Monumental Axis, Brasília designed by Oscar Niemeyer and Lúcio Costa
Jacobs as chair of a Greenwich Village civic group at a 1961 press conference
Measures for urban sprawl in Europe: upper left the Dispersion of the built-up area (DIS), upper right the weighted urban proliferation (WUP)
Model of Dubai Sports City in Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Cover of The Death and Life of Great American Cities
This picture shows the metropolitan areas of the Northeast Megalopolis of the United States demonstrating urban sprawl, including far-flung suburbs and exurbs illuminated at night.
Ebenezer Howard's influential 1902 diagram, illustrating urban growth through garden city "off-shoots"
Jacobs fought to prevent Washington Square Park, pictured, from being demolished for a highway
Traffic congestion in sprawling São Paulo, Brazil, which, according to Time magazine, has the world's worst traffic jams.
Jane Jacobs, urban design activist and author of The Death and Life of Great American Cities.
Jacobs lived at 69 Albany Avenue (white porch) in Toronto's Annex for 35 years
Low-density housing placed between large farms in an exurban community in Tennessee
Jakriborg, in Sweden, started in the late 1990s as a new urbanist eco-friendly new town near Malmö
Jacobs with Ecotrust foreman Spencer Beebe in Portland, Oregon, 2004
Sprawl in Milton, Ontario. This photograph is an example of Canadian exurban development, though recently attempts are made to reduce this type of development in many major cities.
L'Enfant's plan for Washington DC
A "Jane's Walk" group pauses at Fort York National Historic Site in Toronto
Clustered commercial strips like this one in Breezewood, Pennsylvania are common in outer rural exurbs and suburbs in metropolitan areas.
Gehl Architects' project for Brighton New Road employing shared space
Walmart Supercenter in Luray, Virginia.
Protest banner during the Climate Change Camp 2007 at Heathrow Airport in London.
The urban sprawl of Melbourne.
Boulevard Haussmann, Paris (Georges-Eugène Haussmann)
The Chicago metro area, nicknamed "Chicagoland".
Vienna Ring Road, Vienna, (Georges-Eugène Haussmann)
Circus, Bath completed in 1768
Road Space Requirements
Brasília (Oscar Niemeyer, Lúcio Costa)
Major cities – per capita petrol use vs. population density
Palace of Assembly (Chandigarh) (1952–1961) (Le Corbusier)
A majority of Californians live, commute, and work in the vast and extensive web of Southern California freeways.
Headquarters of the United Nations
The Metropolitan Green Belt first proposed by the London County Council in 1935.
FDR Drive designed by Robert Moses
Many Canadian cities feature numerous pockets of high density throughout even their most distant suburbs. As a result, some Canadian suburbs have skylines that rival large American cities. Pictured are the skylines of Burnaby, British Columbia, a suburb of Vancouver.
Market Street, Celebration, Florida
Business parks are strongly linked to car-dependent sprawl.
New urbanist Sankt Eriksområdet quarter in Stockholm, Sweden, built in the 1990s
Poundbury, Dorset
BedZED, Hackfield, London
BedZED, Hackfield, London
Arcosanti, Arizona

Important writers on urban design theory include Christopher Alexander, Peter Calthorpe, Gordon Cullen, Andres Duany, Jane Jacobs, Jan Gehl, Allan B. Jacobs, Kevin Lynch, Aldo Rossi, Colin Rowe, Robert Venturi, William H. Whyte, Camillo Sitte, Bill Hillier (Space syntax), and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk.

- Urban design

Later that year, the Rockefeller Foundation awarded a grant to Jacobs to produce a critical study of city planning and urban life in the U.S. (From the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, the foundation's Humanities Division sponsored an "Urban Design Studies" research program, of which Jacobs was the best known grantee.) Gilpatric encouraged Jacobs to "explor[e] the field of urban design to look for ideas and actions which may improve thinking on how the design of cities might better serve urban life, including cultural and humane value."

- Jane Jacobs

These neighborhoods have significantly lower environmental impacts when compared to sprawling suburbs.

- Urban design

Walkability is an important concept in sustainable urban design.

- Urban sprawl

Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities

- Urban sprawl

However, in the conclusion she admits: "At a given time it is hard to tell whether forces of cultural life or death are in the ascendancy. Is suburban sprawl, with its murders of communities and wastes of land, time, and energy, a sign of decay? Or is rising interest in means of overcoming sprawl a sign of vigor and adaptability in North American culture? Arguably, either could turn out to be true."

- Jane Jacobs
Monumental Axis, Brasília designed by Oscar Niemeyer and Lúcio Costa

1 related topic with Alpha


Seaside, Florida

New Urbanism

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Seaside, Florida
Market Street, Celebration, Florida
New Broad Street, Baldwin Park, Florida
Beach Drive, St. Petersburg, Florida
Celebration, Florida Post Office, designed by architect Michael Graves
A park in Celebration, Florida
Great King St, New Town, Edinburgh
A Mediterranean Revival house in Celebration, Florida
A Key West style house in Baldwin Park, Florida
New urbanist Sankt Eriksområdet quarter in Stockholm, Sweden, built in the 1990s. (More photos)
Traffic along Lornie Road, Singapore.
New Urbanism

New Urbanism is an urban design movement which promotes environmentally friendly habits by creating walkable neighbourhoods containing a wide range of housing and job types.

They also hope that this set up will increase the supply of affordable housing and rein in suburban sprawl.

The Death and Life of Great American Cities, written by Jane Jacobs in the early 1960s, called for planners to reconsider the single-use housing projects, large car-dependent thoroughfares, and segregated commercial centers that had become the "norm".