Jan Smuts

SmutsGeneral SmutsJan Christiaan SmutsGeneral Jan SmutsJ.C. SmutsField Marshal Jan Christiaan SmutsField Marshal Jan SmutsGeneral J. C. SmutsGeneral J.C. SmutsGeneral Jan C Smuts
Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts (24 May 1870 – 11 September 1950) was a South African statesman, military leader, and philosopher.wikipedia
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Second Boer War

Boer WarAnglo-Boer WarSouth African War
He led a Boer Commando in the Second Boer War for the Transvaal.
They reverted to guerrilla warfare under new generals Louis Botha, Jan Smuts, Christiaan de Wet and Koos de la Rey.

Royal Air Force

RAFairmanBritish
From 1917 to 1919, he was also one of the members of the British Imperial War Cabinet and he was instrumental in the founding of what became the Royal Air Force (RAF).
Following publication of the "Smuts report" prepared by Jan Smuts the RAF was founded on 1 April 1918, with headquarters located in the former Hotel Cecil, during the First World War, by the amalgamation of the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) and the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS).

Field marshal (United Kingdom)

Field MarshalBritish Field MarshalField Marshals
He became a field marshal in the British Army in 1941, and served in the Imperial War Cabinet under Winston Churchill.
Also awarded the rank were one Frenchman (Ferdinand Foch) and one Australian (Sir Thomas Blamey), honoured for their contributions to World War I and World War II respectively, and one foreign statesman (Jan Smuts).

Imperial War Cabinet

British War CabinetImperial War Conference1917
From 1917 to 1919, he was also one of the members of the British Imperial War Cabinet and he was instrumental in the founding of what became the Royal Air Force (RAF). He became a field marshal in the British Army in 1941, and served in the Imperial War Cabinet under Winston Churchill.
Jan Smuts arrived on 12 March 1917, to large crowds.

Christ's College, Cambridge

Christ's CollegeChristChrist’s College
He decided to travel to the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom to read law at Christ's College.
Some of the college's other famous alumni include comedians Sacha Baron Cohen, John Oliver and Andy Parsons, Lord Louis Mountbatten of Burma, South African Prime Minister Jan Smuts, historian Simon Schama, theologian William Paley and the former Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams.

Prime Minister of South Africa

Prime MinisterSouth African Prime MinisterSouth Africa
In addition to holding various cabinet posts, he served as prime minister of the Union of South Africa from 1919 until 1924 and from 1939 until 1948.

Union of South Africa

South AfricaUnionSouth African
In addition to holding various cabinet posts, he served as prime minister of the Union of South Africa from 1919 until 1924 and from 1939 until 1948.
Most English-speaking whites in South Africa supported the United Party of Jan Smuts, which favoured close relations with the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth.

Fagan Commission

Although Smuts had originally advocated racial segregation and opposed the enfranchisement of black Africans, his views changed and he backed the Fagan Commission's findings that complete segregation was impossible.
The report was published at a time when Jan Smuts's popularity was low and his detractors had more support.

German East Africa

East AfricaGerman colonial ruleGerman
During the First World War, he led the armies of South Africa against Germany, capturing German South-West Africa and commanding the British Army in East Africa.
Their war strategy was to harry the British/Imperial army of 40,000, which was at times commanded by the former Second Boer War commander Jan Smuts.

Union Defence Force (South Africa)

Union Defence ForceUnion Defence ForcesCitizen Force
During the First World War, Smuts formed the Union Defence Force.
After the Union of South Africa was formed in 1910, General Jan Smuts, the Union's first Minister of Defence, placed a high priority on creating a unified military out of the separate armies of the union's four provinces.

Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner

Lord MilnerAlfred MilnerSir Alfred Milner
Sir Alfred Milner, head of the British delegation, took exception to his dominance, and conflict between the two led to the collapse of the conference, consigning South Africa to war.
Famously, after meeting Milner for the first time, Jan Smuts predicted that he would be "more dangerous than Rhodes" and would become "a second Bartle Frere".

Het Volk (political party)

Het VolkHet Volk Party
Defeated but not deterred, in January 1905, he decided to join with the other former Transvaal generals to form a political party, Het Volk (People's Party), to fight for the Afrikaner cause.
Het Volk was a Transvaal political party, established in May 1904 under the leadership of Louis Botha and his deputy Jan Smuts.

German strategic bombing during World War I

German air raidsOperation ''Türkenkreuzbombing raids
In 1917, following the German Gotha Raids, and lobbying by Viscount French, Smuts wrote a review of the British Air Services, which came to be called the Smuts Report.
Concern about the conduct of defence against the raids, the responsibility for which was divided between the Admiralty and the Army, led to a parliamentary inquiry under Jan Smuts, whose report was to lead to the creation of the Royal Air Force (RAF) on 1 April 1918.

National Party (South Africa)

National PartyNPNationalist
This was too much for the Old Boers, who set up their own National Party to fight the all-powerful Botha-Smuts partnership.
In 1934 Hertzog agreed to merge his National Party with the rival South African Party of Jan Smuts to form the United Party.

South West Africa campaign

First World WarSouth-West AfricaWorld War I
Next he and Louis Botha led the South African army into German South-West Africa and conquered it (see the South-West Africa Campaign for details).
The government declared martial law on 14 October 1914 and forces loyal to the government under the command of Generals Louis Botha and Jan Smuts proceeded to destroy the rebellion.

Greater South Africa

South African territorial expansion all the way to the River Zambesi
Smuts, who had called for South African territorial expansion all the way to the River Zambesi since the late 19th century, was ultimately disappointed with the League awarding South-West Africa only a mandate status, as he had looked forward to formally incorporating the territory to South Africa.
Statesman Jan Smuts repeatedly had called for South African expansion since 1895, envisioning a future South African border along the river Zambesi or even the equator.

Edmund Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby

Edmund AllenbyAllenbyGeneral Allenby
Allenby was appointed instead.
Allenby participated in the actions at Zand River on 10 May 1900, Kalkheuval Pass on 3 June 1900, Barberton on 12 September 1900 and Tevreden on 16 October 1900 when the Boer General Jan Smuts was defeated.

South African Party

SAPSouth African
To solidify their dominance of South African politics, the Afrikaners united to form the South African Party, a new pan-South African Afrikaner party.
Though a combination of military intervention and negotiation ended the strike, the memory of it remained when the government, now a SAP-Unionist coalition government under the leadership of Jan Smuts, faced the 1924 South African general election, in which it was defeated by a National-Labour coalition.

Stellenbosch University

University of StellenboschStellenboschVictoria College
He moved on to Victoria College, Stellenbosch, in 1886, at the age of sixteen.
Jan Smuts, former South African Prime Minister.

Louis Botha

BothaGeneral BothaGeneral Louis Botha
Next he and Louis Botha led the South African army into German South-West Africa and conquered it (see the South-West Africa Campaign for details). Louis Botha was elected leader, and Smuts his deputy.
In 1911, together with another Boer war hero, Jan Smuts, he formed the South African Party, or SAP.

Riebeek West

Bovenplaats
He was born on 24 May 1870, at the family farm, Bovenplaats, near Malmesbury, in the Cape Colony.
General Jan Christiaan Smuts was born on the farm Bovenplaats, two km north of Riebeek West on 24 May 1870.

Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck

Lettow-Vorbeckvon Lettow-VorbeckGeneral Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck
Meinertzhagen believed Horace Smith-Dorrien (who had saved the British Army during the retreat from Mons), the original choice as commander in 1916 would have quickly defeated the German commander Colonel (later General) Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck.
In March 1916, the British under General J. C. Smuts launched a formidable offensive with 45,000 men and the Belgians under General Charles Tombeur near Tabora.

League of Nations

Leaguethe League of NationsCouncil of the League of Nations
Smuts advocated a powerful League of Nations, which failed to materialise.
The two principal drafters and architects of the covenant of the League of Nations were the British politician Lord Robert Cecil and the South African statesman Jan Smuts.

John French, 1st Earl of Ypres

John FrenchSir John FrenchFrench
In 1917, following the German Gotha Raids, and lobbying by Viscount French, Smuts wrote a review of the British Air Services, which came to be called the Smuts Report.
On 13 December 1900 Smuts and de la Rey attacked a British force at Nooitgedacht.

Richard Meinertzhagen

Meinertzhagen, RMeinertzhagenCol Richard Meinertzhagen
Smuts was criticised by his chief Intelligence officer, Colonel Richard Meinertzhagen, for avoiding frontal attacks which, in Meinertzhagen's view, would have been less costly than the inconsequential flanking movements that prolonged the campaign where thousands of Imperial troops died of disease.
In November of that year General J.C. Smuts ordered him invalided to England.