James Madison

MadisonPresident MadisonPresident James MadisonJames Madison Jr.JamesJames Madison, Jr.Madison, Jamesfourth President of the United StatesMadisonianMadisons
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman, lawyer, diplomat, philosopher and Founding Father who served as the fourth president of the United States from 1809 to 1817.wikipedia
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Slavery in the United States

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With numerous slaves and a 5000 acre plantation, Madison's father was the largest landowner and a leading citizen in the Piedmont.
In a section negotiated by James Madison of Virginia, Section 2 of Article I designated "other persons" (slaves) to be added to the total of the state's free population, at the rate of three-fifths of their total number, to establish the state's official population for the purposes of apportionment of Congressional representation and federal taxation.

Port Conway, Virginia

Port Conway
James Madison Jr. was born on March 16, 1751, (March 5, 1750, Old Style, Julian calendar) at Belle Grove Plantation near Port Conway, Virginia, to James Madison Sr. and Nelly Conway Madison.
James Madison, the fourth President of the United States, was born in Port Conway on March 16, 1751, at Belle Grove plantation.

Planter class

planterplantersplantation owner
Born into a prominent Virginia planter family, Madison served as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates and the Continental Congress during and after the American Revolutionary War.
Members of this class include colonists Robert "King" Carter, William Byrd of Westover, many signers of the Declaration of Independence including Benjamin Harrison V, Thomas Nelson, Jr., George Wythe, Carter Braxton and Richard Henry Lee, Founding Fathers, George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and James Monroe, Confederate President Jefferson Davis, Confederate General Robert E. Lee, Mary Chesnut, Valcour Aime, Sallie Ward, and the fictional Scarlett O'Hara from the film Gone with the Wind (1939).

College of William & Mary

College of William and MaryThe College of William & MaryThe College of William and Mary
Unlike most college-bound Virginians of his day, Madison did not attend the College of William and Mary, where the lowland Williamsburg climate - thought to be more likely to harbor infectious disease - might have strained his delicate health.
Future U.S. President James Madison was a key figure in the transition to religious freedom in Virginia, and Right Reverend James Madison, his cousin and Thomas Jefferson, who was on the Board of Visitors, helped the College of William & Mary to make the transition as well.

Federalist No. 10

No. 10Federalist 10Federalist Paper No. 10
Federalist No. 10, Madison's first contribution to The Federalist Papers, became highly regarded in the 20th century for its advocacy of representative democracy.
10' is an essay written by James Madison as the tenth of The Federalist Papers'', a series of essays initiated by Alexander Hamilton arguing for the ratification of the United States Constitution.

James Madison Sr.

James Madison, Sr.
James Madison Jr. was born on March 16, 1751, (March 5, 1750, Old Style, Julian calendar) at Belle Grove Plantation near Port Conway, Virginia, to James Madison Sr. and Nelly Conway Madison.
He was the father of James Madison Jr., 4th President of the United States, who inherited what he called Montpelier, and Lieutenant General William Taylor Madison, and grandfather of Confederate Brigadier General James Edwin Slaughter.

1800 United States presidential election

18001800 presidential electionelection of 1800
After Jefferson won the 1800 presidential election, Madison served as secretary of State from 1801 to 1809.
Jefferson had been the runner-up in the previous election and had co-founded the party with James Madison and others, while Burr was popular in the electorally important state of New York.

George Mason

George Mason IVaddressedMason
Before a quorum was reached at the Philadelphia Convention on May 25, 1787, Madison worked with other members of the Virginia delegation, especially Edmund Randolph and George Mason, to create and present the Virginia Plan.
He failed to attain these objectives, and again at the Virginia Ratifying Convention of 1788, but his prominent fight for a bill of rights led fellow Virginian James Madison to introduce same during the First Congress in 1789; these amendments were ratified in 1791, a year before Mason died.

Federalist No. 51

51Federalist Paper No. 51The Federalist No. 51
In Federalist No. 51, Madison explained how the separation of powers between three branches of the federal government, as well as between state governments and the federal government, established a system of checks and balances that ensured that no one institution would become too powerful.
51, titled: "The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments"', is an essay by James Madison, the fifty-first of The Federalist Papers''.

United States Electoral College

Electoral Collegepresidential electorelectoral votes
He also helped ensure that the president of the United States would have the ability to veto federal laws and would be elected independently of Congress through the Electoral College.
In The Federalist Papers, James Madison explained his views on the selection of the president and the Constitution.

Virginia Ratifying Convention

Virginia conventionVirginia Ratification Conventionratification convention
Initially, Madison did not want to stand for election to the Virginia Ratifying Convention, but he was persuaded to do so by the strength of the Anti-Federalists.
James Madison led those in favor, Patrick Henry, delegate to the First Continental Convention and Revolutionary wartime governor, led those opposed.

Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787

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Madison believed that the constitution produced by the convention "would decide for ever the fate of republican government" throughout the world, and he kept copious notes to serve as an historical record of the convention.
Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787 was James Madison's record of the daily debates held by delegates at the Philadelphia Convention, which resulted in the drafting of the current United States Constitution.

Virginia Declaration of Rights

Declaration of RightsVirginia Bill of RightsBill of Rights
At the Virginia constitutional convention, he convinced delegates to alter the Virginia Declaration of Rights to provide for "equal entitlement," rather than mere "tolerance," in the exercise of religion.
James Madison later proposed liberalizing the article on religious freedom, but the larger Virginia Convention made further changes.

United States Senate

U.S. SenatorUnited States SenatorU.S. Senate
The Virginia Plan was an outline for a new federal constitution; it called for three branches of government (legislative, executive, and judicial), a bicameral Congress (consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives) apportioned by population, and a federal Council of Revision that would have the right to veto laws passed by Congress.
James Madison made the following comment about the Senate:

George Washington

WashingtonGeneral WashingtonGeneral George Washington
After the ratification of the Constitution, Madison emerged as an important leader in the United States House of Representatives and served as a close adviser to President George Washington.
He had concerns about the legality of the convention and consulted James Madison, Henry Knox, and others.

1st United States Congress

First CongressFirst United States Congress1st Congress
At the start of the 1st Congress, he introduced a tariff bill similar to the one he had advocated for under the Articles of the Confederation, and Congress established a federal tariff on foreign imports through the Tariff of 1789.

Compromise of 1790

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After prolonged legislative deadlock, Madison, Jefferson, and Hamilton agreed to the Compromise of 1790, which provided for the enactment of Hamilton's assumption plan through the Funding Act of 1790.
The Compromise of 1790 was a compromise between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson with James Madison wherein Hamilton won the decision for the national government to take over and pay the state debts, and Jefferson and Madison obtained the national capital (District of Columbia) for the South.

John Witherspoon

President WitherspoonRev. John WitherspoonReverend John Witherspoon
He remained at Princeton to study Hebrew and political philosophy under President John Witherspoon before returning home to Montpelier in early 1772.
Students who later played prominent roles in the new nation's development included James Madison, Aaron Burr, Philip Freneau, William Bradford, and Hugh Henry Brackenridge.

Tariff of 1789

Hamilton TariffTariff ActTariff Act of 1789
At the start of the 1st Congress, he introduced a tariff bill similar to the one he had advocated for under the Articles of the Confederation, and Congress established a federal tariff on foreign imports through the Tariff of 1789.
It was sponsored by Congressman James Madison, passed by the 1st United States Congress, and signed into law by President George Washington.

Washington, D.C.

Washington, DCWashington D.C.District of Columbia
In return, Congress passed the Residence Act, which established the federal capital district of Washington, D.C. on the Potomac River.
In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.

Residence Act

Residence Act of 1790Residence BillAn Act for establishing the temporary and permanent seat of the Government of the United States
In return, Congress passed the Residence Act, which established the federal capital district of Washington, D.C. on the Potomac River.
Congress passed the Residence Act as part of a compromise brokered among James Madison, Thomas Jefferson, and Alexander Hamilton.

Gerrymandering in the United States

gerrymanderingpartisan gerrymanderinggerrymander
At Henry's behest, the Virginia legislature created congressional districts designed to deny Madison a seat, and Henry recruited a strong challenger to Madison in the person of James Monroe.
Starting from the William Cabell Rives in mid-19th century it is often stated that it precedes the 1789 election of the First U.S. Congress: namely, that while Patrick Henry and his Anti-Federalist allies were in control of the Virginia House of Delegates in 1788, they drew the boundaries of Virginia's 5th congressional district in an unsuccessful attempt to keep James Madison out of the U.S. House of Representatives.

Continental Congress

CongressContinental CongressmanDelegate to the Continental Congress
Born into a prominent Virginia planter family, Madison served as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates and the Continental Congress during and after the American Revolutionary War.
In addition to their slowness, the lack of coercive power in the Continental Congress was harshly criticized by James Madison when arguing for the need of a Federal Constitution.

Historical rankings of presidents of the United States

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Madison is considered to be one of the most important Founding Fathers of the United States, and historians have generally ranked him as an above-average president.

Anti-Federalism

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Throughout the United States, opponents of the Constitution, known as Anti-Federalists, began a public campaign against ratification.
Another complaint of the Anti-Federalists was that the Constitution provided for a centralized rather than federal government (and in The Federalist Papers, James Madison admits that the new Constitution has the characteristics of both a centralized and federal form of the government) and that a truly federal form of government was a leaguing of states as under the Articles of Confederation.