James Madison

MadisonPresident MadisonPresident James MadisonJames Madison Jr.JamesJames Madison, Jr.Madison, Jamesfourth President of the United StatesMadisonianMadisons
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman, lawyer, diplomat, philosopher and Founding Father who served as the fourth president of the United States from 1809 to 1817.wikipedia
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The Federalist Papers

Federalist PapersPubliusThe Federalist
He co-wrote The Federalist Papers, co-founded the Democratic-Republican Party, and served as the fifth United States secretary of State from 1801 to 1809.
The Federalist Papers is a collection of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay under the pseudonym "Publius" to promote the ratification of the United States Constitution.

Democratic-Republican Party

Democratic-RepublicanDemocratic-RepublicansRepublican
He co-wrote The Federalist Papers, co-founded the Democratic-Republican Party, and served as the fifth United States secretary of State from 1801 to 1809.
The Democratic-Republican Party (known at the time as the Republican Party and various other names) was an American political party founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in the early 1790s that championed republicanism, political equality, and expansionism.

Founding Fathers of the United States

Founding FathersFounding FatherFounding Father of the United States
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman, lawyer, diplomat, philosopher and Founding Father who served as the fourth president of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
Historian Richard B. Morris in 1973 identified the following seven figures as key Founding Fathers: John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and George Washington.

United States Bill of Rights

Bill of RightsU.S. Bill of RightsUS Bill of Rights
He is hailed as the "Father of the Constitution" for his pivotal role in drafting and promoting the Constitution of the United States and the United States Bill of Rights.
Due largely to the efforts of Representative James Madison, who studied the deficiencies of the constitution pointed out by anti-federalists and then crafted a series of corrective proposals, Congress approved twelve articles of amendment on September 25, 1789, and submitted them to the states for ratification.

Constitutional Convention (United States)

Constitutional ConventionPhiladelphia ConventionConstitutional Convention of 1787
He became dissatisfied with the weak national government established by the Articles of Confederation and helped organize the Constitutional Convention, which produced a new constitution to supplant the Articles of Confederation.
Although the Convention was intended to revise the league of states and first system of government under the Articles of Confederation, the intention from the outset of many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison of Virginia and Alexander Hamilton of New York, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one.

Constitution of the United States

United States ConstitutionU.S. ConstitutionConstitution
He is hailed as the "Father of the Constitution" for his pivotal role in drafting and promoting the Constitution of the United States and the United States Bill of Rights.
In September 1786, during an inter–state convention to discuss and develop a consensus about reversing the protectionist trade barriers that each state had erected, James Madison angrily questioned whether the Articles of Confederation was a binding compact or even a viable government.

Thomas Jefferson

JeffersonPresident JeffersonJeffersonian
Along with Thomas Jefferson, Madison organized the Democratic-Republican Party, which was, alongside Hamilton's Federalist Party, one of the nation's first major political parties.
Jefferson and James Madison organized the Democratic-Republican Party to oppose the Federalist Party during the formation of the First Party System.

War of 1812

The War of 1812American War of 1812war
After diplomatic protests and a trade embargo failed to end British attacks against American shipping, he led the United States into the War of 1812.
On June 18, 1812, President James Madison signed into law the American declaration of war, after heavy pressure from the War Hawks in Congress.

President of the United States

PresidentU.S. PresidentUnited States President
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman, lawyer, diplomat, philosopher and Founding Father who served as the fourth president of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia.

1808 United States presidential election

18081808 presidential election1808 election
Madison succeeded Jefferson with a victory in the 1808 presidential election.
The Democratic-Republican candidate James Madison defeated Federalist candidate Charles Cotesworth Pinckney decisively.

John Jay

Chief Justice John JayJayfirst Chief Justice of the United States
Madison became one of the leaders in the movement to ratify the Constitution, and he joined with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay in writing The Federalist Papers, a series of pro-ratification essays that is widely considered to be one of the most influential works of political science in American history.
He was a co-author of The Federalist Papers along with Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, and wrote five of the 85 essays.

Second Bank of the United States

Bank of the United Statesnational bankUnited States Bank
The war convinced Madison of the necessity of a stronger federal government, and he presided over the creation of the Second Bank of the United States and the enactment of the protective Tariff of 1816.
Modeled on Alexander Hamilton's First Bank of the United States, the Second Bank was chartered by President James Madison in 1816 and began operations at its main branch in Philadelphia on January 7, 1817, managing twenty-five branch offices nationwide by 1832.

Louisiana Purchase

LouisianaLouisiana TerritorySale of Louisiana
In that position, he supervised the Louisiana Purchase, which doubled the size of the United States.
Overcoming the opposition of the Federalist Party, Jefferson and Secretary of State James Madison convinced Congress to ratify and fund the Louisiana Purchase.

Virginia Plan

a plan
Madison's Virginia Plan served as the basis for the Constitutional Convention's deliberations, and he was one of the most influential individuals at the convention.
The plan was drafted by James Madison while he waited for a quorum to assemble at the Constitutional Convention of 1787.

United States House of Representatives

U.S. RepresentativeU.S. House of RepresentativesUnited States Representative
After the ratification of the Constitution, Madison emerged as an important leader in the United States House of Representatives and served as a close adviser to President George Washington.
After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation".

Virginia

Commonwealth of VirginiaVAState of Virginia
Born into a prominent Virginia planter family, Madison served as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates and the Continental Congress during and after the American Revolutionary War.
James Madison drafted the Virginia Plan in 1787 and the Bill of Rights in 1789.

Montpelier (Orange, Virginia)

MontpelierJames Madison's MontpelierMontpelier estate
His father was a tobacco planter who grew up on a plantation, then called Mount Pleasant, which he had inherited upon reaching adulthood.
James Madison's Montpelier, located in Orange County, Virginia, was the plantation house of the Madison family, including fourth President of the United States, James Madison, and his wife Dolley.

American Whig–Cliosophic Society

American Whig-Cliosophic SocietyJames Madison Award for Distinguished Public ServiceCliosophic Society
Great emphasis was placed on both speech and debate; Madison was a leading member of the American Whig Society, in direct competition to the Cliosophian Society.
Its precursors, the American Whig Society and the Cliosophic Society, were founded at Princeton in 1769 and 1765 by James Madison, William Paterson, Oliver Ellsworth, and Aaron Burr.

Alexander Hamilton

HamiltonHamiltonianA. Hamilton
Madison became one of the leaders in the movement to ratify the Constitution, and he joined with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay in writing The Federalist Papers, a series of pro-ratification essays that is widely considered to be one of the most influential works of political science in American history.
James Madison joined Hamilton in influencing Congress to send a delegation to persuade Rhode Island to change its mind.

Orange County, Virginia

Orange CountyOrangeOrange Counties
In October 1775, he was commissioned as the colonel of the Orange County militia, serving as his father's second-in-command until his election as a delegate to the Fifth Virginia Convention, which was charged with producing Virginia's first constitution.
Orange County includes Montpelier, the 2700 acre estate of James Madison, the 4th President of the United States and often known as the "Father of the Constitution".

United States Secretary of the Treasury

Secretary of the TreasuryTreasury SecretaryU.S. Secretary of the Treasury
During the early 1790s, Madison came to oppose the economic program and accompanying centralization of power favored by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton.

Age of Enlightenment

Enlightenmentthe EnlightenmentFrench Enlightenment
His studies at Princeton included Latin, Greek, theology, and the works of the Enlightenment.
Many of the main political and intellectual figures behind the American Revolution associated themselves closely with the Enlightenment: Benjamin Franklin visited Europe repeatedly and contributed actively to the scientific and political debates there and brought the newest ideas back to Philadelphia; Thomas Jefferson closely followed European ideas and later incorporated some of the ideals of the Enlightenment into the Declaration of Independence; and James Madison incorporated these ideals into the United States Constitution during its framing in 1787.

William Bradford (Attorney General)

William Bradfordfuture Attorney General William BradfordWilliam
During his time at Princeton, his closest friend was future Attorney General William Bradford.
He began his education at the Academy of Philadelphia, then attended Princeton University, where he formed a lifelong friendship with Virginian James Madison, before graduating in 1772.

Fifth Virginia Convention

Virginia ConventionVirginia Convention of Delegates1776
In October 1775, he was commissioned as the colonel of the Orange County militia, serving as his father's second-in-command until his election as a delegate to the Fifth Virginia Convention, which was charged with producing Virginia's first constitution.
According to James Madison's correspondence for that day, Williamsburg residents marked the occasion by taking down the Union Jack from over the colonial capitol and running up a continental union flag, keeping the Union Jack of the British Empire in the canton and adding the thirteen red and white stripes of the self-governing British East India Company.

James Monroe

MonroePresident MonroePresident James Monroe
Madison also became a land speculator, purchasing land along the Mohawk River in a partnership with another Jefferson protege, James Monroe.
Monroe fell out with his long-time friend, James Madison, after the latter rejected the Monroe–Pinkney Treaty that Monroe negotiated with Britain.