Jan Baudouin de Courtenay

Jan Niecisław Baudouin de CourtenayBaudouin de CourtenayIvan Baudouin de CourtenayBaudoinBaudouin de Courtenay, Jan Niecisław
Jan Niecisław Ignacy Baudouin de Courtenay (13 March 1845 – 3 November 1929) (Russian: Иван Александрович Бодуэн де Куртенэ (Ivan Aleksandrovich Boduen de Kurtene)) was a Russian and Polish linguist and Slavist, best known for his theory of the phoneme and phonetic alternations.wikipedia
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Kazan Federal University

Kazan UniversityKazan State UniversityUniversity of Kazan
For most of his life Baudouin de Courtenay worked at Imperial Russian universities: Kazan (1874–1883), Dorpat (as Tartu, Estonia was then known) (1883–1893), Kraków (1893–1899) in Austria-Hungary, and St. Petersburg (1900–1918), and in Russia he is recognized as a Russian scientist.
Since the first half of the 19th century Kazan University has been the largest center of Oriental Studies in Europe and the birthplace of the world-famous Kazan Linguistic School founded by Jan Baudouin de Courtenay.

Phoneme

phonemicphonemesphonemically
Jan Niecisław Ignacy Baudouin de Courtenay (13 March 1845 – 3 November 1929) (Russian: Иван Александрович Бодуэн де Куртенэ (Ivan Aleksandrovich Boduen de Kurtene)) was a Russian and Polish linguist and Slavist, best known for his theory of the phoneme and phonetic alternations. Together with his students, Mikołaj Kruszewski and Lev Shcherba, Baudouin de Courtenay also shaped the modern usage of the term phoneme (Baudouin de Courtenay 1876–77 and Baudouin de Courtenay 1894), which had been coined in 1873 by the French linguist A. Dufriche-Desgenettes who proposed it as a one-word equivalent for the German Sprachlaut.
The term phoneme as an abstraction was developed by the Polish linguist Jan Niecisław Baudouin de Courtenay and his student Mikołaj Kruszewski during 1875–1895.

Slavic studies

SlavistSlavisticsSlavicist
Jan Niecisław Ignacy Baudouin de Courtenay (13 March 1845 – 3 November 1929) (Russian: Иван Александрович Бодуэн де Куртенэ (Ivan Aleksandrovich Boduen de Kurtene)) was a Russian and Polish linguist and Slavist, best known for his theory of the phoneme and phonetic alternations.

Radzymin

He was born in Radzymin, in the Warsaw Governorate of Congress Poland (a state in personal union with the Russian Empire), to a family of distant French extraction.
It is the birthplace of the linguist Jan Baudouin de Courtenay.

Kazan school

Baudouin de Courtenay established the Kazan school of linguistics in the mid-1870s and served as professor at the local university from 1875.
The linguistic circle included the Polish linguist Jan Baudouin de Courtenay and his student Nikolai Trubetzkoy.

University of Warsaw

Warsaw UniversityWarsawImperial University of Warsaw
In 1919-1929 he was a professor at the re-established University of Warsaw in a once again independent Poland.

Phonology

phonologicalphonologicallyphonologist
Three major schools of 20th-century phonology arose directly from his distinction between physiophonetic (phonological) and psychophonetic (morphophonological) alternations: the Leningrad school of phonology, the Moscow school of phonology, and the Prague school of phonology.
The study of phonology as it exists today is defined by the formative studies of the 19th-century Polish scholar Jan Baudouin de Courtenay, who (together with his students Mikołaj Kruszewski and Lev Shcherba) shaped the modern usage of the term phoneme in a series of lectures in 1876-1877.

Lev Shcherba

Lev Vladimirovich Shcherba
Together with his students, Mikołaj Kruszewski and Lev Shcherba, Baudouin de Courtenay also shaped the modern usage of the term phoneme (Baudouin de Courtenay 1876–77 and Baudouin de Courtenay 1894), which had been coined in 1873 by the French linguist A. Dufriche-Desgenettes who proposed it as a one-word equivalent for the German Sprachlaut.
There he studied under Jan Baudouin de Courtenay, graduating in 1903.

Mikołaj Kruszewski

Nikolay KrushevskyMikolaj Kruszewski
Together with his students, Mikołaj Kruszewski and Lev Shcherba, Baudouin de Courtenay also shaped the modern usage of the term phoneme (Baudouin de Courtenay 1876–77 and Baudouin de Courtenay 1894), which had been coined in 1873 by the French linguist A. Dufriche-Desgenettes who proposed it as a one-word equivalent for the German Sprachlaut.
A student of Jan Baudouin de Courtenay (1845–1929), Kruszewski worked with de Courtenay to develop the linguistics associated with the Kazan school.

Langue and parole

langue'' and ''parolelangueparole
Among the most notable of his achievements is the distinction between statics and dynamics of languages and between a language (an abstract group of elements) and speech (its implementation by individuals) – compare Saussure's concepts of langue and parole.
The distinction is similar to that made about language by Wilhelm von Humboldt, between energeia (active doing) and ergon (the product of that doing), as well as the distinction between language and speech made by Jan Baudouin de Courtenay.

Cezaria Jędrzejewiczowa

Cezaria Baudouin de Courtenay Ehrenkreutz JędrzejewiczowaCezaria Baudouin de Courtenay
His daughter, Cezaria Baudouin de Courtenay Ehrenkreutz Jędrzejewiczowa was one of the founders of the Polish school of ethnology and anthropology as well as a professor at the universities of Vilnius and Warsaw.
She was born on 2 August 1885 in Dorpat (modern Tartu, Estonia), to Jan Niecisław Baudouin de Courtenay, a noted linguist, and his second wife Romualda née Bagnicka.

Synchrony and diachrony

synchronicdiachronicsynchronic analysis
He was an early champion of synchronic linguistics, the study of contemporary spoken languages, which he developed contemporaneously with the structuralist linguistic theory of Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure.
Prior to de Saussure, many similar concepts were also developed independently by Polish linguists Jan Baudouin de Courtenay and Mikołaj Kruszewski of the Kazan school, who used the terms statics and dynamics of language.

Ferdinand de Saussure

SaussureSaussurianSaussurean
He was an early champion of synchronic linguistics, the study of contemporary spoken languages, which he developed contemporaneously with the structuralist linguistic theory of Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure.

Gabriel Narutowicz

Narutowicz
In 1922, without his knowledge, he was proposed by the national minorities of Poland as a presidential candidate, but was defeated in the third round of voting in the Polish parliament and eventually Gabriel Narutowicz was chosen.
The next to drop out were the two candidates most favored by representatives of the national minorities: namely, Jan Baudouin de Courtenay and Stanisław Wojciechowski (the latter supported by some of the Left).

August Leskien

LeskienLeskien, August
Among the students that Leskien taught are: Jan Niecisław Baudouin de Courtenay, Ferdinand de Saussure, Leonard Bloomfield, Nikolai Trubetzkoy, Karl Verner and Adolf Noreen.

Explanatory Dictionary of the Living Great Russian Language

Explanatory Dictionary of the Live Great Russian languageDahl's Explanatory DictionaryDahl’s Explanatory Dictionary
Baudouin de Courtenay was the editor of the 3rd (1903–1909) and 4th (1912–1914) editions of the Explanatory Dictionary of the Live Great Russian language compiled by Russian lexicographer Vladimir Dahl (1801–1872).
In 1903, linguist Baudouin de Courtenay insisted as editor of the third edition on including obscene words.

Vladimir Dal

Vladimir DahlDahlDal, Vladimir
Baudouin de Courtenay was the editor of the 3rd (1903–1909) and 4th (1912–1914) editions of the Explanatory Dictionary of the Live Great Russian language compiled by Russian lexicographer Vladimir Dahl (1801–1872).
Baer says: "While an excellent collector, Dal had some difficulty ordering his material, and his so-called alphabet-nest system was not completely satisfactory until Baudouin de Courtenay revised it thoroughly in the third (1903–1910) and fourth (1912–1914) editions of the Dictionary."

Prague linguistic circle

Prague SchoolPrague CirclePrague
Three major schools of 20th-century phonology arose directly from his distinction between physiophonetic (phonological) and psychophonetic (morphophonological) alternations: the Leningrad school of phonology, the Moscow school of phonology, and the Prague school of phonology.

Russia

Russian FederationRUSRussian
Jan Niecisław Ignacy Baudouin de Courtenay (13 March 1845 – 3 November 1929) (Russian: Иван Александрович Бодуэн де Куртенэ (Ivan Aleksandrovich Boduen de Kurtene)) was a Russian and Polish linguist and Slavist, best known for his theory of the phoneme and phonetic alternations.

Poland

PolishPOLRepublic of Poland
Jan Niecisław Ignacy Baudouin de Courtenay (13 March 1845 – 3 November 1929) (Russian: Иван Александрович Бодуэн де Куртенэ (Ivan Aleksandrovich Boduen de Kurtene)) was a Russian and Polish linguist and Slavist, best known for his theory of the phoneme and phonetic alternations. In 1919-1929 he was a professor at the re-established University of Warsaw in a once again independent Poland.

Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
Jan Niecisław Ignacy Baudouin de Courtenay (13 March 1845 – 3 November 1929) (Russian: Иван Александрович Бодуэн де Куртенэ (Ivan Aleksandrovich Boduen de Kurtene)) was a Russian and Polish linguist and Slavist, best known for his theory of the phoneme and phonetic alternations. He was an early champion of synchronic linguistics, the study of contemporary spoken languages, which he developed contemporaneously with the structuralist linguistic theory of Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure.

Allophone

allophonicallophonesallophony
Jan Niecisław Ignacy Baudouin de Courtenay (13 March 1845 – 3 November 1929) (Russian: Иван Александрович Бодуэн де Куртенэ (Ivan Aleksandrovich Boduen de Kurtene)) was a Russian and Polish linguist and Slavist, best known for his theory of the phoneme and phonetic alternations.

University of Tartu

University of DorpatTartu UniversityImperial University of Dorpat
For most of his life Baudouin de Courtenay worked at Imperial Russian universities: Kazan (1874–1883), Dorpat (as Tartu, Estonia was then known) (1883–1893), Kraków (1893–1899) in Austria-Hungary, and St. Petersburg (1900–1918), and in Russia he is recognized as a Russian scientist.

Tartu

DorpatTartu, EstoniaDorpat (Tartu)
For most of his life Baudouin de Courtenay worked at Imperial Russian universities: Kazan (1874–1883), Dorpat (as Tartu, Estonia was then known) (1883–1893), Kraków (1893–1899) in Austria-Hungary, and St. Petersburg (1900–1918), and in Russia he is recognized as a Russian scientist.

Estonia

ESTRepublic of EstoniaEstonian
For most of his life Baudouin de Courtenay worked at Imperial Russian universities: Kazan (1874–1883), Dorpat (as Tartu, Estonia was then known) (1883–1893), Kraków (1893–1899) in Austria-Hungary, and St. Petersburg (1900–1918), and in Russia he is recognized as a Russian scientist.