James Prescott Joule

James JouleJouleJ. P. JouleBenjamin JouleJoule, James P.Joule, James Prescott
James Prescott Joule (24 December 1818 – 11 October 1889) was an English physicist, mathematician and brewer, born in Salford, Lancashire.wikipedia
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Magnetostriction

magnetostrictivemagnetostrictive actuatorsmagnetostrictive alloy
Joule also made observations of magnetostriction, and he found the relationship between the current through a resistor and the heat dissipated, which is also called Joule's first law.
The effect was first identified in 1842 by James Joule when observing a sample of iron.

Joule heating

resistive heatingohmic heatingJoule's law
Joule also made observations of magnetostriction, and he found the relationship between the current through a resistor and the heat dissipated, which is also called Joule's first law.
James Prescott Joule first published in December 1840, an abstract in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, suggesting that heat could be generated by an electrical current.

Energy

energy transferenergiestotal energy
Joule studied the nature of heat, and discovered its relationship to mechanical work (see energy).
In 1845 James Prescott Joule discovered the link between mechanical work and the generation of heat.

William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin

Lord KelvinWilliam ThomsonWilliam Thomson, Lord Kelvin
Joule worked with Lord Kelvin to develop an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale, which came to be called the Kelvin scale.
At that meeting, he heard James Prescott Joule making yet another of his, so far, ineffective attempts to discredit the caloric theory of heat and the theory of the heat engine built upon it by Sadi Carnot and Émile Clapeyron.

First law of thermodynamics

firstenergy balancechange in temperature
This led to the law of conservation of energy, which in turn led to the development of the first law of thermodynamics.
The constant of proportionality is universal and independent of the system and in 1845 and 1847 was measured by James Joule, who described it as the mechanical equivalent of heat.

Heat

heat energythermalhot
Joule studied the nature of heat, and discovered its relationship to mechanical work (see energy).
In an 1847 lecture entitled On Matter, Living Force, and Heat, James Prescott Joule characterized the terms latent heat and sensible heat as components of heat each affecting distinct physical phenomena, namely the potential and kinetic energy of particles, respectively.

Electric current

currentelectrical currentcurrents
Joule also made observations of magnetostriction, and he found the relationship between the current through a resistor and the heat dissipated, which is also called Joule's first law.
The phenomenon was first studied by James Prescott Joule in 1841.

Joule

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The SI derived unit of energy, the joule, is named after him. Further experiments and measurements with his electric motor led Joule to estimate the mechanical equivalent of heat as 4.1868 joules per calorie of work to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one Kelvin.
It is named after the English physicist James Prescott Joule (1818–1889).

Mechanical equivalent of heat

Circa 1797, Count Rumford (born Benjamin Thompson)heat generated by mechanical workmechanical equivalence of heat
Further experiments and measurements with his electric motor led Joule to estimate the mechanical equivalent of heat as 4.1868 joules per calorie of work to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one Kelvin.
The experiment inspired the work of James Prescott Joule in the 1840s.

Electricity

electricalelectricelectrically
He was fascinated by electricity, and he and his brother experimented by giving electric shocks to each other and to the family's servants.
Current through a resistance causes localised heating, an effect James Prescott Joule studied mathematically in 1840.

John Dalton

DaltonDalton atomic theoryDalton, John
Joule was tutored as a young man by the famous scientist John Dalton and was strongly influenced by chemist William Henry and Manchester engineers Peter Ewart and Eaton Hodgkinson.
A young James Prescott Joule, who later studied and published (1843) on the nature of heat and its relationship to mechanical work, was a pupil of Dalton in his last years.

Philosophical Magazine

The Philosophical MagazineLondon and Edinburgh Philosophical MagazineTilloch's Philosophical Magazine
Joule read his paper to the Royal Society on 20 June 1844, however, his paper was rejected for publishing by the Royal Society and he had to be content with publishing in the Philosophical Magazine in 1845.
Early in the nineteenth century, classic papers by Humphry Davy, Michael Faraday and James Prescott Joule appeared in the journal and in the 1860s James Clerk Maxwell contributed several long articles, culminating in a paper containing the deduction that light is an electromagnetic wave or, as he put it himself, "We can scarcely avoid the inference that light consists in transverse undulations of the same medium which is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena".

Salford

Salford, Greater ManchesterSalford, LancashireSalford, Manchester
James Prescott Joule (24 December 1818 – 11 October 1889) was an English physicist, mathematician and brewer, born in Salford, Lancashire.
Amongst the most notable persons of historic significance with a connection to Salford are Emmeline Pankhurst, one of the founders of the British suffragette movement, who lived in Salford, and the scientist James Prescott Joule, who was born and raised in Salford.

Julius von Mayer

Julius Robert von MayerMayerJulius Robert Mayer
However, in Germany, Hermann Helmholtz became aware both of Joule's work and the similar 1842 work of Julius Robert von Mayer.
His achievements were overlooked and priority for the discovery of the mechanical equivalent of heat was attributed to James Joule in the following year.

William Sturgeon

SturgeonSturgeon, William
His first scientific papers on the subject were contributed to William Sturgeon's Annals of Electricity.
He formed a close social circle with John Davies, one of the Gallery's promoters, and Davies's student James Prescott Joule, a circle that eventually extended to include Edward William Binney and the surgeon John Leigh.

Joule–Thomson effect

Joule-Thomson effectJoule-Thomsonthrottling process
The collaboration lasted from 1852 to 1856, its discoveries including the Joule–Thomson effect, and the published results did much to bring about general acceptance of Joule's work and the kinetic theory.
The effect is named after James Prescott Joule and William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, who discovered it in 1852.

Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society

Literary and Philosophical Society of ManchesterDalton Medalits Literary and Philosophical Society
Joule has been attributed with explaining the sunset green flash phenomenon in a letter to the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society in 1869; actually, he merely noted (with a sketch) the last glimpse as bluish green, without attempting to explain the cause of the phenomenon.
Established in 1781 as the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester, by Thomas Percival, Thomas Barnes and Thomas Henry, other prominent members have included Robert Owen, John Dalton, James Prescott Joule, Tom Kilburn, Peter Mark Roget, Ernest Rutherford and Joseph Whitworth.

Hermann von Helmholtz

HelmholtzHermann HelmholtzHermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz
However, in Germany, Hermann Helmholtz became aware both of Joule's work and the similar 1842 work of Julius Robert von Mayer.
Drawing on the earlier work of Sadi Carnot, Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron and James Prescott Joule, he postulated a relationship between mechanics, heat, light, electricity and magnetism by treating them all as manifestations of a single force, or energy in today's terminology.

Peter Ewart

Joule was tutored as a young man by the famous scientist John Dalton and was strongly influenced by chemist William Henry and Manchester engineers Peter Ewart and Eaton Hodgkinson.
The paper was strongly to influence Dalton's pupil James Prescott Joule.

Caloric theory

caloriccaloric fluidcaloric,
This was a direct challenge to the caloric theory which held that heat could neither be created or destroyed.
Rumford's experiment inspired the work of James Prescott Joule and others towards the middle of the 19th century.

Manchester Town Hall

Town HallManchester The Town Hall
A statue of Joule by Alfred Gilbert stands in Manchester Town Hall, opposite that of Dalton.
The entrance and Sculpture Hall contain busts and statues of influential figures including Dalton, Joule and Barbirolli.

Conservation of energy

law of conservation of energyenergyenergy conservation law
This led to the law of conservation of energy, which in turn led to the development of the first law of thermodynamics.
Meanwhile, in 1843, James Prescott Joule independently discovered the mechanical equivalent in a series of experiments.

John Herapath

Great Comet of 1831Herapath's JournalHerapath's Railway and Commercial Journal
He had also been one of the few people receptive to the neglected work of John Herapath on the kinetic theory of gases.
James Prescott Joule presented a short account of the work in 1848.