James Clark Ross

1834 painting of James Clark Ross
Illustration of the discovery of the North Magnetic Pole from Robert Huish's 1835 book.
Ross expedition in the Antarctic, 1847, by John Carmichael
"E.I. 1849": and, inscribed by a crew member of the Ross expedition on Somerset Island
James Clark Ross, depicted in 1850 by Stephen Pearce

British Royal Navy officer and polar explorer known for his explorations of the Arctic, participating in two expeditions led by his uncle Sir John Ross, and four led by Sir William Parry, and, in particular, for his own Antarctic expedition from 1839 to 1843.

- James Clark Ross
1834 painting of James Clark Ross

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HMS Erebus and HMS Terror in the Antarctic, by James Wilson Carmichael, 1847.

Ross expedition

HMS Erebus and HMS Terror in the Antarctic, by James Wilson Carmichael, 1847.
Portrait of Sir James Clark Ross by John R. Wildman. The object lower right is a dip circle.
One of the expedition's ships, either HMS Erebus or HMS Terror, from the Illustrated London News, 1845
Wandering of South Magnetic Pole from observation, starting with Ross, and prediction
Adélie penguin, from the Ross Expedition to the Antarctic of 1839–1843. The Zoology of the Voyage of HMS Erebus and Terror Vol 1, 1875. Drawn by C. Hillman
Title page of Flora Antarctica, 1844–1846
Fagus betuloides (Flora Antarctica, Plate CXXIV)
The red alga Nitophyllum smithi

The Ross expedition was a voyage of scientific exploration of the Antarctic in 1839 to 1843, led by James Clark Ross, with two unusually strong warships, HMS Erebus and HMS Terror.

Location of the north magnetic pole and the north geomagnetic pole in 2017.

North magnetic pole

Point on the surface of Earth's Northern Hemisphere at which the planet's magnetic field points vertically downward .

Point on the surface of Earth's Northern Hemisphere at which the planet's magnetic field points vertically downward .

Location of the north magnetic pole and the north geomagnetic pole in 2017.
Part of the carta marina of 1539 by Olaus Magnus, depicting the location of magnetic north vaguely conceived as "Insula Magnetū[m]" (Latin for "Island of Magnets"), off modern-day Murmansk. The man holding the rune staffs is the Norse hero Starkad ("Starcaterus").
The movement of Earth's north magnetic pole across the Canadian Arctic in recent centuries, continuing in recent years across the Arctic Ocean towards Siberia
Speed of the north magnetic pole according to the IGRF-12 model
Magnetic declination from true north in 2000.

The first group to reach the north magnetic pole was led by James Clark Ross, who found it at Cape Adelaide on the Boothia Peninsula on June 1, 1831, while serving on the second arctic expedition of his uncle, Sir John Ross.

William Edward Parry

Anglo-Welsh explorer of the Arctic best known for his 1819–1820 expedition through the Parry Channel, probably the most successful in the long quest for the Northwest Passage, until it was finally negotiated by Roald Amundsen in 1906.

Anglo-Welsh explorer of the Arctic best known for his 1819–1820 expedition through the Parry Channel, probably the most successful in the long quest for the Northwest Passage, until it was finally negotiated by Roald Amundsen in 1906.

Parry Channel runs west from Lancaster Sound. Melville Island is the westernmost yellow-and-pink island on the north side.
Foxe Basin. Melville Peninsula on the west between Frozen Strait (south) and Fury and Hecla Strait (north)
"Das Eismeer" (The Sea of Ice) by Caspar David Friedrich, 1823–4, was inspired by Parry's account from the 1819–1820 expedition. The harsh nature (e.g. the shipwreck) and radical composition, however, caused it to remain unsold until the death of the artist in 1840.
"The Crews of H.M.S. Hecla & Griper Cutting into Winter Harbour, 26 Sept. 1819". An engraving from the journal published in 1821.
Winter Island by Jean-Baptiste Henri Durand-Brager
HMS Hecla and HMS Fury enter Baffin Bay during the 1824 expedition
The Officers Monument near the site of Greenwich Hospital in east London

Others with him were George Fisher, scientist and chaplain, William Hooper, purser and diarist, lieutenant Henry Parkyns Hoppner and then midshipmen Francis Crozier and James Clark Ross.

Sea ice in the Ross Sea

Ross Sea

Deep bay of the Southern Ocean in Antarctica, between Victoria Land and Marie Byrd Land and within the Ross Embayment, and is the southernmost sea on Earth.

Deep bay of the Southern Ocean in Antarctica, between Victoria Land and Marie Byrd Land and within the Ross Embayment, and is the southernmost sea on Earth.

Sea ice in the Ross Sea
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Bloom in the Ross Sea, January 2011

It derives its name from the British explorer James Ross who visited this area in 1841.

Area map of Victoria land.

Victoria Land

Region in eastern Antarctica which fronts the western side of the Ross Sea and the Ross Ice Shelf, extending southward from about 70°30'S to 78°00'S, and westward from the Ross Sea to the edge of the Antarctic Plateau.

Region in eastern Antarctica which fronts the western side of the Ross Sea and the Ross Ice Shelf, extending southward from about 70°30'S to 78°00'S, and westward from the Ross Sea to the edge of the Antarctic Plateau.

Area map of Victoria land.

It was discovered by Captain James Clark Ross in January 1841 and named after Queen Victoria.

Hooker in 1897

Joseph Dalton Hooker

British botanist and explorer in the 19th century.

British botanist and explorer in the 19th century.

Hooker in 1897
Daguerreotype of Hooker by William Edward Kilburn, circa 1852
Frances Harriet Henslow, by William Edward Kilburn
Tibet and Cholamo Lake from the summit of the Donkia Pass, looking North West from Hooker's Himalayan Journals. Hooker reached the pass on 7 November 1849.
Rhododendron argenteum illustration by Walter Hood Fitch from Rhododendrons of Sikkim Himalaya.
An 1854 illustration showing Hooker with his Lepcha collectors in Sikkim (Mezzotint by William Walker after a painting by Frank Stone)
Engraving of Hooker by Charles Henry Jeens (1827–1879)
Hooker in the 1860s during his period at Kew
Sir Richard Owen opposed Hooker in his planned expansion of Kew Photograph: Ernest Edwards, 1867
Owen was supported in parliament by Acton Smee Ayrton Caracature, Vanity Fair, 1869

This degree qualified him for employment in the Naval Medical Service: he joined the renowned polar explorer Captain James Clark Ross's Antarctic expedition to the South Magnetic Pole after receiving a commission as Assistant-Surgeon on.

Ross Ice Shelf situated between Marie Byrd Land and Victoria Land

Ross Ice Shelf

Largest ice shelf of Antarctica .

Largest ice shelf of Antarctica .

Ross Ice Shelf situated between Marie Byrd Land and Victoria Land
Crevasse, Ross Ice Shelf in 2001
"The mystic Barrier" at Bay of Whales, near where Amundsen first encountered it. Note humans for size comparison (dark spots next to the large chunk of sea ice at left image border). RV Nathaniel B. Palmer is in the distance.
Ross Ice Shelf edge in 1997
Glacier-ice shelf interactions
Main drill site for the New Zealand 2017 hot water drill camp on the Ross Ice Shelf

The ice shelf is named after Sir James Clark Ross, who discovered it on 28 January 1841.

South end of Ross Island

Ross Island

Island formed by four volcanoes in the Ross Sea near the continent of Antarctica, off the coast of Victoria Land in McMurdo Sound.

Island formed by four volcanoes in the Ross Sea near the continent of Antarctica, off the coast of Victoria Land in McMurdo Sound.

South end of Ross Island

Sir James Ross discovered it in 1840, and it was later named in honour of him by Robert F. Scott.

John Ross (Royal Navy officer)

Scottish Royal Navy officer and polar explorer.

Scottish Royal Navy officer and polar explorer.

Victorys last time under sail, Gulf of Boothia, 1832
saves the crew of Victory, 1834
Map delivered by Ross to King William in 1834 showing discoveries in the expedition.

He was the uncle of Sir James Clark Ross, who explored the Arctic with him, and later led expeditions to Antarctica.

James Ross Island from NASA's DC-8 aircraft during an AirSAR March 2004 mission over the Antarctic Peninsula

James Ross Island

Large island off the southeast side and near the northeastern extremity of the Antarctic Peninsula, from which it is separated by Prince Gustav Channel.

Large island off the southeast side and near the northeastern extremity of the Antarctic Peninsula, from which it is separated by Prince Gustav Channel.

James Ross Island from NASA's DC-8 aircraft during an AirSAR March 2004 mission over the Antarctic Peninsula

It was charted in October 1903 by the Swedish Antarctic Expedition under Otto Nordenskiöld, who named it for Sir James Clark Ross, the leader of a British expedition to this area in 1842 that discovered and roughly charted a number of points along the eastern side of the island.