Janissaries

JanissaryJannisaryJannisariesJanissary corpsJannissaryJanizariesjanizaryrebellion of janissariesTurkish Janissaries1622 rebellion
The Janissaries (, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.wikipedia
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Mahmud II

Mahmut IISultan Mahmud IIMahmud
The corps was abolished by Sultan Mahmud II in 1826 in the Auspicious Incident in which 6,000 or more were executed.
Often described as "Peter the Great of Turkey", Mahmud's reforms included the 1826 abolition of the conservative Janissary corps, which removed a major obstacle to his and his successors' reforms in the Empire.

Albania

Republic of AlbaniaAlbanianALB
According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, "in early days, all Christians were enrolled indiscriminately. Later, those from Albania, Bosnia, and Bulgaria were preferred."
The Albanians, as Christians, were considered as an inferior class of people and as such they were subjected to heavy taxes among others by the Devshirme system that allowed the Sultan to collect a requisite percentage of Christian adolescents from their families to compose the Janissary.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

BosniaBosnia-HerzegovinaBosnian
According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, "in early days, all Christians were enrolled indiscriminately. Later, those from Albania, Bosnia, and Bulgaria were preferred."
This, combined with frustrations over territorial, political concessions in the north-east, and the plight of Slavic Muslim refugees arriving from the Sanjak of Smederevo into Bosnia Eyalet, culminated in a partially unsuccessful revolt by Husein Gradaščević, who endorsed a Bosnia Eyalet autonomous from the authoritarian rule of the Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II, who persecuted, executed and abolished the Janissaries and reduced the role of autonomous Pashas in Rumelia.

Sokollu Mehmed Pasha

Mehmed Paša SokolovićSokollu Mehmet PaşaMehmed-paša Sokolović
Another was Sokollu Mehmed Paşa, a Serb who became a grand vizier, served three sultans, and was the de facto ruler of the Ottoman Empire for more than 14 years.
Born in Ottoman Herzegovina into a Serbian Orthodox Christian family, Mehmed was taken away at an early age as part of the Ottoman devşirme system of collection of Christian boys to be raised to serve as a janissary.

Ottoman Empire

OttomanOttomansTurks
1362–1389), the third ruler of the Ottoman Empire.
Selim III (1789–1807) made the first major attempts to modernize the army, but his reforms were hampered by the religious leadership and the Janissary corps.

List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire

Ottoman SultanSultanSultan of the Ottoman Empire
The Janissaries (, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.

Standing army

Regular Armystanding armiesRegular
The Janissaries (, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.
The first modern standing armies in Europe were the Janissaries of the Ottoman Empire, formed in the fourteenth century.

Kapıkulu

kapikuluHousehold SlaveKapikulus
kapıkulu), "door servants" or "slaves of the Porte", neither freemen nor ordinary slaves (köle).
They included the Janissary infantry corps, as well as the Six Divisions of Cavalry.

Enderun School

Enderunpalace schoolEnderûn Library
The brightest of the Janissaries were sent to the palace institution, Enderun.
The Enderun School (Ottoman Turkish: اندرون مکتب, Enderûn Mektebi) was a palace school and boarding school mostly for the Janissaries of the Ottoman Empire, which primarily recruited students via devşirme, a system of the Islamization of Christian children for serving the Ottoman government in bureaucratic, managerial, and Janissary military positions.

Chorbaji

ÇorbacıChorbadzhiachorbadzhii
tschorbadji) (çorbacı, ) was a military rank of the corps of Janissaries in the Ottoman Empire, used for the commander of an orta (regiment), i.e., approximately corresponding to the rank of colonel.

Djebedji

CebeciCebeci (corps)Cebeci Ocağı
Their weapons and ammunition were transported and re-supplied by the cebeci corps.
They were considered as a part of the Jannisary and based on devshirme system.

Sipahi

sipahisOttoman cavalrysepahi
The same source estimates the number of Timarli Sipahi, the provincial cavalry which constituted the main force of the army at 40,000.
The sipahi formed their own distinctive social classes, and were notably in rivalry with the Janissaries, the elite corps of the Sultan.

Albanians

AlbanianAlbanian peopleethnic Albanian
Some of the most famous Janissaries include George Kastrioti Skanderbeg, an Albanian who defected and led a 25‑year Albanian revolt against the Ottomans. Initially the recruiters favoured Greeks and Albanians.
The Albanians, predominantly a Christian people, were considered as an inferior class of people and as such they were subjected to heavy taxes such as the Devshirme system that allowed the Sultan to collect a requisite percentage of Christian adolescents from the Balkans and elsewhere to compose the Janissary.

Murad I

Murat ISultan Murad IMurad
The corps was most likely established during the reign of Murad I (1362–1389).
He established the title of sultan in 1383 and the corps of the janissaries and the devşirme recruiting system.

Ottoman Greece

Ottoman ruleGreeceOttoman period
Initially the recruiters favoured Greeks and Albanians.
The Ottomans required that male children from Christian peasant villages be conscripted and enrolled in the corps of Janissaries for military training in the Sultan's army.

Battle of Vienna

Siege of Viennasecond siege of ViennaVienna
The northern borders of the Ottoman Empire slowly began to shrink southwards after the second Battle of Vienna in 1683.
Ottoman forces consisted, among other units, of 60 ortas or Janissaries (12,000 men paper-strength) with an observation army of some 70,000 men watching the countryside.

Yerliyya

Local Janissaries, stationed in a town or city for a long time, were known as yerliyyas.
In the Ottoman Empire of the 17th century the yerliyya were local Janissaries that had been sent to an urban centre many years earlier and had become fully integrated into their surroundings, often playing important roles in the commercial and political life of the area.

Safavid dynasty

SafavidSafavid EmpireSafavids
It was a similar system to the Iranian Safavid, Afsharid, and Qajar era ghilmans, who were drawn from converted Circassians, Georgians, and Armenians, and in the same way as with the Ottoman's Janissaries who had to replace the unreliable ghazis.
Therefore, in 1540, Shah Tahmāsp started the first of a series of invasions of the Caucasus region, both meant as a training and drilling for his soldiers, as well as mainly bringing back massive numbers of Christian Circassian and Georgian slaves, who would form the basis of a military slave system, alike to the janissaries of the neighbouring Ottoman Empire, as well as at the same time forming a new layer in Iranian society composed of ethnic Caucasians.

Selim III

Sultan Selim IIISultanSelim
In 1807 a Janissary revolt deposed Sultan Selim III, who had tried to modernize the army along Western European lines.
The Janissaries eventually deposed and imprisoned him, and placed his cousin Mustafa on the throne as Mustafa IV.

Dervish

dervishesDerwishDarviš
Janissaries also learned to follow the dictates of the dervish saint Haji Bektash Veli, disciples of whom had blessed the first troops.
Other dervish groups include the Bektashis, who are connected to the janissaries, and the Senussi, who are rather orthodox in their beliefs.

Qizilbash

KızılbaşKizilbashQizilbashi
They were initially created as a counterbalance to the tribal, ethnic and favoured interests the Qizilbash gave, which make a system imbalanced.
This included the formation of a military slave system, similar to that of the neighboring Ottoman Empire – the janissaries.

Siege of Vienna

Viennabesieging ViennaFirst Turkish Siege
The siege of Vienna in 1529 confirmed the reputation of their engineers, e.g. sappers and miners.
As well as numerous units of Sipahi, the elite mounted force of the Ottoman cavalry, and thousands of janissaries, the Ottoman army incorporated a contingent from Moldavia and renegade Serbian warriors from the army of John Zápolya.

Beylerbey

beglerbegbeglarbegBeglarbegi
Conscripts could one day become Janissary colonels, statesmen who might one day return to their home region as governors, or even Grand Viziers or Beylerbeys (governor generals).
In addition, as a further check to their power, the Janissary contingents stationed in the province's cities were outside his authority, and beylerbeys were even forbidden from entering the fortresses garrisoned by the Janissaries.

Skanderbeg

George Kastrioti SkanderbegScanderbegSkenderbeg
Some of the most famous Janissaries include George Kastrioti Skanderbeg, an Albanian who defected and led a 25‑year Albanian revolt against the Ottomans.
Another 15th-century literary work with Skanderbeg as one of the main characters was Memoirs of a Janissary written in the period of 1490–97 by Konstantin Mihailović, a Serb who was a janissary in the Ottoman Army.

Yedikule Fortress

Seven TowersYedikuleCastle of Seven Towers
In the spring, hearing rumours that the Sultan was preparing to move against them, the Janissaries revolted and took the Sultan captive, imprisoning him in the notorious Seven Towers: he was murdered shortly afterwards.
Among Yedikule's most notable prisoners was the young Sultan Osman II, who was imprisoned and executed there by the Janissaries in 1622.