Political map of the Kashmir region, showing the Pir Panjal range and the Kashmir Valley or Vale of Kashmir
Pahalgam Valley, Kashmir
Topographic map of Jammu and Kashmir, with visible altitude for the Kashmir valley and Jammu region.
Nanga Parbat in Kashmir, the ninth-highest mountain on Earth, is the western anchor of the Himalayas
A high-altitude alpine lake in the Himalayan range in Jammu and Kashmir
Map of India in 1823, showing the territories of the Sikh empire (northermost, in green) including the region of Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir union territory (J and K) is bordered in carmine colour. Ladakh union territory (L) is bordered in blue colour.
1909 Map of the Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu. The names of regions, important cities, rivers, and mountains are underlined in red.
Srinagar railway station
The prevailing religions by district in the 1901 Census of the Indian Empire
NH1 near Sonamarg
A white border painted on a suspended bridge delineates Azad Kashmir from Jammu and Kashmir
University of Kashmir during autumn
Topographic map of Kashmir
The Jammu and Kashmir High Court on postal stamps of India
K2, a peak in the Karakoram range, is the second highest mountain in the world
Apples of Kashmir are famous for their taste
The Indus River system
Boteh from an Antique Kashmiri Dochalla Shawl
Large Kashmir Durbar Carpet (detail), 2021 photo. "Durbar", in this context, means Royal or Chiefly.
Inauguration of the first Khelo India Winter Games
A Muslim shawl-making family shown in Cashmere shawl manufactory, 1867, chromolithograph, William Simpson
Vaishno Devi Temple in winter
A group of Pandits, or Brahmin priests, in Kashmir, photographed by an unknown photographer in the 1890s
Shalimar Gardens
Brokpa women from Kargil, northern Ladakh, in local costumes
Dal Lake
Amarnath Cave

Jammu and Kashmir is a region administered by India as a union territory and consisting of the southern portion of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of a dispute between India and Pakistan since 1947, and between India and China since 1962.

- Jammu and Kashmir (union territory)

Today, the term encompasses a larger area that includes the Indian-administered territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan, and the Chinese-administered territories of Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract.

- Kashmir
Political map of the Kashmir region, showing the Pir Panjal range and the Kashmir Valley or Vale of Kashmir

12 related topics with Alpha


Azad Kashmir

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Landscape of Azad Kashmir
Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification
Paddy field in Leepa valley
A 1946 map of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir; present-day Azad Kashmir constitutes areas of the three western-most districts
Muzaffarabad, the capital city of Azad Kashmir
Bagh City
Districts of Azad Kashmir
Kotla, Bagh District
Neelum Valley is a tourist destination in Azad Kashmir.
Munda Gali, Leepa Valley
Mirpur University of Science and Technology

Azad Jammu and Kashmir, abbreviated as AJK and colloquially referred to as simply Azad Kashmir, is a region administered by Pakistan as a nominally self-governing entity and constituting the western portion of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of a dispute between India and Pakistan since 1947.

On its eastern side, Azad Kashmir is separated from the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (part of Indian-administered Kashmir) by the Line of Control (LoC), which serves as the de facto border between the Indian- and Pakistani-controlled parts of Kashmir.


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Photograph of Kargah Buddha in Gilgit; "The ancient Stupa – rock carvings of Buddha, everywhere in the region, point to the firm hold of Buddhism for such a long time."
Map of Tibetan Empire citing the areas of Gilgit-Baltistan as part of its kingdom in 780–790 CE
The princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, (National Geographic, 1946). Shown are the Gilgit Agency, consisting of subsidiary states of Jammu and Kashmir, and the Gilgit wazarat, including the Gilgit Leased Area (shown in white). Baltistan was part of the large area of the Ladakh-Baltistan wazarat in the east.
The last Maqpon Raja Ahmed Shah (died in prison in Lhasa c. 1845)
Flag of the Gilgit-Baltistan region
Gilgit Baltisan assembly located in Jutial Gilgit
Gilgit-Baltistan is administered as three divisions
Fourteen districts in 2019
Mountains covered in snow, as seen from the Raja Bazar Road Gilgit
Montage of Gilgit-Baltistan
View of Laila Peak, which is located near Hushe Valley (a town in Khaplu)
The Trango Towers offer some of the largest cliffs and most challenging rock climbing in the world, and every year a number of expeditions from all corners of the globe visit Karakoram to climb the challenging granite.
Cold Desert, Skardu is the world's highest desert
Rush Lake, Nagar, Pakistan
Sheosar Lake is in the western part of Deosai National Park
The Karakoram Highway
National Highway N-15 has abrupt direction changes which is a challenge for drivers who use this route to reach Gilgit
ATR 42–500 on Gilgit Airport. Picture taken on 10 July 2016
A pie chart showing the Sectarian divide of Gilgit-Baltistan
Dance of Swati Guests with traditional music at Baltit Fort in 2014
Wakhi musicians in Gulmit.
One of the poplular dish of this region is Chapchor. It is widely made in Nagar Valley and Hunza Valley
Polo in progress with the shandur lake in background, Shandur, Gupis-Yasin District.
Satpara Lake, Skardu, in 2002
Upper Kachura Lake
Shangrila Lake, Skardu
Manthokha Waterfall

Gilgit-Baltistan, formerly known as the Northern Areas, is a region administered by Pakistan as an autonomous territory, and constituting the northern portion of the larger Kashmir region which has been the subject of a dispute between India and Pakistan since 1947, and between India and China from somewhat later.The application of the term "administered" to the various regions of Kashmir and a mention of the Kashmir dispute is supported by the tertiary sources (a) through (d), reflecting due weight in the coverage.

It borders Azad Kashmir to the south, the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the west, the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan to the north, the Xinjiang region of China, to the east and northeast, and the Indian-administered union territories Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh to the southeast.


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South Asia in 565 CE
The empire of Kyide Nyimagon divided among his three sons, c. 930 CE. The border between Ladakh/Maryul and Guge-Purang is shown in a thin dotted line, north of Gartok
Royal drinking scene at Alchi Monastery, Ladakh, circa 1200 CE. The king wears a decorated Qabā', of Turco-Persian style. It is similar to [[:File:Royal drinking scene at the entrance of the western monastery at Manguy, 11th to 13th century CE.jpg|another royal scene]] at nearby Mangyu Monastery.
Jama Masjid of Leh next to the Leh Palace
Thikse Monastery, Ladakh
The empire of kings Tsewang Namgyal and Jamyang Namgyal, about 1560–1600 CE
Cham dance during Dosmoche festival in Leh Palace
The disputed territory of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir: divided between Pakistan (green), India (blue) and China (yellow)
National Highway No 1
Ladakh (L) shown in the wider Kashmir region
Map of the central Ladakh region
The confluence of the Indus (flowing left-to-right) and Zanskar (coming in from top) rivers.
The Ladakh region has high altitude
View of Leh Town Along with Stok Kangri
Monthly average temperature in Leh
The black-necked crane comes to India every year for breeding. Photograph has been taken at Tso Kar, Ladakh.
Wild animals of Ladakh
Yaks in Ladakh
Banner of the Administration of Ladakh
Street market in Leh
Preparing apricots. Alchi Monastery.
A vehicle on the Himalaya Highway 3
Kushok Bakula Rimpochee Airport
Dancer in masked dance festival
Jabro Dance
Sul-ma, woman's woollen dress (detail), Ladakh, late 19th-early 20th century
First ever Khelo India Winter Games in Ladakh
Woman wearing traditional Ladakhi hat
Ladakhi Perak Headdress courtesy the Wovenosuls collection
Indian Astronomical Observatory near Leh
Ladakh horsemen, depicted in Alchi Monastery, circa 13th century CE
The nine stupas at Thiksey Monastery
Statue of Maitreya at Likir Monastery, Leh district
Likir Monastery, Ladakh
Phyang Gompa, Ladakh
Hemis Monastery in the 1870s
Pensi La
Shingo La
Shanti Stupa, Leh
Front of the Thiksey Monastery
Likir Monastery
Trees nestled in front of the Himalayas near Leh
Nubra Valley view with reflection
Carved stone tablets, each with the inscription "Om Mani Padme Hum" along the paths of Zanskar

Ladakh is a region administered by India as a union territory, which constitutes a part of the larger Kashmir region and has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since 1947.

Ladakh is bordered by the Tibet Autonomous Region to the east, the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh to the south, both the Indian-administered union territory of Jammu and Kashmir and the Pakistan-administered Gilgit-Baltistan to the west, and the southwest corner of Xinjiang across the Karakoram Pass in the far north.

Map of the Himalayas (including the Hindu Kush)


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The Himalayas, or Himalaya, are a mountain range in Asia, separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.

The Himalayas, or Himalaya, are a mountain range in Asia, separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.

Map of the Himalayas (including the Hindu Kush)
The 6000 km journey of the India landmass (Indian Plate) before its collision with Asia (Eurasian Plate) about 40 to 50 million years ago
Icefall on Khumbu Glacier
Gurudongmar Lake in Sikkim

The sovereignty of the range in the Kashmir region is disputed among India, Pakistan, and China.

Further west, the Himalayas form much of the disputed Indian-administered union territory of Jammu and Kashmir where lies the renowned Kashmir Valley and the town and lakes of Srinagar.

Jammu division

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Lama dance at Jummoo,
Maharaja Gulab Singh, the founder of princely state of Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir region divided across Pakistan, India and China (map by CIA)
Tawi River
The Vaishno Devi shrine attracts millions of Hindu devotees every year
Bahu Fort
Raghunath Temple
The Shivkhori cave
Machail Mata
Lohri bonfire

The Jammu division is a revenue and administrative division within Jammu and Kashmir, a union territory of India.

In the west, the Line of Control separates Jammu from Pakistani-administered Kashmir (known as Azad Kashmir in Pakistan).

Kashmiri language

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Kashmiri or Koshur (, कॉशुर,, /kəːʃur/) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by around 7 million Kashmiris of the Kashmir region, primarily in the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir.

Jhelum River

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River in the northern Indian subcontinent.

River in the northern Indian subcontinent.

Verinag Spring is a major source of Jhelum River
A passenger traversing the river precariously seated in a small suspended cradle Circa 1900
Jhelum river, Baramullah, Kashmir, 1880s
Jhelum River c. 1900; photo taken by Eugene Whitehead Esq.
Jhelum River at Uri in Kashmir, 1903
Rope Bridge at Karli, 1908
Bridge over the river, Srinagar, 1969
Jhelum river near Muzaffarabad (2014)
File:River Jehlum, Muzaffarabad
Near Muzaffarabad, 2014
The Jhelum at Verinag, 2014
Jhelum River at Jhelum City, 2005

It originates at Verinag and flows through the Indian administered territory of Jammu and Kashmir, to the Pakistani-administered territory of Azad Kashmir, and then into the Pakistani province of Punjab.

Hindu goddess Parvati was requested by the sage Kasyapa to come to Kashmir for purification of the land from evil practices and impurities of Pisachas living there.

Kashmiri Pandits in Srinagar, c. 1895 CE

Kashmiri Pandits

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The Kashmiri Pandits (also known as Kashmiri Brahmins) are a group of Kashmiri Hindus and a part of the larger Saraswat Brahmin community of India.

The Kashmiri Pandits (also known as Kashmiri Brahmins) are a group of Kashmiri Hindus and a part of the larger Saraswat Brahmin community of India.

Kashmiri Pandits in Srinagar, c. 1895 CE
Photograph of the Martand Sun Temple, Hardy Cole's Archaeological Survey of India Report 'Illustrations of Ancient Buildings in Kashmir.' (1869)
1872 painting depicting Srinagar, with Pandits in the foreground
Three Hindu priests writing religious texts – 1890s, Jammu and Kashmir
An artpiece of three Kashmiri Pandit women
Kashmiri couple getting married in a traditional ceremony at Jammu
Divine Colours of the Divine Spring
Ruins of Martand temple
Sharda Peeth
Mount Harmukh
A Kashmiri pandit woman, photograph by Fred Bremner, circa ~1900

They belong to the Pancha Gauda Brahmin group from the Kashmir Valley, a mountainous region located within the Indian-administered union territory of Jammu and Kashmir.

The local organisation of pandits in Kashmir, Kashmir Pandit Sangharsh Samiti after carrying out a survey in 2008 and 2009, said that 399 Kashmiri Pandits were killed by insurgents from 1990 to 2011 with 75% of them being killed during the first year of the Kashmiri insurgency.


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India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), – "Official name: Republic of India.";

India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), – "Official name: Republic of India.";

An illustration from an early-modern manuscript of the Sanskrit epic Ramayana, composed in story-telling fashion c. undefined.
Cave 26 of the rock-cut Ajanta Caves
India has the majority of the world's wild tigers, approximately 3,000 in 2019.
A Chital (Axis axis) stag attempts to browse in the Nagarhole National Park in a region covered by a moderately dense forest.
The last three Asiatic cheetahs (on record) in India were shot dead in Surguja district, Madhya Pradesh, Central India by Maharajah Ramanuj Pratap Singh Deo. The young males, all from the same litter, were sitting together when they were shot at night in 1948.
Children awaiting school lunch in Rayka (also Raika), a village in rural Gujarat. The salutation Jai Bhim written on the blackboard honours the jurist, social reformer, and Dalit leader B. R. Ambedkar.
Indian cricketer Sachin Tendulkar about to score a record 14,000 runs in test cricket while playing against Australia in Bangalore, 2010.
Bhutesvara Yakshis, Buddhist reliefs from Mathura, {{CE|2nd century}}
Gupta terracotta relief, Krishna Killing the Horse Demon Keshi, 5th century
thumb|Elephanta Caves, triple-bust (trimurti) of Shiva, {{convert|18|ft|m}} tall, {{circa|550}}
Chola bronze of Shiva as Nataraja ("Lord of Dance"), Tamil Nadu, 10th or 11th century.
Jahangir Receives Prince Khurram at Ajmer on His Return from the Mewar Campaign, Balchand, {{circa|1635}}
Krishna Fluting to the Milkmaids, Kangra painting, 1775–1785

It has disputes over Kashmir with its neighbours, Pakistan and China, unresolved since the mid-20th century.

All states, as well as the union territories of Jammu and Kashmir, Puducherry and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, have elected legislatures and governments following the Westminster system of governance.

Pir Panjal Range from Khajjiar, Himachal Pradesh

Pir Panjal Range

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Pir Panjal Range from Khajjiar, Himachal Pradesh
Kashmir valley seen from satellite. Snow-capped Pir Panjal range is to the left of the image
Pir Panjal range as seen from Banihal, Jammu and Kashmir

The Pir Panjal Range (Kashmiri: Pīr Pantsāl) is a group of mountains in the Lesser Himalayan region, running from east-southeast (ESE) to west-northwest (WNW) across the Indian territories of Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir and then Pakistan's Azad Kashmir and Punjab.

Haji Pir Pass (altitude 2637 m) on the western Pir Panjal range on the road between Poonch and Uri in Indian-administered Kashmir.