James Madison

MadisonPresident MadisonPresident James MadisonJames Madison Jr.JamesJames Madison, Jr.Madison, Jamesfourth President of the United StatesMadisonianMadisons
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman, lawyer, diplomat, philosopher and Founding Father who served as the fourth president of the United States from 1809 to 1817.wikipedia
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Philip Freneau

Philip Morin FreneauFreneauPhillip Freneau
Along with Jefferson, Madison helped Philip Freneau establish the National Gazette, a Philadelphia newspaper that attacked Hamilton's proposals.
Freneau's close friend at Princeton was James Madison, a relationship that would later contribute to his establishment as the editor of the National Gazette.

William Hull

Brigadier General William Hull's unsuccessful invasionBrigadier-General William HullGen. Hull
The American invasion of Canada suffered a major setback when General William Hull surrendered to British and Native American forces at the Siege of Detroit, and a separate U.S. force was defeated at the Battle of Queenston Heights.
After the battle, he was court-martialed, convicted, and sentenced to death, but he received a pardon from President James Madison and his reputation somewhat recovered.

1812 United States presidential election

18121812 presidential election1812 election
In the 1812 presidential election, held during the early stages of the War of 1812, Madison faced a challenge from DeWitt Clinton, who led a coalition of Federalists and disaffected Democratic-Republicans.
Taking place in the shadow of the War of 1812, incumbent Democratic-Republican President James Madison defeated DeWitt Clinton, who drew support from dissident Democratic-Republicans in the North as well as Federalists.

Robert Morris (financier)

Robert MorrisMorrisMr. Morris
Madison ensured that George Washington, who was popular throughout the country, and Robert Morris, who was influential in the critical state of Pennsylvania, would both broadly support Madison's plan to implement a new constitution.
Many of Morris's Nationalist allies from other states, including Hamilton, James Madison, John Dickinson, and Washington, would also attend the convention.

DeWitt Clinton

De Witt ClintonClintonClintonian
In the 1812 presidential election, held during the early stages of the War of 1812, Madison faced a challenge from DeWitt Clinton, who led a coalition of Federalists and disaffected Democratic-Republicans.
Clinton was a major candidate for the American presidency in the election of 1812, challenging incumbent James Madison.

Marbury v. Madison

Marbury v Madisonjudicial precedentjudicial review
In the case of Marbury v. Madison, Marshall simultaneously ruled that Madison had unjustly refused to deliver federal commissions to individuals who had been appointed to federal positions by President Adams but who had not yet taken office, but that the Supreme Court did not have jurisdiction over the case.
Jefferson believed the commissions were void because they had not been delivered in time, and instructed his new Secretary of State, James Madison, not to deliver them.

Charles Cotesworth Pinckney

Charles C. PinckneyCharles PinckneyPinckney
The Federalist Party mustered little strength outside New England, and Madison easily defeated Federalist candidate Charles Cotesworth Pinckney.
Though the 1808 presidential election was closer than the 1804 election had been, Democratic-Republican nominee James Madison nonetheless prevailed.

John Marshall

Chief Justice MarshallMarshallChief Justice John Marshall
Though the Federalists were rapidly fading away at the national level, Chief Justice John Marshall ensured that Federalist ideology retained an important presence in the judiciary.
Marshall was elected to the 1788 Virginia Ratifying Convention, where he worked with James Madison to convince other delegates to ratify the new constitution.

Political philosophy

political theorypolitical philosopherpolitical theorist
He remained at Princeton to study Hebrew and political philosophy under President John Witherspoon before returning home to Montpelier in early 1772.

First Bank of the United States

Bank of the United Statesnational bankFirst
Despite Madison's opposition, Congress passed a bill to create the First Bank of the United States; after a period of consideration, Washington signed the banking bill into law in February 1791.
Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and James Madison led the opposition, which claimed that the bank was unconstitutional, and that it benefited merchants and investors at the expense of the majority of the population.

Siege of Detroit

Detroitsurrender of DetroitBattle of Detroit
The American invasion of Canada suffered a major setback when General William Hull surrendered to British and Native American forces at the Siege of Detroit, and a separate U.S. force was defeated at the Battle of Queenston Heights.
Michigan Territory Governor William Hull urged President James Madison and Secretary of War William Eustis to form an army which would secure the Northwest Territory against Indians who were being incited by British agents and fur trading companies to take up arms against the United States.

Connecticut Compromise

Great Compromisecompromise on representationConnecticut Compromise (USA)
In response, Roger Sherman proposed the Connecticut Compromise, which sought to balance the interests of small and large states.
James Madison and Hamilton were two of the leaders of the proportional representation group.

1788 and 1789 United States Senate elections

At the request of Washington, Madison sought a seat in the U.S. Senate, but the state legislature instead elected two Anti-Federalist allies of Patrick Henry.

14th United States Congress

Fourteenth14thFourteenth Congress
Responding to Madison's proposals, the 14th Congress compiled one of the most productive legislative records up to that point in history.
It met in the Old Brick Capitol in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1815, to March 4, 1817, during the seventh and eighth years of James Madison's presidency.


Madison rejected this view of a compact among the states, and his Virginia Resolutions instead urged states to respond to unjust federal laws through interposition, a process in which a state legislature declared a law to be unconstitutional but did not take steps to actively prevent its enforcement.
Interposition was first suggested in the Virginia Resolution of 1798, written by James Madison, which stated:

John Adams

AdamsJohnPresident John Adams
In the 1792 United States presidential election, both major parties supported Washington's successful bid for re-election, but the Democratic-Republicans sought to unseat Vice President John Adams.
In 1790, Jefferson, James Madison, and Hamilton struck a bargain guaranteeing Republican support for Hamilton's debt assumption plan in exchange for the capital being temporarily moved from New York to Philadelphia, and then to a permanent site on the Potomac River to placate Southerners.

Council of Revision

The Virginia Plan was an outline for a new federal constitution; it called for three branches of government (legislative, executive, and judicial), a bicameral Congress (consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives) apportioned by population, and a federal Council of Revision that would have the right to veto laws passed by Congress.
Although this idea was repeatedly pressed for by James Madison and James Wilson, it was narrowly defeated at the convention.

Harewood (West Virginia)

HarewoodHairwood, West VirginiaHarewood, Virginia
They eventually traveled to Harewood, Virginia for their wedding.
James Madison and Dolley Payne Todd were married at Harewood on September 15, 1794.

University of Virginia

VirginiaUniversity of Virginia at CharlottesvilleThe University of Virginia
Madison helped Jefferson establish the University of Virginia, though the university was primarily Jefferson's initiative.
The original governing Board of Visitors included Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe.

Burning of Washington

burned Washingtonattack on Washingtonburn Washington, D.C.
Madison escaped capture in the aftermath of the battle, but the British burned Washington.
President James Madison, military officials, and his government fled the city in the wake of the British victory at the Battle of Bladensburg.

Andrew Jackson

JacksonJacksonianPresident Andrew Jackson
In March 1814, General Andrew Jackson broke the resistance of the British-allied Muscogee in the Old Southwest with his victory at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.
Jackson endorsed James Monroe for president in 1808 against James Madison.

William Henry Harrison

William H. HarrisonHarrisonWilliam Harrison
In the aftermath of the Battle of Lake Erie, General William Henry Harrison defeated the forces of the British and of Tecumseh's Confederacy at the Battle of the Thames.
Presidents Thomas Jefferson and James Madison were both members of the Democratic-Republican Party, and they reappointed him as governor in 1803, 1806, and 1809.

Hartford Convention

During the war, delegates from the states of New England held the Hartford Convention, where the delegates asked for several amendments to the Constitution.
Jefferson's successor, President James Madison, and what is now called the Democratic-Republican Party, continued his policies.

Right to property

property rightsproperty rightproperty
Most of the delegates at the Philadelphia Convention wanted to empower the federal government to raise revenue and protect property rights.
James Madison argued that extending the right to vote to all could lead in the right to property and justice being "overruled by a majority without property".

1816 United States presidential election

18161816 presidential electionElection of 1816
In the 1816 presidential election, Madison and Jefferson both favored the candidacy of Secretary of State James Monroe.
As President James Madison chose to retire after serving two terms, the Democratic-Republicans held a congressional nominating caucus in March 1816.