James Madison

MadisonPresident MadisonPresident James MadisonJamesJames Madison Jr.Madison, Jamesfourth President of the United StatesMadisonianMadisonsMr. Madison
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth president of the United States from 1809 to 1817.wikipedia
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Founding Fathers of the United States

Founding FathersFounding FatherFounding Father of the United States
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth president of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
Historian Richard B. Morris in 1973 identified the following seven figures as the key Founding Fathers: Alexander Hamilton, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and George Washington.

United States Bill of Rights

Bill of RightsU.S. Bill of RightsBill of Rights Day
He is hailed as the "Father of the Constitution" for his pivotal role in drafting and promoting the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
On June 8, 1789, Representative James Madison introduced nine amendments to the Constitution in the House of Representatives.

Constitutional Convention (United States)

Constitutional ConventionPhiladelphia Convention1787 Constitutional Convention
In the late 1780s, he helped organize the Constitutional Convention, which produced a new constitution to supplant the ineffective Articles of Confederation.
Although the Convention was intended to revise the league of states and first system of government under the Articles of Confederation, the intention from the outset of many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison of Virginia and Alexander Hamilton of New York, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one.

The Federalist Papers

PubliusThe FederalistFederalist
After the Convention, Madison became one of the leaders in the movement to ratify the Constitution, and his collaboration with Alexander Hamilton produced The Federalist Papers, among the most important treatises in support of the Constitution.
The Federalist (later known as The Federalist Papers) is a collection of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay under the pseudonym "Publius" to promote the ratification of the United States Constitution.

United States Constitution

ConstitutionU.S. Constitutionconstitutional
He is hailed as the "Father of the Constitution" for his pivotal role in drafting and promoting the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
In September 1786, during an inter–state convention to discuss and develop a consensus about reversing the protectionist trade barriers that each state had erected, James Madison angrily questioned whether the Articles of Confederation was a binding compact or even a viable government.

Thomas Jefferson

JeffersonPresident JeffersonJeffersonian
To oppose Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson and Madison organized the Democratic-Republican Party, which became one of the nation's two first major political parties alongside Hamilton's Federalist Party.
Jefferson and James Madison organized the Democratic-Republican Party to oppose the Federalist Party during the formation of the First Party System.

Democratic-Republican Party

Democratic-RepublicanDemocratic-RepublicansRepublican
To oppose Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson and Madison organized the Democratic-Republican Party, which became one of the nation's two first major political parties alongside Hamilton's Federalist Party.
The Democratic-Republican Party (formally the Republican Party) was an American political party formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison around 1792 to oppose the centralizing policies of the new Federalist Party run by Alexander Hamilton, who was Secretary of the Treasury and chief architect of George Washington's administration.

War of 1812

the War of 1812war1812
After the failure of diplomatic protests and a trade embargo against the United Kingdom, he led the U.S. into the War of 1812.
On June 18, 1812, US President James Madison, after heavy pressure from the War Hawks in Congress, signed the American declaration of war into law.

1st United States Congress

First Congress1st Congress1st
While simultaneously serving as a close adviser to President George Washington, Madison emerged as one of the most prominent members of the 1st Congress, helping to pass several bills establishing the new government.
June 20, 1790: Compromise of 1790: James Madison agreed to not be "strenuous" in opposition to the assumption of state debts by the federal government; Alexander Hamilton agreed to support a national capital site above the Potomac River.

President of the United States

PresidentU.S. Presidentpresidential
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth president of the United States from 1809 to 1817. While simultaneously serving as a close adviser to President George Washington, Madison emerged as one of the most prominent members of the 1st Congress, helping to pass several bills establishing the new government.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia.

Presidency of George Washington

first inauguration of George Washingtoninauguratedpresidency
Though he had played a major role in the enactment of a new constitution that created a stronger federal government, Madison opposed the centralization of power sought by Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton during Washington's presidency.
In an August 1788 letter, Thomas Jefferson wrote that he considered John Adams, John Hancock, John Jay, James Madison, and John Rutledge to be contenders for the vice presidency.

1808 United States presidential election

18081808 presidential election1808 election
Madison succeeded Jefferson with a victory in the 1808 presidential election, and he won re-election in 1812.
The Democratic-Republican candidate James Madison defeated Federalist candidate Charles Cotesworth Pinckney decisively.

Second Bank of the United States

Bank of the United Statesnational bankUnited States Bank
As a result, Madison came to support a stronger national government and military, as well as the national bank, which he had long opposed.
Modeled on Alexander Hamilton's First Bank of the United States, the Second Bank was chartered by President James Madison in 1816 and began operations at its main branch in Philadelphia on January 7, 1817, managing twenty-five branch offices nationwide by 1832.

United States House of Representatives

U.S. RepresentativeHouse of RepresentativesU.S. House of Representatives
After the ratification of the Constitution in 1788, Madison won election to the United States House of Representatives.
After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation".

Federalist Party

FederalistFederalistsF
To oppose Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson and Madison organized the Democratic-Republican Party, which became one of the nation's two first major political parties alongside Hamilton's Federalist Party.
James Madison was Hamilton's ally in the fight to ratify the new Constitution, but Madison and Thomas Jefferson opposed Hamilton's programs by 1791.

Virginia

VACommonwealth of VirginiaVa.
Born into a prominent Virginia planting family, Madison served as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates and the Continental Congress during and after the American Revolutionary War.
James Madison drafted the Virginia Plan in 1787 and the Bill of Rights in 1789.

Montpelier (Orange, Virginia)

MontpelierMontpelier estateJames Madison
His father was a tobacco planter who grew up on a plantation, then called Mount Pleasant, which he had inherited upon reaching adulthood.
James Madison's Montpelier, located in Orange County, Virginia, was the plantation house of the Madison family, including fourth President of the United States, James Madison, and his wife Dolley.

American Whig–Cliosophic Society

American Whig SocietyAmerican Whig-Cliosophic SocietyDebate Panel
Great emphasis was placed on both speech and debate; Madison helped found the American Whig Society, in direct competition to fellow student Aaron Burr's Cliosophic Society.
Its precursors, the American Whig Society and the Cliosophic Society, were founded at Princeton in 1769 and 1765 by James Madison, William Paterson, Oliver Ellsworth, and Aaron Burr.

Alexander Hamilton

HamiltonHamiltonianA. Hamilton
After the Convention, Madison became one of the leaders in the movement to ratify the Constitution, and his collaboration with Alexander Hamilton produced The Federalist Papers, among the most important treatises in support of the Constitution.
James Madison joined Hamilton in influencing Congress to send a delegation to persuade Rhode Island to change its mind.

Orange County, Virginia

Orange CountyOrangeOrange Counties
In October 1775, he was commissioned as the colonel of the Orange County militia, serving as his father's second-in-command until his election as a delegate to the Fifth Virginia Convention, which produced Virginia's first constitution.
Orange County is home to Montpelier, the 2700 acre estate of James Madison, the 4th President of the United States and oft-hailed "Father of the Constitution."

United States Secretary of the Treasury

Secretary of the TreasuryTreasury SecretaryU.S. Secretary of the Treasury
Though he had played a major role in the enactment of a new constitution that created a stronger federal government, Madison opposed the centralization of power sought by Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton during Washington's presidency.

Fifth Virginia Convention

Virginia ConventionVirginia Convention of Delegates1776
In October 1775, he was commissioned as the colonel of the Orange County militia, serving as his father's second-in-command until his election as a delegate to the Fifth Virginia Convention, which produced Virginia's first constitution.
According to James Madison's correspondence for that day, Williamsburg residents marked the occasion by taking down the Union Jack from over the colonial capitol and running up a continental union flag, keeping the Union Jack of the British Empire in the canton and adding the thirteen red and white stripes of the self-governing British East India Company.

James Monroe

MonroePresident MonroePresident James Monroe
He continued to correspond with Jefferson and befriended Jefferson's protege, Congressman James Monroe.
During the War of 1812, Monroe served in critical roles as Secretary of State and the secretary of war under President James Madison.

Age of Enlightenment

Enlightenmentthe Enlightenment18th-century philosophy
His ideas on philosophy and morality were strongly shaped by Witherspoon, who converted Madison to the philosophy, values, and modes of thinking of the Age of Enlightenment.
One of his peers, James Madison, incorporated these ideals into the United States Constitution during its framing in 1787.

Slavery in the United States

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He later acquired more property and slaves, and with 5000 acre, he became the largest landowner and a leading citizen in the Piedmont.
In a section negotiated by James Madison of Virginia, Section 2 of Article I designated "other persons" (slaves) to be added to the total of the state's free population, at the rate of three-fifths of their total number, to establish the state's official population for the purposes of apportionment of Congressional representation and federal taxation.