James Madison

MadisonPresident MadisonPresident James MadisonJames Madison Jr.JamesJames Madison, Jr.Madison, Jamesfourth President of the United StatesMadisonianMadisons
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman, lawyer, diplomat, philosopher and Founding Father who served as the fourth president of the United States from 1809 to 1817.wikipedia
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Orange, Virginia

OrangeOrange Court HouseOrange Court House, Virginia
Orange is 28 mi northeast of Charlottesville, 88 mi southwest of Washington, D.C., and 4 mi east of James Madison's plantation of Montpelier.

USS James Madison (SSBN-627)

USS ''James Madison'' (SSBN-627)USS ''James Madisonex-''James Madison'' (SSBN-627)
Other things named for Madison include Madison Square, James Madison University, and the USS James Madison.
USS James Madison (SSBN-627), the lead ship of her class of ballistic missile submarine, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for James Madison (1751–1836), the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817).

John Dawson (1762–1814)

John DawsonJohn Dawson (US politician)
Known for his stylish attire and red hair, "Beau" Dawson was a good friend of, and prolific correspondent with, James Madison, for Dawson's stepfather Judge Joseph Jones raised Madison's good friend (and sometimes political opponent) James Monroe after his father's death.

Battle of the Thames

Battle of MoraviantownBattle of ThamesThames
In the aftermath of the Battle of Lake Erie, General William Henry Harrison defeated the forces of the British and of Tecumseh's Confederacy at the Battle of the Thames.
However, a comparatively petty dispute with President James Madison and John Armstrong resulted in him resigning his commission as Major General.

Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1829–1830

Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1829-1830Virginia Constitutional ConventionConstitutional Convention
In 1829, at the age of 78, Madison was chosen as a representative to the Virginia Constitutional Convention for revision of the commonwealth's constitution.

Embargo Act of 1807

Embargo of 1807Embargo Actembargo
Madison believed that economic pressure could force the British to end attacks on American shipping, and he and Jefferson convinced Congress to pass the Embargo Act of 1807, which totally banned all exports to foreign nations.
The presidential election of 1808, in which James Madison defeated Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, showed that the Federalists were regaining strength, and helped to convince Jefferson and Madison that the Embargo would have to be removed.

Three-Fifths Compromise

three-fifths clausethree-fifthsThree Fifths Compromise
(The domestic trade in slaves was expressly permitted by the constitution.) He also proposed that apportionment in the United States Senate be allocated by the sum of each state's free population and slave population, eventually leading to the adoption of the Three-Fifths Compromise.
After proposed compromises of one half by Benjamin Harrison of Virginia and three fourths by several New Englanders failed to gain sufficient support, Congress finally settled on the three-fifths ratio proposed by James Madison.

Presidency of Andrew Jackson

presidencyAndrew JacksonJackson administration
During Jackson's presidency, Madison publicly disavowed the Nullification movement and argued that no state had the right to secede.
The Second Bank of the United States ("national bank") had been chartered under President James Madison to restore an economy devastated by the War of 1812, and President Monroe had appointed Nicholas Biddle as the national bank's executive in 1822.

Taxing and Spending Clause

Spending ClauseGeneral Welfare Clausetaxing and spending power
In making the veto, Madison argued that the General Welfare Clause did not broadly authorize federal spending on internal improvements.


Although baptized as an Anglican and educated by Presbyterian clergymen, young Madison was an avid reader of English deist tracts.
Other "Founding Fathers" who were influenced to various degrees by deism were Ethan Allen, Benjamin Franklin, Cornelius Harnett, Gouverneur Morris, Hugh Williamson, James Madison, and possibly Alexander Hamilton.

Non-importation Act

In response to the attacks, Congress passed the Non-importation Act, which restricted many, but not all, British imports.

Apportionment (politics)

The issue of greatest importance at this convention was apportionment.
It did not however, change the principle of equal representation of the states in the Senate, which, as James Madison noted in The Federalist No. 39, ensures a polity of mixed sovereignty, one in which the states are an integral part of the federal government.


republicanrepublicansrepublican government
The "Founding Fathers" were strong advocates of republican values, especially Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, Thomas Paine, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton.

Drew R. McCoy

Drew McCoyMcCoy, Drew R.
Historian Drew R. McCoy writes that, "During the final six years of his life, amid a sea of personal [financial] troubles that were threatening to engulf him ... At times mental agitation issued in physical collapse. For the better part of a year in 1831 and 1832 he was bedridden, if not silenced ... Literally sick with anxiety, he began to despair of his ability to make himself understood by his fellow citizens."
His two books cover a general study of political economy in Revolutionary and Early National America, and a partial biography of James Madison that, by focusing on his retirement, explores the transmission of republican values across generations in nineteenth-century America.

Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette

Marquis de LafayetteLafayetteGeneral Lafayette
As an example, he edited a letter written to Jefferson criticizing Lafayette—Madison not only inked out original passages, but even forged Jefferson's handwriting as well.
He was at Yorktown on 19 October 1824 for the anniversary of Cornwallis's surrender, then journeyed to Monticello to meet with his old friend Jefferson—and Jefferson's successor James Madison, who arrived unexpectedly.

Richard B. Morris

Morris, Richard B.
Henry Steele Commager and Richard B. Morris in 1968 said the conventional view of Madison was as an "incapable President" who "mismanaged an unnecessary war."

Irving Newton Brant

Brant, Irving
Brant's study of the Supreme Court led him to James Madison, who was largely ignored at the time.

United States Secretary of State

Secretary of StateU.S. Secretary of StateUS Secretary of State
He co-wrote The Federalist Papers, co-founded the Democratic-Republican Party, and served as the fifth United States secretary of State from 1801 to 1809.

Virginia House of Delegates

House of DelegatesState DelegateHouse
Born into a prominent Virginia planter family, Madison served as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates and the Continental Congress during and after the American Revolutionary War.

American Revolutionary War

Revolutionary WarAmerican War of IndependenceAmerican Revolution
Born into a prominent Virginia planter family, Madison served as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates and the Continental Congress during and after the American Revolutionary War.

United Kingdom

After diplomatic protests and a trade embargo failed to end British attacks against American shipping, he led the United States into the War of 1812.

Protectionism in the United States

The war convinced Madison of the necessity of a stronger federal government, and he presided over the creation of the Second Bank of the United States and the enactment of the protective Tariff of 1816.