James Madison

MadisonPresident MadisonPresident James MadisonJames Madison Jr.JamesJames Madison, Jr.Madison, Jamesfourth President of the United StatesMadisonianMadisons
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman, lawyer, diplomat, philosopher and Founding Father who served as the fourth president of the United States from 1809 to 1817.wikipedia
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Report of 1800

reportReport on the Resolutions of 1798
Madison issued the Report of 1800, which attacked the Alien and Sedition Acts as unconstitutional but disregarded Jefferson's theory of nullification.
The Report of 1800 was a resolution drafted by James Madison arguing for the sovereignty of the individual states under the United States Constitution and against the Alien and Sedition Acts.

Patrick Henry

American patriotPatrick Henry, Junrthat revolutionary patriot
Virginians were divided into three main camps: Washington and Madison led the faction in favor of ratification of the Constitution, Edmund Randolph and George Mason headed a faction that wanted ratification but also sought amendments to the Constitution, and Patrick Henry was the most prominent member of the faction opposed to the ratification of the Constitution.
No attempt was made to reconstruct Henry's words until 1790, when James Madison wrote to former burgess Edmund Pendleton, but Madison learned that Pendleton had not been present; a second attempt did not occur until Wirt began work on his biography of Henry in 1805.

Dolley Madison

Dolley Payne Todd MadisonDolleyDolley Payne Todd
On September 15, 1794, Madison married Dolley Payne Todd, a 26-year-old widow, previously wife of John Todd, a Quaker farmer who died during a yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia.
Dolley Todd Madison (née Payne; May 20, 1768 – July 12, 1849) was the wife of James Madison, President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.

New Jersey Plan

However, delegates from small states successfully argued for more power for state governments and presented the New Jersey Plan as an alternative.
The New Jersey Plan was opposed by James Madison and Edmund Randolph (the proponents of the Virginia State Plan).

Belle Grove (Port Conway, Virginia)

Belle GroveBelle Grove PlantationBelle Grove Plantation (Port Conway, Virginia)
James Madison Jr. was born on March 16, 1751, (March 5, 1750, Old Style, Julian calendar) at Belle Grove Plantation near Port Conway, Virginia, to James Madison Sr. and Nelly Conway Madison.
James Madison, the fourth President of the United States, was born on March 16, 1751, on Belle Grove plantation, in an earlier house which no longer stands.

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

Kentucky ResolutionsVirginia and Kentucky ResolutionsVirginia Resolutions
In response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, Jefferson wrote the Kentucky Resolutions, which argued that the states had the power to nullify federal law on the basis that the Constitution was a compact among the states.
The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of 1798 were written secretly by Vice President Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, respectively.

Roger Sherman

Elizabeth Hartwell
In response, Roger Sherman proposed the Connecticut Compromise, which sought to balance the interests of small and large states.
He is not well known for his actions at the Convention because he was a "terse, ineloquent speaker" who never kept a personal record of his experience, unlike other prominent figures at the convention such as James Madison, and at 66 years of age, Sherman was the second eldest member at the convention following Benjamin Franklin (who was 81 years old at the time).

Nullification (U.S. Constitution)

nullificationnullifynullified
In response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, Jefferson wrote the Kentucky Resolutions, which argued that the states had the power to nullify federal law on the basis that the Constitution was a compact among the states.
Thomas Jefferson and James Madison set forth the theories of nullification and interposition in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions in 1798.

Albert Gallatin

GallatinistAbraham Alfonse Albert GallatinGallatin
Along with Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin, Madison became one of the two major influences in Jefferson's Cabinet.
Under Jefferson and James Madison, Gallatin served as secretary from 1801 until February 1814.

George Clinton (vice president)

George ClintonGovernor George ClintonClinton
Because the Constitution's rules essentially precluded Jefferson from challenging Adams, the party backed New York Governor George Clinton for the vice presidency, but Adams won re-election by a comfortable electoral vote margin.
Clinton sought his party's presidential nomination in the 1808 election, but the party's congressional nominating caucus instead nominated James Madison.

Alien and Sedition Acts

Sedition ActSedition Act of 1798Alien Enemies Act
During the Quasi-War, the Federalists created a standing army and passed the Alien and Sedition Acts, which were directed at French refugees engaged in American politics and against Republican editors.
Opposition to them resulted in the also-controversial Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, authored by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson.

History of central banking in the United States

national bankcentral bankcentral banking system
In 1791, Hamilton introduced a plan that called for the establishment of a national bank to provide loans to emerging industries and oversee the money supply.
James Madison signed the charter with the intention of stopping runaway inflation that had plagued the country during the five-year interim.

John Payne Todd

John PaynePayne Todd
Madison never had children, but he adopted Dolley's one surviving son, John Payne Todd (known as Payne), after the marriage.
His mother remarried the following year, to the older James Madison, the future president of the United States.

Jay Treaty

Jay's TreatyJay Treaty of 1794treaty
Washington avoided a trade war and instead secured friendly trade relations with Britain through the Jay Treaty of 1794.
Americans were outraged and Republicans in Jefferson's coalition demanded a declaration of war, but James Madison instead called for an embargo on trade with Britain.

1792 United States presidential election

17921792 election1792 presidential election
In the 1792 United States presidential election, both major parties supported Washington's successful bid for re-election, but the Democratic-Republicans sought to unseat Vice President John Adams.
Clinton, the Governor of New York and a former anti-Federalist leader, became the party's nominee after he won the backing of Jefferson and James Madison.

Henry Clay

ClayHenry Clay, Sr.Clay, Henry
Many Americans called for a "second war of independence" to restore honor and stature to the new nation, and an angry public elected a "war hawk" Congress, led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun.
He was chosen as speaker of the House in early 1811 and, along with President James Madison, led the United States into the War of 1812 against Britain.

Articles of Confederation

Articles of Confederation and Perpetual UnionConfederationArticles
He became dissatisfied with the weak national government established by the Articles of Confederation and helped organize the Constitutional Convention, which produced a new constitution to supplant the Articles of Confederation.
On January 21, 1786, the Virginia Legislature, following James Madison's recommendation, invited all the states to send delegates to Annapolis, Maryland to discuss ways to reduce interstate conflict.

United States presidential election

presidential electionpresidential electionsU.S. presidential election
New York ratified the constitution the following month, and Washington won the country's first presidential election.

Federalist Party

FederalistFederalistsF
Along with Thomas Jefferson, Madison organized the Democratic-Republican Party, which was, alongside Hamilton's Federalist Party, one of the nation's first major political parties.

National Gazette

The National Gazette
Along with Jefferson, Madison helped Philip Freneau establish the National Gazette, a Philadelphia newspaper that attacked Hamilton's proposals.
The National Gazette was founded at the urging of Republican leaders James Madison and Thomas Jefferson in order to counter the influence of the rival Federalist newspaper, the Gazette of the United States.

John Quincy Adams

AdamsJohn QuincyJohn Q. Adams
After the disastrous start to the War of 1812, Madison accepted Russia's invitation to arbitrate the war, and he sent a delegation led by Gallatin and John Quincy Adams to Europe to negotiate a peace treaty.
In 1809, Adams was appointed as the U.S. ambassador to Russia by President James Madison, a member of the Democratic-Republican Party.

Princeton University

PrincetonPrinceton CollegeCollege of New Jersey
Instead, in 1769, he enrolled at the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University).
U.S. Presidents James Madison and Woodrow Wilson and Vice President Aaron Burr graduated from Princeton, as did Michelle Obama, the former First Lady of the United States.

Mount Vernon Conference

Compact of 1785Maryland–Virginia Conferenceresulting conference
Madison helped arrange the 1785 Mount Vernon Conference, which settled disputes regarding navigation rights on the Potomac River and also served as a model for future interstate conferences.
From Virginia, Alexander Henderson and George Mason attended; James Madison and Edmund Randolph had been appointed but were not sufficiently notified of their appointments.

1796 United States presidential election

17961796 presidential election1796 election
Washington chose to retire after serving two terms and, in advance of the 1796 presidential election, Madison helped convince Jefferson to run for the presidency.
The Democratic-Republicans united behind former Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, who had co-founded the party with James Madison and others in opposition to the policies of Hamilton.

Dutch Republic

United ProvincesDutchNetherlands
He especially sought out works on international law and the constitutions of "ancient and modern confederacies" such as the Dutch Republic, the Swiss Confederation, and the Achaean League.
The framers of the U.S. Constitution were influenced by the Constitution of the Republic of the United Provinces, as Federalist No. 20, by James Madison, shows.