James G. Blaine

James BlaineBlaineJames Gillespie BlaineBlaine, JamesBlaine campaignBlaine, James G.Sen. James G. Blaine
James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was an American statesman and Republican politician who represented Maine in the U.S.wikipedia
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1884 United States presidential election

18841884 presidential electionelection of 1884
In the general election, he was narrowly defeated by Democrat Grover Cleveland.
Governor Grover Cleveland of New York defeated Republican James G. Blaine of Maine.

1880 Republican National Convention

1880the conventionRepublican National Convention
Blaine twice served as Secretary of State (1881, 1889–1892), one of only two persons to hold the position under three separate presidents (the other being Daniel Webster), and unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination for President in 1876 and 1880 before being nominated in 1884.
Of the 14 men in contention for the Republican nomination, the three strongest candidates leading up to the convention were Ulysses S. Grant, James G. Blaine, and John Sherman.

1884 Republican National Convention

1884Republican National Convention1884 convention
Blaine twice served as Secretary of State (1881, 1889–1892), one of only two persons to hold the position under three separate presidents (the other being Daniel Webster), and unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination for President in 1876 and 1880 before being nominated in 1884.
It resulted in the nomination of former House Speaker James G. Blaine from Maine for President and Senator John A. Logan of Illinois for Vice President.

Washington & Jefferson College

Washington and Jefferson CollegeJefferson CollegeWashington College
At the age of thirteen, Blaine enrolled in his father's alma mater, Washington College (now Washington & Jefferson College), in nearby Washington, Pennsylvania.
A number of noteworthy alumni have attended the college or its predecessor institutions, including James G. Blaine, William Holmes McGuffey, Joseph Ruggles Wilson, who was the father of President Woodrow Wilson, and Pete Henry.

Grover Cleveland

ClevelandPresident ClevelandPresident Grover Cleveland
In the general election, he was narrowly defeated by Democrat Grover Cleveland.
The Republicans convened in Chicago and nominated former Speaker of the House James G. Blaine of Maine for president on the fourth ballot.

Speaker of the United States House of Representatives

Speaker of the HouseSpeaker of the House of RepresentativesSpeaker
James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was an American statesman and Republican politician who represented Maine in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1863 to 1876, serving as Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1869 to 1875, and then in the United States Senate from 1876 to 1881. In March 1869, when Speaker Schuyler Colfax resigned from office at the end of the 40th Congress to become vice president, the highly regarded Blaine was the unanimous choice of the Republican Congressional Caucus to become Speaker of the House for the 41st Congress.
Furthermore, several speakers became leading figures in their political parties; examples include Democrats Samuel J. Randall, John Griffin Carlisle, and Charles F. Crisp, and Republicans James G. Blaine, Thomas Brackett Reed, and Joseph Gurney Cannon.

Ephraim Blaine

His great-grandfather Ephraim Blaine served as a Commissary-General under George Washington in the American Revolutionary War.
His great-grandson was Speaker of the House and 1884 presidential nominee James G. Blaine.

Half-Breeds (politics)

Half-BreedsHalf-BreedHalf Breeds
Blaine was one of the late 19th century's leading Republicans and champion of the moderate reformist faction of the party known as the "Half-Breeds".
The Stalwarts were in favor of political machines and spoils system-style patronage, while the Half-Breeds, led by Maine senator James G. Blaine, were in favor of civil service reform and a merit system.

Walker Blaine

Walker
Although Blaine's first son, Stanwood, died in infancy, he and Harriet had two more sons soon afterward: Walker, in 1855, and Emmons, in 1857.
Walker Blaine was born in Augusta, Maine on May 8, 1855, the son of James G. Blaine and Harriet (Stanwood) Blaine.

1876 Republican National Convention

1876Republican National Convention1876 convention
Blaine twice served as Secretary of State (1881, 1889–1892), one of only two persons to hold the position under three separate presidents (the other being Daniel Webster), and unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination for President in 1876 and 1880 before being nominated in 1884.
The principal candidates at the convention included Senator James G. Blaine of Maine, the former Speaker of the House; Senator Oliver P. Morton of Indiana; Secretary of the Treasury Benjamin H. Bristow of Kentucky; Senator Roscoe Conkling of New York; Governor Rutherford B. Hayes of Ohio; and Governor John F. Hartranft of Pennsylvania.

Maine Republican Party

RepublicanRepublicansRepublican Party
Meanwhile, his political power was growing as he became chairman of the Republican state committee in 1859, replacing Stevens.
From the 1860s until 1900, James G. Blaine rose as a dominant Republican figure.

41st United States Congress

Forty-first41st41st Congress
In March 1869, when Speaker Schuyler Colfax resigned from office at the end of the 40th Congress to become vice president, the highly regarded Blaine was the unanimous choice of the Republican Congressional Caucus to become Speaker of the House for the 41st Congress.

42nd United States Congress

Forty-second42nd42nd Congress
Republicans remained in control of the House in the 42nd and 43rd congresses, and Blaine was re-elected as speaker at the start of both of them.

John L. Stevens

J. L. StevensJohn Leavitt StevensU.S. minister in Hawaii
Baker soon sold his share to John L. Stevens, a local minister, in 1854.
Six years prior, in 1854, Stevens and his partner James G. Blaine had purchased the newspaper The Kennebec Journal in Augusta, where the pair collaborated for 14 years on editing their publication and pushing the development of Maine's Republican Party.

43rd United States Congress

Forty-third43rdForty-third Congress
Republicans remained in control of the House in the 42nd and 43rd congresses, and Blaine was re-elected as speaker at the start of both of them.

Kennebec Journal

The Daily Kennebec JournalThe Kennebec Journal
Philadelphia's law libraries gave Blaine the chance to at last begin to study the law, but in 1853 he received a more tempting offer: to become editor and co-owner of the Kennebec Journal.
James G. Blaine bought half of the newspaper in 1854 and became its editor.

44th United States Congress

Forty-fourth44thForty-fourth Congress
His time as speaker came to an end following the 1874 / 75 elections which produced a Democratic majority for the 44th Congress.

Western Military Institute

In 1848, Blaine was hired as a professor of mathematics and ancient languages at the Western Military Institute in Georgetown, Kentucky.
Future Republican politician, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, and Presidential Candidate James Blaine was an instructor there in 1850 and 1851.

United States Secretary of State

Secretary of StateU.S. Secretary of StateUS Secretary of State
Blaine twice served as Secretary of State (1881, 1889–1892), one of only two persons to hold the position under three separate presidents (the other being Daniel Webster), and unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination for President in 1876 and 1880 before being nominated in 1884.
Others, including Henry Clay, William Seward, James Blaine, William Jennings Bryan, John Kerry, and Hillary Clinton have been unsuccessful presidential candidates, either before or after their term of office as Secretary of State.

38th United States Congress

Thirty-eighth38th38th Congress
By the time Blaine took his seat in December 1863, at the start of the 38th Congress, the Union Army had turned the tide of the war with victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg.

1876 United States presidential election

18761876 presidential electionpresidential election of 1876
In the subsequent contest of 1876, Hayes was elected after a contentious compromise over disputed electoral votes.
After President Ulysses S. Grant declined to seek a third term despite previously being expected to do so, Congressman James G. Blaine emerged as the front-runner for the Republican nomination.

39th United States Congress

Thirty-ninth39th39th Congress
Blaine was reelected in 1864 and, when the 39th Congress assembled in December 1865, the main issue was the Reconstruction of the defeated Confederate States.

The Blaine House

Blaine Housea mansiongovernor's mansion
At the same time, the Blaine family moved to a mansion in Augusta.
James G. Blaine, then the Speaker of the Maine House of Representatives, purchased it in 1862 as a present for his wife, the former Harriet Stanwood, daughter of a prominent Augusta family.

Crédit Mobilier scandal

Crédit Mobilier of America scandalCredit MobilierCredit Mobilier scandal
Blaine's growing fame brought growing opposition from the Democrats, as well, and during the 1872 campaign he was accused of receiving bribes in the Crédit Mobilier scandal.
Included in the group of legislators named as having received cash or discounted shares of stock were former Schuyler Colfax, the former House Speaker then serving as Grant's Vice President; Henry Wilson, the senator selected to replace Colfax as the Republican vice presidential nominee during the 1872 Presidential election; James G. Blaine, then-Speaker of the House; and Representative James Garfield, the future President of the United States.

Little Rock and Fort Smith Railroad

Rumors had begun to spread in February of that year that Blaine had been involved in a transaction with the Union Pacific Railroad in which the railroad had paid Blaine $64,000 for some Little Rock and Fort Smith Railroad bonds he owned, even though the bonds were nearly worthless.
It came to national prominence when its bonds were the subject of a scandal involving Republican presidential candidate James G. Blaine in 1876.