Jakarta

Replica of the Padrão of Sunda Kalapa (1522), a stone pillar with a cross of the Order of Christ commemorating a treaty between the Portuguese Empire and the Hindu Sunda Kingdom, at Jakarta History Museum.
The 5th-century Tugu inscription discovered in Tugu district, North Jakarta
Batavia around 1780
The City Hall of Batavia (Stadhuis van Batavia), the seat of the Governor-General of the VOC in the late 18th century by Johannes Rach c. 1770. The building now houses the Jakarta History Museum, Jakarta Old Town.
One of the most monumental projects launched by Sukarno was the demolition of government buildings in Merdeka Square to make way for the National Monument.
Aerial view of North Jakarta
Ancol beach
Facade of the Museum Bank Indonesia in Kota Tua
Wisma 46 in post-modernist architecture, the fourth tallest building in Jakarta
view of Monas, Jakarta's landmark
Bundaran HI, a 1960s landmark of Jakarta located at the west end of Menteng District.
Boat ride at Indonesian archipelago lake in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah
Ancol Gondola
Chinese in Jakarta praying during Chinese New Year in Glodok, Jakarta
The Indonesian Stock Exchange (Bursa Efek Indonesia) building in Jakarta, one of the oldest in Asia.
Bank Indonesia head office
Gandaria City Mall in South Jakarta
Jakarta Old City Post Office at Fatahillah Square, Central Jakarta
Most visitors to Jakarta are domestic tourists, and Taman Mini Indonesia Indah is aimed at supporting national identity and patriotism.
The main TV tower of TVRI at its headquarters in Jakarta
Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia campus at Semanggi
University of Indonesia campus
Tanjidor music of Betawi culture demonstrate European influence
Gado-gado is a popular Indonesian salad dish.
Football match at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium
Asian Games 2018 opening ceremony in Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, 2018
Jakarta Merdeka Palace
Map of the administrative cities (Kota administratif) in Jakarta province. The Thousand Islands Regency (to the north) is not shown. Each administrative city is further divided into districts (Kecamatan).
Batavia map of Meester Cornelis (now Jatinegara)
The Secretariat of ASEAN at Jl. Sisingamangaraja No.70A, South Jakarta, Indonesia
Jakarta Street in Tripoli, Libya
Al-Azhar Great Mosque, It was Jakarta's largest mosque when it was built until it was surpassed by the Istiqlal Mosque.
The Jakarta Cathedral, one of the oldest churches in Jakarta.
Kim Tek Ie, the oldest Taoist and Buddhist temple in Jakarta.
Aditya Jaya Hindu temple, Rawamangun, East Jakarta.
Ondel-Ondel, often used as a symbol of Betawi culture
Chinese paifang in Mangga Dua, Central Jakarta
The Golden Snail IMAX theatre at Taman Mini Indonesia Indah
Jakarta Fair of 2007
Japanese community celebrating Ennichisai in Blok M, South Jakarta
Traditional Betawi dance, Tari Yapong

Capital and largest city of Indonesia.

- Jakarta

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Indonesia

Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur temple, c. 800 CE. Outrigger boats from the archipelago may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830
Mount Semeru and Mount Bromo in East Java. Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest.
Rainforest in Mount Palung National Park, West Kalimantan
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Indonesia
Major volcanoes in Indonesia. Indonesia is in the Pacific Ring of Fire area.
Low visibility in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, due to deforestation-related haze.
A presidential inauguration by the MPR in the Parliament Complex Jakarta, 2014
Embassy of Indonesia, Canberra, Australia
Vast palm oil plantation in Bogor, West Java. Indonesia is the world's largest producer of palm oil.
A proportional representation of Indonesia exports, 2019
Jatiluhur Dam, Indonesia's first and largest dam.
Palapa satellite launch in 1984
Borobudur in Central Java, the world's largest Buddhist temple, is the single most visited tourist attraction in Indonesia.
Raja Ampat Islands, West Papua, has the highest recorded level of diversity in marine life, according to Conservation International.
Population pyramid 2016
A map of ethnic groups in Indonesia
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor. Hinduism has left a legacy on Indonesian art and culture.
Menara Kudus, a mosque with a traditional Indonesian architectural style.
Catholic Mass at the Jakarta Cathedral
Bandung Institute of Technology in West Java
Riots on the streets of Jakarta on 14 May 1998.
Traditional Balinese painting depicting cockfighting
An avenue of Tongkonan houses in a Torajan village, South Sulawesi
An Indonesian batik
Pandava and Krishna in an act of the Wayang Wong performance
Advertisement for Loetoeng Kasaroeng (1926), the first fiction film produced in the Dutch East Indies
Metro TV at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, reporting the 2010 AFF Championship
Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist. Many considered him to be Southeast Asia's leading candidate for a Nobel Prize in Literature.
Nasi Padang with rendang, gulai and vegetables
A demonstration of Pencak Silat, a form of martial arts
A Hindu prayer ceremony at Besakih Temple in Bali, the only Indonesian province where Hinduism is the predominant religion.
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in Banda Aceh, Aceh. The spread of Islam in Indonesia began in the region.

The country's capital, Jakarta, is the world's second-most populous urban area.

Mount Bromo in East Java

Java

One of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

One of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

Mount Bromo in East Java
Parahyangan highland near Buitenzorg, c. 1865–1872
Banteng at Alas Purwo, eastern edge of Java
Male Javan rhino shot in 1934 in West Java. Today only small numbers of Javan rhino survive in Ujung Kulon; it is the world's rarest rhino.
Mount Sumbing surrounded by rice fields. Java's volcanic topography and rich agricultural lands are the fundamental factors in its history.
Cangkuang Hindu temple a shrine for Shiva, dated from the 8th century the Galuh Kingdom.
The 9th century Borobudur Buddhist stupa in Central Java
Tea plantation in Java during Dutch colonial period, in or before 1926
Japanese prepare to discuss surrender terms with British-allied forces in Java 1945
Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia
Betawi mask dance (Tari Topeng Betawi)
SambaSunda music performance, featuring traditional Sundanese music instruments.
Lakshmana, Rama and Shinta in Ramayana ballet at Prambanan, Java.
Languages spoken in Java (Javanese is shown in white). "Malay" refers to Betawi, the local dialect as one of Malay creole dialect.
Water buffalo ploughing rice fields near Salatiga, in Central Java.
Java transport network
"Welcome!" statue in Central Jakarta
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor.
Mendut Vihara, a Buddhist monastery near Mendut temple, Magelang.
Masjid Gedhe Kauman in Yogyakarta, build in traditional Javanese multi-tiered roof.
Ganjuran Church in Bantul, built in traditional Javanese architecture.

Indonesia's capital city, Jakarta, is on Java's northwestern coast.

Official portrait, 1949

Sukarno

Indonesian statesman, orator, revolutionary, and nationalist who was the first president of Indonesia, serving from 1945 to 1967.

Indonesian statesman, orator, revolutionary, and nationalist who was the first president of Indonesia, serving from 1945 to 1967.

Official portrait, 1949
Sukarno as a HBS student in Surabaya, 1916
Sukarno with fellow defendants and attorneys during his trial in Bandung, 1930.
Sukarno at his home in exile, Bengkulu.
Sukarno shakes hands with the Japanese director of the Interior for occupied Dutch East Indies, General Moichiri Yamamoto, September 1944
Sukarno during a visit to Makassar, 30 April 1945
Sukarno, accompanied by Mohammad Hatta (right), declaring the independence of Indonesia.
Sukarno addressing the KNIP (parliament) in Malang, March 1947
Sukarno and Foreign Minister Agus Salim in Dutch custody, Parapat 1949.
Sukarno's return to Yogyakarta in June 1949
Sukarno (right) with John Foster Dulles (left) and Richard Nixon (center) in 1956.
Sukarno and Nixon in 1956.
Sukarno casting his vote at the 1955 elections
Sukarno (on top of the steps) reading his decree on 5 July 1959
Sukarno's official portrait used in the 1960s, complete with military-style decorations.
The structure of Sukarno's guided democracy in 1962
Sukarno addresses the U.S. Congress on 17 May 1956. Sitting behind him the U.S. vice president/Senate president Richard Nixon and U.S. House speaker Sam Rayburn.
Sukarno and Fidel Castro in 1960, Havana, Cuba
Sukarno (center) with John F. Kennedy (left) and Lyndon B. Johnson (right) in 1961.
Soekarno with Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Maxwell Taylor at The Merdeka Palace on August 2, 1963.
Sukarno
Sukarno with Fatmawati and five of their children. Clockwise from center: Sukarno, Sukmawati, Fatmawati, Guruh, Megawati, Guntur, Rachmawati

The Soekarno–Hatta International Airport, which serves the area near Indonesia's capital, Jakarta, still uses the Dutch spelling.

Dutch East Indies

Now Indonesia.

Now Indonesia.

Map of the Dutch East Indies showing its territorial expansion from 1800 to its fullest extent prior to Japanese occupation in 1942
Expansion of the Dutch East Indies in the Indonesian Archipelago
Map of the Dutch East Indies showing its territorial expansion from 1800 to its fullest extent prior to Japanese occupation in 1942
The Submission of Prince Dipo Negoro to General De Kock, by Nicolaas Pieneman
Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer and B. C. de Jonge, the last and penultimate governor-general of the Dutch East Indies, before the Japanese invasion
The governor-general's palace in Batavia (1880–1900)
House of the Resident (colonial administrator) in Surabaya
The Supreme Court Building, Batavia
The Aceh War (1873–1914) between the Netherlands and the Aceh Sultanate
Decorated indigenous KNIL soldiers, 1927
Volksraad members in 1918: D. Birnie (Dutch), Kan Hok Hoei (Chinese), R. Sastro Widjono and M. N. Dwidjo Sewojo (Javanese)
Students of the School Tot Opleiding Van Indische Artsen (STOVIA) aka Sekolah Doctor Jawa
Dutch, Eurasian and Javanese professors of law at the opening of the Rechts Hogeschool in 1924
Headquarters of the Deli Company in Medan circa 1925
De Javasche Bank in Banjarmasin
Workers pose at the site of a railway tunnel under construction in the mountains, 1910
Perhimpunan Pelajar-Pelajar Indonesia (Indonesian Students Union) delegates in Youth Pledge, an important event where Indonesian language was decided to be the national language, 1928
The romantic depiction of De Grote Postweg near Buitenzorg
Bioscoop Mimosa cinema in Batu, Java, 1941
Museum and lab of the Buitenzorg Plantentuin
Dutch family enjoying a large Rijsttafel dinner, 1936
Ceremonial Hall, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, designed by architect Henri Maclaine-Pont
Javanese nobles adopted and mixed some aspects of European fashion, such as this couple in 1890.
Dutch colonial couple in the early 20th century wearing native batik and kebaya fashion
Dutch imperial imagery representing the Dutch East Indies (1916). The text reads "Our most precious jewel."

A capital was established in Batavia (now Jakarta), which became the center of the VOC's Asian trading network.

Banten

Westernmost province on the island of Java, in Indonesia.

Westernmost province on the island of Java, in Indonesia.

Sultan Maulana Hasanuddin of Banten. Together with his father, Sunan Gunungjati, Hasanuddin founded the Sultanate of Banten
Bird's-eye view of the city of Banten, 1599.
Warriors of Banten, 1596.
François Valentijn painting of Banten, in 1694.
In 1808, Dutch Governor-General Herman Williem Daendels ordered the annexation of the Banten Sultanate. This marked the demise of the four-century-old Sultanate and the beginning of direct Dutch rule in the region for the next 150 years
Rōmusha after being freed by the Dutch. Thousands of labores died during the construction of the Saketi-Bayah railway under the Japanese
Tanjung Lesung beach, Pandegelang Regency
Mangrove forest in Ujung Kulon National Park
Sawarna Banten Green View, Lebak Regency
Rawa Danau, Lebak Regency
Administrative Map of Banten Province
Baduy people in Serang during the Seba Baduy event
Mass wedding ceremony of Benteng Chinese
Languages map of Banten
Students from a pesantren wearing Islamic dress. Most of the people in Banten are Muslims
Rampak bedug performance at event of Culinary Festival of Serang
Selection of Kang Nong Banten in 2017. The finalists wear Bantenese traditional dress.
Betawi men performing pencak silat
Bantenese men during a debus performance
The Great Mosque of Banten
Jojorong, a food originated from Pandeglang. This food is made from rice flour, brown sugar, coconut milk, and pandan leaves which served into a bowl made from banana leaves.
Soekarno–Hatta International Airport in Tangerang. It is the main airport of the province, as well as the main gateway to Jakarta and Indonesia
A Commuter Line in the Tangerang railway station
A public bus in Poris terminal, Tangerang
The Port of Merak serves ferries to and from Sumatra

The province borders West Java and the Special Capital Region of Jakarta to the east, the Java Sea to the north, the Indian Ocean to the south, and the Sunda Strait to the west, which separates Java from the neighbouring island of Sumatra.

West Java

Province of Indonesia on the western part of the island of Java, with its provincial capital in Bandung.

Province of Indonesia on the western part of the island of Java, with its provincial capital in Bandung.

Rice fields terrace in Priangan highland, West Java, Dutch East Indies. In/before 1926.
Parahyangan highland near Buitenzorg (Bogor), c. 1865–1872
2nd-level Administrative map of West Java Province
View of the mount and the crater of Tangkuban Parahu, Bandung
Tea plantations in Malabar, southern Bandung. Tea plantations are common sight across mountainous West Java
Rancabali, Bandung Regency
Kawah Putih
Gamelan Degung Orchestra
SambaSunda performance in Cologne 2010
Angklung as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
Wayang Golek, a traditional Sundanese puppetry.
Jaipongan dance performance accompanied by Sundanese degung mixed with modern instruments.
A painting depicting Nyai Loro Kidul
Cities and regencies of West Java by Human Development Index in 2020
Jagorawi Toll Road.
West hall of Bandung Institute of Technology

West Java is bordered by the province of Banten and the country's capital region of Jakarta to the west, the Java Sea to the north, the province of Central Java to the east and the Indian Ocean to the south.

Official portrait, 1973

Suharto

Indonesian army officer and politician, who served as the second and the longest serving president of Indonesia.

Indonesian army officer and politician, who served as the second and the longest serving president of Indonesia.

Official portrait, 1973
Official portrait, 1993
Lieutenant Colonel Suharto, c. 1947
Official portrait of Suharto and Siti Hartinah, c. date unknown
Suharto with his wife and six children, c. 1967
In his office as the head of the Strategic Reserve, c. 1963
President Sukarno (with glasses) 
in Disneyland, c. 1961
As Major General, Suharto (at right, foreground) attends funeral for assassinated generals, 5 October 1965
The Supersemar document transferring the authority to restore security to Suharto in 1966
Suharto taking the presidential oath of office, 27 March 1968
Suharto's right-hand man Ali Murtopo, c. 1982
Street art depicting Suharto as the father of development, c. 1985
Official portrait, c. 1983
Official portrait, c. 1988
Suharto and his wife in Islamic attire after performing the hajj in 1991
Official portrait, c. 1998
Suharto reads his resignation speech at Merdeka Palace on 21 May 1998. His vice president and successor, B. J. Habibie, is on his left hand side
Suharto in 1998

As company commander, he conducted training for new PETA recruits in Surakarta, Jakarta, and Madiun.

An updated Köppen–Geiger climate map

Köppen climate classification

One of the most widely used climate classification systems.

One of the most widely used climate classification systems.

An updated Köppen–Geiger climate map
Tropical climate distribution
Dry climate distribution
Temperate climate distribution
Continental climate distribution
The snowy city of Sapporo
Polar climate distribution
North America
Europe
Russia
Central Asia
East Asia
South America
Africa
Western Asia
South Asia
Southeast Asia
Melanesia/Oceania
Australia
New Zealand

Jakarta, Indonesia (Am)

A Javanese bride and groom wearing their traditional garb

Javanese people

The Javan or Javanese (Javanese:, Wong Jawa (in Ngoko register); , Tiyang Jawi (in Krama register)) are indigenous ethnic group native to the central and eastern hemisphere of Java island, Indonesia.

The Javan or Javanese (Javanese:, Wong Jawa (in Ngoko register); , Tiyang Jawi (in Krama register)) are indigenous ethnic group native to the central and eastern hemisphere of Java island, Indonesia.

A Javanese bride and groom wearing their traditional garb
Javanese adapted many aspects of Indian culture, such as the Ramayana epic.
Sultan Amangkurat II of Mataram (upper right) watching warlord Untung Surapati fighting Captain Tack of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). ca 1684 AD.
A Javanese courtly ceremony at Keraton Surakarta in 1932.
Javanese cultural expressions, such as wayang and gamelan are often used to promote the excellence of Javanese culture.
Gamelan is one of Javanese cultural expression that demonstrate refinement.
Javanese abugida.
Javanese priyayi (aristocrat) and servants, c. undefined 1865.
Javanese temple.
Traditional Javanese house.
Example of Javanese cuisine. Clockwise: fried tempeh, mlinjo crackers, gudeg with rice wrapped in teak leaf, green chili sambal and sliced lime.
Nasi tumpeng, the quintessentially Javanese rice dish, symbolises the volcano.
A Javanese sailor.
Inhabitants of Jave la Grande (Great Java island), from Nicholas Vallard's manuscript sea atlas (1547). The people are armed with spear and shortsword with curving hilt, a feature of Indonesian weapon (golok?). The man riding a horse seems to be a leader or noble. The servant behind him carried a parasol. Several men is wearing turbans, which may indicate that they are Muslims, but the women did not cover their head like Muslims do (it needs to be noted that, this custom of Muslim women not wearing a veil in Indonesia is quite common until after World War 2). In the background are several raised wooden huts, also a feature of Indonesian building. It is unknown whether these huts are for dwelling or serve as a temporary shelter for people working on the orchard.
Javanese migrant workers in Suriname, circa 1940
A decorative kris with a figure of Semar as the handle. The bilah has thirteen luk
Varieties of Javanese keris
Weapons of Java: Machetes, maces, bow and arrows, blowpipe, sling
Weapon of Java: Keris
Short swords, shields, and a matchlock gun (istinggar)
Javanese weapons and standards
Various keris and pole weapons of Java.
Javanese woodworkers making traditional masks during the Dutch East Indies era
The carpenters' tools of the Javanese people
Javanese agricultural tools
A drawing of Javanese manufacturing tools, handicrafts, and musical instruments
Javanese musical instruments, many of which require the skills of blacksmith and carpenters
Javanese masks

In 1619 the Dutch established their trading headquarter in Batavia.

Chinese junks Sin Tong Heng and Tek Hwa Seng in the Sambu Island, Singapore Strait, c. undefined 1936

Chinese Indonesians

Chinese Indonesians (Orang Tionghoa Indonesia) and colloquially Chindos, are Indonesians whose ancestors arrived from China at some stage in the last eight centuries.

Chinese Indonesians (Orang Tionghoa Indonesia) and colloquially Chindos, are Indonesians whose ancestors arrived from China at some stage in the last eight centuries.

Chinese junks Sin Tong Heng and Tek Hwa Seng in the Sambu Island, Singapore Strait, c. undefined 1936
Chinese workers from Swatow await the preparation of their contracts by immigration officials at Medan's labor inspectorate, Belawan c. undefined 1920–1940
The first Dutch Chinese Schools were established in 1892 following a split in curriculum from the native population.
Chinese-language school owned by the Tiong Hoa Hwe Koan in Sungailiat, Bangka
Early draft of the Indonesia Raya, later adopted as a national anthem, in a 1928 weekly edition of the Sin Po newspaper
Pao An Tui or "The Chinese Police" in Bagansiapiapi, which played a major role in maintaining peace and order among Chinese community
Restrictions on rural non-indigenous retail businesses in 1959 led to rapid urbanization of the ethnic Chinese community.
1967 photo of a Chinese-Indonesian family of Hubei ancestry
Anti-Chinese sentiment reached its peak in May 1998, when major riots swept over Jakarta.
Mari Elka Pangestu, Chinese Indonesian minister during the 2004-2014 cabinet.
During the 2000 census, the peak of the ethnic Chinese population pyramid occurred in the 15–19 age group. The male population is shown in blue, and the female is in pink.
The Chinese district of Medan, North Sumatra, in 1925; The city is home to the largest Chinese population by number in Sumatra, also the second largest nationally after Jakarta.
The Chinese New Year celebration in Chinese Town in Senapelan, Pekanbaru, Riau.
Population estimates of the peranakan (shown in red) and totok (in pink) throughout the 20th century
Identity card of The Hong Eng, c. undefined 1943, indicating her Chinese ethnicity during the occupation of the Dutch East Indies by Japan
The tin mines of Bangka Island almost entirely employed Chinese workers.
Shophouses in Batavia with Chinese signs along the front of the shophouse
Hakka Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta
Tjhoen Tjhioe; (春秋), was one of a Chinese Peranakan newspaper during colonial era
Ouw Peh Tjoa, one of early chinese folktale-based story which was made and released in the colonial Indonesia, directed by The Teng Chun
Two storey Chinese-style shophouses in Glodok, Jakarta, c.1972
Traditional Peranakan-style house in Bagansiapiapi, Riau
Local Chinese-Indonesian students writing in Chinese calligraphy
Kong Miao Confucian Temple in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta
Vihara Eka Dharma Manggala, a Buddhist Temple in Samarinda, East Kalimantan
Geredja Keristen Tionghoa or Chinese Christian Church in Jakarta, c.1952
Cheng Ho Mosque in Surabaya, East Java
Shopping street in the Chinese districts on Java island, circa 1940-1950
The distribution map of the origins of Chinese Indonesians. Majority of their ancestral are from Fujian or Guangdong province origins with small community from Hainan island, Guangxi and the rest are from other provinces in Northern China
The Gate paifang of Kampung Ketandan Chinatown, Yogyakarta, 2018
Benteng Chinese wedding in Jakarta, 2012. Benteng people are one of Peranakan community that still exist until today, mostly concentrated in Tangerang, Jakarta and its outskirt area

According to 2010 population census, 22.3 percent of Chinese Indonesians lived in the capital city of Jakarta, located on the island of Java.