamp.

Fatahillah

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Fatahillah (right) as depicted in 2008 Indonesian stamp.

Fatahillah was a commander of the Sultanate of Demak who is known for leading the conquest of Sunda Kelapa in 1527 and changing it name to Jayakarta.

Jakarta History Museum was housed on the original town hall of 17th-century Batavia, the capital of Dutch East Indies and center of the Asian spice trade.

Kota Tua Jakarta

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Jakarta History Museum was housed on the original town hall of 17th-century Batavia, the capital of Dutch East Indies and center of the Asian spice trade.
A map of Batavia in 1740. The area of Batavia within the city walls and moat as well as the Sunda Kelapa harbor to the left (north) of the map make up Jakarta Old Town.
Declining city, in late 19th-century the walled Old Batavia has been reduced to kampung settlements and ruined old buildings.
A street in Old Batavia in 1890, depicting 17th century housing before the development of a business district.
East facade of Cipta Niaga Building, formerly a bank office, has been left roofless and slowly deteriorates; the wooden interior exposed to the element.
Wayang Museum in Jakarta.
Jembatan Kota Intan drawbridge.
Cafe Batavia.
Post Office in Jakarta Old Town.

Kota Tua Jakarta ("Jakarta Old Town"), officially known as Kota Tua, is a neighborhood comprising the original downtown area of Jakarta, Indonesia.

In 1526, Fatahillah, sent by Sultanate of Demak, invaded the Hindu Pajajaran's port of Sunda Kelapa, after which he renamed it into Jayakarta.

Batavia around 1780 (note this a mirror image - for example the castle should be placed left of the canal)

Batavia, Dutch East Indies

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The capital of the Dutch East Indies.

The capital of the Dutch East Indies.

Batavia around 1780 (note this a mirror image - for example the castle should be placed left of the canal)
Batavia around 1780 (this image is now in the correct order after horizontally flipping that mirror image - for example, the castle is correctly placed left of the canal)
Batavia between 1675 and 1725
Replica of an East Indiaman of the Dutch East India Company/United East Indies Company (VOC).
Coat of arms of Batavia
Batavia and its eastern expansion
The coconut-tree-lined Tijgersgracht canal
Batavia in 1667
Contemporary etching of the massacre
Southern expansion, 1840
Batavia in 1897
Batavia, Weltevreden, Koningsplein, Hotel der Nederlanden c. 1912
Batavia c. 1914
Drawing of the imagined Japanese entry into Batavia
Many coolies and slaves were employed from outside Java.
Trams in Molenvliet

The area corresponds to present-day Jakarta, Indonesia.

The port of Tanjung Priok was completed in 1885, replacing the centuries-old, inadequate Sunda Kelapa, significantly increasing trade and tourism in Batavia and the Dutch East Indies.

North Jakarta

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Laundry workers working at Ciliwung river in Pasar Baru, circa between 1915 and 1925.
North Jakarta skyline
Mangga Dua Mall

North Jakarta (Jakarta Utara) is one of the five administrative cities (kota administrasi) which form Special Capital Region of Jakarta, Indonesia.

Both ports of Tanjung Priok and historic Sunda Kelapa are located in the city.