Second Battle of Bull Run, fought Augt. 29th 1862, 1860s lithograph by Currier and Ives
George B. McClellan and Robert E. Lee, respective commanders of the Union and Confederate armies in the Seven Days
Antebellum portrait of Longstreet
Northeastern Virginia (1862)
Seven Days Battles: map of events (left side)
Sketch of Longstreet as a Confederate
Second Bull Run Campaign, August 17–30, 1862 (Additional map).
Map of Southeastern Virginia
August 30, 4 p.m.: Start of Longstreet's attack
Battlefield of Manassas (right side)
Map of Southeastern Virginia (additional map)
Longstreet circa 1862
Action at Brawner's Farm, August 28
Seven Days Battles, June 26–27, 1862
A map of the Battle of Fredericksburg
August 29, 10 a.m.: Sigel's attack
Seven Days Battles, June 30, 1862
Longstreet at Gettysburg c. undefined 1900
August 29, 12 noon: Longstreet arrives, Porter stalls
Seven Days Battles, July 1, 1862
Gettysburg, July 2
August 29, 3 p.m.: Grover's attack
<center>Brig. Gen. Edwin V. Sumner</center>
Pickett's Charge, July 3
August 29, 5–7 p.m., Kearny's attack, Hood vs. Hatch
<center>Brig. Gen. Samuel P. Heintzelman</center>
Longstreet's Left Wing assaults, mid-day September 20
Stonewall Jackson's cannons on Henry House Hill
<center>Brig. Gen. Erasmus D. Keyes</center>
Carte de Visite portrait of Longstreet
August 30, 3 p.m., Porter's attack
<center>Brig. Gen. Fitz John Porter</center>
James Longstreet after the war
August 30, 4 p.m.: Start of Longstreet's attack
<center>Brig. Gen. William B. Franklin</center>
James Longstreet after the war
August 30, 4:30 p.m.: Union defense of Chinn Ridge
<center>Brig. Gen. Philip St. George Cooke</center>
James Longstreet in later life (1896), affecting the sideburns of his opponent at Fredericksburg and Knoxville
August 30, 5 p.m.: Final Confederate attacks, beginning of the Union retreat
<center>Maj. Gen. Stonewall Jackson</center>
Longstreet's grave
Bridge crossed by the Union troops retreating to Centreville
<center>Maj. Gen. James Longstreet</center>
Equestrian statue of General Longstreet on his horse Hero in Pitzer Woods at Gettysburg National Military Park
Soldiers stand next to a completely destroyed Henry House in 1862
<center>Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder</center>
Map of events during the Peninsula campaign to the Battle of Seven Pines Confederate
Union
Union troops retreat after the battle
<center>Maj. Gen. A. P. Hill</center>
Longstreet's attack in the Battle of the Wilderness, May 6, 1864, shortly before he was wounded Confederate
Union
<center>Maj. Gen.
<center>Maj. Gen. Benjamin Huger</center>
<center>Maj. Gen.
<center>Maj. Gen. Theophilus H. Holmes</center>
<center>Maj. Gen.
Map of events during the Peninsula campaign to the Battle of Seven Pines
Confederate
Union
<center>Maj. Gen.
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<center>Soldiers stand next to a completely destroyed Henry House in 1862</center>
<center>Virginia, Bull Run. Ruins of Stone Bridge, 1862</center>
<center>A group of men stand near the Manassas Railroad Junction railroad tracks in 1862 with a train in the background</center>
<center>A group of men near Manassas Railroad Junction in 1862</center>
<center>A group of men near Manassas Railroad Junction in 1862</center>
<center>Men sit near the Manassas Junction railroad in 1862</center>
<center>Picking up debris of trains after Pope's retreat</center>
<center>Bull Run, Va. Dedication of the battle monument; Judge Abram B. Olin of the District of Columbia Supreme Court, who delivered the address, stands by the rail.</center>
Battle map drafted by Sneden, Robert Knox, with notes on Union and Confederate strengths, casualties, done in pen and ink and water color
Northern Virginia Campaign, August 7–28, 1862 Confederate
Union

Following a wide-ranging flanking march, Confederate Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson captured the Union supply depot at Manassas Junction, threatening Pope's line of communications with Washington, D.C. Withdrawing a few miles to the northwest, Jackson took up strong concealed defensive positions on Stony Ridge and awaited the arrival of the wing of Lee's army commanded by Maj. Gen. James Longstreet.

- Second Battle of Bull Run

He performed poorly at Seven Pines by accidentally marching his men down the wrong road, causing them to arrive late, but played an important role in the Confederate success of the Seven Days Battles in the summer of 1862, where he helped supervise repeated attacks which drove the Union army away from the Confederate capital of Richmond.

- James Longstreet

Longstreet led a devastating counterattack that routed the Union army at Second Bull Run in August.

- James Longstreet

After the collapse of Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Peninsula Campaign in the Seven Days Battles of June 1862, President Abraham Lincoln appointed John Pope to command the newly formed Army of Virginia.

- Second Battle of Bull Run

Maj. Gen. James Longstreet's division consisted of the brigades of Brig. Gens. James L. Kemper, Richard H. Anderson, George E. Pickett, Cadmus M. Wilcox, Roger A. Pryor, and Winfield Scott Featherston. Longstreet also had operational command over Hill's Light Division.

- Seven Days Battles

Despite heavy casualties, which the less-populated South could ill afford, and clumsy tactical performances by Lee and his generals, Confederate morale skyrocketed, and Lee was emboldened to continue his aggressive strategy through the Second Battle of Bull Run and the Maryland Campaign.

- Seven Days Battles

18 related topics with Alpha

Overall

George B. McClellan and Joseph E. Johnston, respective commanders of the Union and Confederate armies in the Peninsula campaign

Peninsula campaign

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Major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March to July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater.

Major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March to July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater.

George B. McClellan and Joseph E. Johnston, respective commanders of the Union and Confederate armies in the Peninsula campaign
Peninsula campaign, map of Southeastern Virginia
Peninsula campaign, map of Southeastern Virginia (additional map)
Federal Battery # 4 with 13 in seacoast mortars, Model 1861, during the siege of Yorktown, Virginia, 1862
Movements and battles in the 1862 Peninsula Campaign, up through the start of the Battle of Seven Pines
Siege of Yorktown
Engagement Near Hanover Court-House, Virginia
The Chickahominy - Sumner's Upper Bridge: 1862 watercolor by William McIlvaine
Battle of Seven Pines
Brig. Gen. Thomas Francis Meagher at the Battle of Fair Oaks, June 1, 1862
Seven Days Battles: map of events (left side)
<center>Brig. Gen. Edwin V. Sumner</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Samuel P. Heintzelman</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Erasmus D. Keyes</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. D. H. Hill</center>
<center>Lt. Gen. James Longstreet</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Fitz John Porter</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. William B. Franklin</center>

McClellan was initially successful against the equally cautious General Joseph E. Johnston, but the emergence of the more aggressive General Robert E. Lee turned the subsequent Seven Days Battles into a humiliating Union defeat.

Center Wing, Maj. Gen. James Longstreet commanding: brigades of Brig. Gens. A. P. Hill, Richard H. Anderson, George E. Pickett, Cadmus M. Wilcox, Raleigh E. Colston, and Roger A. Pryor

Lincoln later ordered the army to return to the Washington, D.C., area to support Maj. Gen. John Pope's army in the northern Virginia campaign and the Second Battle of Bull Run.

Lee in March 1864

Robert E. Lee

6 links

Confederate general who served the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War, during which he was appointed the overall commander of the Confederate States Army.

Confederate general who served the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War, during which he was appointed the overall commander of the Confederate States Army.

Lee in March 1864
Lee at age 31 in 1838, as a Lieutenant of Engineers in the U.S. Army
Robert E. Lee, around age 38, and his son William Henry Fitzhugh Lee, around age 8, c.1845
Robert E. Lee around age 43, when he was a brevet lieutenant-colonel of engineers, c. 1850
Lee in uniform, 1863
Lee mounted on Traveller (September 1866)
Battle of Gettysburg, by Thure de Thulstrup
Lee with son Custis (left) and aide Walter H. Taylor (right) by Brady, April 16, 1865
Lee in 1869 (photo by Levin C. Handy)
General Lee and his Confederate officers in their first meeting since Appomattox, August 1869.
Oath of amnesty submitted by Robert E. Lee in 1865
Robert E. Lee, oil on canvas, Edward Calledon Bruce, 1865. Virginia Historical Society
Robert Edward Lee in art at the Battle of Chancellorsville in a stained glass window of the Washington National Cathedral
Facade view of Arlington House, the Robert E. Lee Memorial — at Arlington National Cemetery, in Virginia, pictured in 2006
Unveiling of the Equestrian Statue of Robert E. Lee, May 29, 1890, Richmond, Virginia
The removal of Lee's statue from a monument in New Orleans
Stained glass of Lee's life in the National Cathedral
Robert E. Lee, National Statuary Hall, Washington, D.C. Edward Virginius Valentine, sculptor, 1909
Robert E Lee, Virginia Monument, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, Frederick William Sievers, sculptor, 1917
Robert E. Lee Monument by Mercié, Monument Avenue, Richmond, Virginia, 1890
Statue of Lee at the Confederate War Memorial, Dallas, 1896
Statue of Lee in Murray, Kentucky
University Chapel on the campus of Washington and Lee University

He succeeded in driving the Union Army of the Potomac under George B. McClellan away from the Confederate capital of Richmond during the Seven Days Battles, although he was unable to destroy McClellan's army.

Lee then overcame Union forces under John Pope at the Second Battle of Bull Run in August.

Lee built up a collection of talented subordinates, most notably James Longstreet, Stonewall Jackson, and J. E. B. Stuart, who along with Lee were critical to the Confederacy's battlefield success.

Union General George B. McClellan and Confederate General Robert E. Lee, the principal commanders of the campaign

Maryland campaign

7 links

The Maryland campaign (or Antietam campaign) occurred September 4–20, 1862, during the American Civil War.

The Maryland campaign (or Antietam campaign) occurred September 4–20, 1862, during the American Civil War.

Union General George B. McClellan and Confederate General Robert E. Lee, the principal commanders of the campaign
Northern Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania (1861-1865)
Southern Virginia, (1861-1865)
Confederate troops marching south on N Market Street, Frederick, Maryland, during the Civil War
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Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg), September 17, 1862
Confederate dead at Antietam
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Maryland campaign, actions September 3–15, 1862
Confederate
Union

Lee fought McClellan aggressively in the Seven Days Battles; McClellan lost his nerve, and his army retreated down the Peninsula.

Lee then conducted the northern Virginia campaign in which he outmaneuvered and defeated Maj. Gen. John Pope and his Army of Virginia, most significantly at the Second Battle of Bull Run (Second Manassas).

The First Corps, under Maj. Gen. James Longstreet, consisted of the divisions of Maj. Gen. Lafayette McLaws, Maj. Gen. Richard H. Anderson, Brig. Gen. David R. Jones, Brig. Gen. John G. Walker, Brig. Gen. John Bell Hood, and an independent brigade under Brig. Gen. Nathan G. "Shanks" Evans.

A. P. Hill

7 links

Confederate general who was killed in the American Civil War.

Confederate general who was killed in the American Civil War.

General A.P. Hill
Appomattox, A. P. Hill's sword
Portrait of Hill by William Ludwell Sheppard, 1898

After the start of the American Civil War, he gained early fame as the commander of the "Light Division" in the Seven Days Battles and became one of Stonewall Jackson's ablest subordinates, distinguishing himself in the 1862 battles of Cedar Mountain, Second Bull Run, Antietam, and Fredericksburg.

Following the campaign, Hill became involved in a dispute with James Longstreet over a series of newspaper articles that appeared in the Richmond Examiner; relations between them deteriorated to the point that Hill was placed under arrest and Hill challenged Longstreet to a duel.

Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin

American Civil War

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Civil war in the United States between the Union (states that remained loyal to the federal union, or "the North") and the Confederacy (states that voted to secede, or "the South").

Civil war in the United States between the Union (states that remained loyal to the federal union, or "the North") and the Confederacy (states that voted to secede, or "the South").

Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin
Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, aroused public opinion about the evils of slavery. According to legend, when Lincoln was introduced to her at the White House, his first words were, "So this is the little lady who started this Great War."
Frederick Douglass, a former slave, was a leading abolitionist
Marais des Cygnes massacre of anti-slavery Kansans, May 19, 1858
Mathew Brady, Portrait of Abraham Lincoln, 1860
The first published imprint of secession, a broadside issued by the Charleston Mercury, December 20, 1860
Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America (1861–1865)
Bombardment of the Fort by the Confederates
Rioters attacking a building during the New York anti-draft riots of 1863
Clashes on the rivers were melees of ironclads, cottonclads, gunboats and rams, complicated by naval mines and fire rafts.
Battle between the USS Monitor and USS Merrimack (1855)
General Scott's "Anaconda Plan" 1861. Tightening naval blockade, forcing rebels out of Missouri along the Mississippi River, Kentucky Unionists sit on the fence, idled cotton industry illustrated in Georgia.
Gunline of nine Union ironclads. South Atlantic Blockading Squadron off Charleston. Continuous blockade of all major ports was sustained by North's overwhelming war production.
A December 1861 cartoon in Punch magazine in London ridicules American aggressiveness in the Trent Affair. John Bull, at right, warns Uncle Sam, "You do what's right, my son, or I'll blow you out of the water."
County map of Civil War battles by theater and year
Robert E. Lee
"Stonewall" Jackson got his nickname at Bull Run.
George B. McClellan
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
Confederate dead overrun at Marye's Heights, reoccupied next day May 4, 1863
Pickett's Charge
Ulysses S. Grant
Albert Sidney Johnston died at Shiloh
By 1863, the Union controlled large portions of the Western Theater, especially areas surrounding the Mississippi River
The Battle of Chickamauga, the highest two-day losses
Nathaniel Lyon secured St. Louis docks and arsenal, led Union forces to expel Missouri Confederate forces and government.
New Orleans captured
William Tecumseh Sherman
These dead soldiers—from Ewell's May 1864 attack at Spotsylvania—delayed Grant's advance on Richmond in the Overland Campaign.
Philip Sheridan
Map of Confederate territory losses year by year
Burying Union dead on the Antietam battlefield, 1862
Through the supervision of the Freedmen's Bureau, northern teachers traveled into the South to provide education and training for the newly freed population.
Beginning in 1961 the U.S. Post Office released commemorative stamps for five famous battles, each issued on the 100th anniversary of the respective battle.
The Battle of Fort Sumter, as depicted by Currier and Ives.
Slave states that seceded before April 15, 1861 Slave states that seceded after April 15, 1861 Union states that permitted slavery (border states) Union states that banned slavery
Territories
US Secession map. The Union vs. the Confederacy.
Union states
Union territories not permitting slavery
Border Union states, permitting slavery (One of these states, West Virginia was created in 1863)
Confederate states
Union territories that permitted slavery (claimed by Confederacy) at the start of the war, but where slavery was outlawed by the U.S. in 1862
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
Abolition of slavery in the various states of the United States over time:Abolition of slavery during or shortly after the American Revolution
The Northwest Ordinance, 1787
Gradual emancipation in New York (starting 1799, completed 1827) and New Jersey (starting 1804, completed by Thirteenth Amendment, 1865)
The Missouri Compromise, 1821
Effective abolition of slavery by Mexican or joint US/British authority
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1861
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1862
Emancipation Proclamation as originally issued, January 1, 1863
Subsequent operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863
Abolition of slavery by state action during the Civil War
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1864
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1865
Thirteenth Amendment to the US constitution, December 18, 1865
Territory incorporated into the US after the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment
Oath to defend the Constitution of the United States and, among other promises, to "abide by and faithfully support all acts of Congress passed during the . . . rebellion having reference to slaves . . . ," signed by former Confederate officer Samuel M. Kennard on June 27, 1865

General Lee and top subordinates James Longstreet and Stonewall Jackson defeated McClellan in the Seven Days Battles and forced his retreat.

The Northern Virginia Campaign, which included the Second Battle of Bull Run, ended in yet another victory for the South.

General Jackson at Winchester, Virginia 1862

Stonewall Jackson

5 links

Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson (January 21, 1824 – May 10, 1863) served as a Confederate general (1861–1863) during the American Civil War, and became one of the best-known Confederate commanders, after Robert E. Lee.

Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson (January 21, 1824 – May 10, 1863) served as a Confederate general (1861–1863) during the American Civil War, and became one of the best-known Confederate commanders, after Robert E. Lee.

General Jackson at Winchester, Virginia 1862
Jackson's Mill
First lieutenant Thomas J. Jackson sometime after West Point graduation in the late 1840s
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Stonewall Jackson
Stonewall Jackson in 1855
House owned by Stonewall Jackson in Lexington
The Colonel Lewis T. Moore house, which served as the Winchester Headquarters of Lt. Gen. T. J. "Stonewall" Jackson (photo 2007)
General Jackson by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau
Historical marker marking the end of Gen. Stonewall Jackson's pursuit of the Federals after the Battle of McDowell, May 12, 1862
Jackson and Little Sorrel, painting by David Bendann
Montage of Thomas J. Jackson and staff
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The plantation office building where Stonewall Jackson died in Guinea Station, Virginia
In 1864 Jackson was memorialized on the Confederate $500 banknote.
Prayer in "Stonewall" Jackson's camp, 1866
A portrait of Stonewall Jackson (1864, J. W. King) in the National Portrait Gallery
General Lee's Last Visit to Stonewall Jackson's Grave, painting by Louis Eckhardt, 1872
The Stonewall Brigade, Dedicated to the Memory of Stonewall Jackson, the Immortal Southern Hero, and His Brave Veterans, Sheet music, 1863
Confederate Loan from March 2, 1863, Vignette with Jackson
Stonewall Jackson with the flag of the Confederate States in art in a stained glass window of the Washington National Cathedral
Davis, Lee, and Jackson on Stone Mountain
The Thomas Jonathan Jackson sculpture in downtown Charlottesville, Virginia
Statue of Gen. "Stonewall" Jackson in downtown Clarksburg, West Virginia
Bust of Jackson at the Washington-Wilkes Historical Museum
Stonewall Jackson statue in Richmond, Virginia being removed on July 1, 2020

He did poorly in the Seven Days Battles against McClellan's Army of the Potomac, as he often arrived late on the field.

In the Northern Virginia Campaign that summer, Jackson's troops captured and destroyed an important supply depot for General John Pope's Army of Virginia, and then withstood repeated assaults from Pope's troops at the Second Battle of Bull Run.

The reputations of Lee's corps commanders are often described as Stonewall Jackson representing the audacious, offensive part of Lee's army, whereas his counterpart, James Longstreet, more typically advocated and executed defensive strategies and tactics.

Battleflag made from wool, 1863

Army of Northern Virginia

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The primary military force of the Confederate States of America in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War.

The primary military force of the Confederate States of America in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War.

Battleflag made from wool, 1863
Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard
Gen. J. E. Johnston
Gustavus Woodson Smith
General Robert E. Lee, commander of the Army of Northern Virginia
Battleflag made out of silk from November 1861
Battleflag made of wool, 1862
Organization of the Army of Northern Virginia at the time of the Battle of Fredericksburg (December 1862)
Organization of the Army of Northern Virginia at the time of the Battle of the Wilderness (May 5–7, 1864)
Montage of Robert E. Lee and his staff.<ref>starting at left center going up-left to right: 1) Lt.Col. W.H. Taylor; 2) Lt.Col. R.G. Cole; 3) Lt.Col. C.S. Venable; 4)Brig Gen W.H. Stevens; 5) Lt.Col. Charles Marshall; 6) Lt.Col. J.L. Conley; 7) Lt.Col. B.G. Baldwin; 8) Surgeon Lafayette Guild; 9) Maj H. Young; 10) Brig Gen W.H. Pendelton; 11) Lt.Col. W. E. Peyton; 12) Major Giles B. Coke.</ref>
Montage of Thomas J. Jackson and staff.
James Longstreet
A. P. Hill
Richard H Anderson
Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart [Cavalry Corps]
Wade Hampton [Cavalry Corps]

Center Wing – commanded by Maj. Gen. James Longstreet

Longstreet served as a wing commander for part of the Seven Days Battles and Anderson had operational command of the division at Glendale.

The Army's losses before and following the Battle of Second Manassas needed to be replaced before the Maryland Campaign could commence.

John Bell Hood

5 links

Confederate general during the American Civil War.

Confederate general during the American Civil War.

Hood's birthplace
Confederate general John Bell Hood
Map of the Franklin-Nashville Campaign
Confederate
Union

He achieved his reputation for aggressive leadership as a brigade commander in the army of Robert E. Lee during the Seven Days Battles in 1862, after which he was promoted to division command.

He led a division under James Longstreet in the campaigns of 1862–63.

At Second Bull Run, Hood spearheaded the assault on the Union left flank that forced them to retreat from the field.

Porter in 1862

Fitz John Porter

3 links

Career United States Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War.

Career United States Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War.

Porter in 1862
Porter (seated in chair) and staff
August 29, noon; Longstreet's Corps arrives; Porter's Corps stops and does not engage
August 30, 3:00; Porter turns and attacks, Longstreet in position to attack and "rolls up" Pope's army

He is most known for his performance at the Second Battle of Bull Run and his subsequent court martial.

During the Seven Days Battles, and particularly at the Battle of Gaines' Mill, he displayed a talent for defensive fighting.

Pope was apparently unaware that Confederate Maj. Gen. James Longstreet's wing of the opposing army had arrived on the battlefield; the proposed envelopment of Jackson's position would have collided suicidally with Longstreet's large force.

V Corps badge

V Corps (Union Army)

3 links

Unit of the Union Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War.

Unit of the Union Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War.

V Corps badge
Maj. Gen. Fitz J. Porter
Maj. Gen. George Sykes
Union Army 1st Division Badge, V Corps
Col. Joshua L. Chamberlain
Maj. Gen. Gouverneur K. Warren

The corps' losses in the Seven Days Battles were 995 killed, 3,805 wounded, and 2,801 captured or missing, totaling 7,601, or half the entire loss of the army.

The V Corps saw action at the Second Battle of Bull Run, fighting on the left wing of the Union army.

Against ferocious attacks from the Confederate First Corps of James Longstreet, Vincent's brigade held the hill and saved the Union army from being flanked.