A report on Japanese cuisine and Sushi

Osechi, new year special dishes
A Japanese meal including tempura, sashimi, and miso soup
President Barack Obama and Prime Minister Shinzo Abe at Sukiyabashi Jiro
Breakfast at a ryokan (Japanese inn), featuring grilled mackerel, Kansai-style dashimaki egg, tofu in kaminabe (paper pot)
Sushi by Hiroshige
Osechi, new year dishes
Sushi platter in takeway
Kaiseki appetizers on a wooden plate
Chirashizushi with raw ingredients
Yakiniku
Three pieces of inarizushi
The use of soy sauce is prevalent in Japanese cuisine
Funa-zushi (narezushi made from nigorobuna)
Japanese boiled spinach salad (Ohitashi)
Nigirizushi
Tempura battered and deep fried seafood and vegetables
Several types of nigirizushi, rice hand-pressed with various seafood, including tuna, eel, and sea urchin roe gunkanmaki
Yakitori grilled chicken
Japanese cutlassfish oshizushi at a restaurant in Minamata City, Kumamoto Prefecture
Western cuisine in kaiseki style
Oshi-zushi (Pressed sushi)
Nattō, Japanese soybean-based vegetarian food
Norway roll (ノルウェー巻き). A Norwegian businessman introduced the use of salmon as a sushi ingredient to Japan in the 1980s.
Gyūdon beef rice bowl (right) and niku shoyu ramen beef noodle (left).
Uramakizushi rolls
Udon noodles
Rainbow roll, uramaki with multiple fillings including shrimp tempura, salmon, avocado, mango, with rice mixed with tobiko
Soba noodles
Sushi chef preparing nigirizushi, Kyoto, Japan
Curry is so widely consumed that it can be called a national dish.
Sheets of nori
Japanese pancake, Okonomiyaki
Sushi made of meats other than fish (whether raw or cooked) is a variation often seen in Japan.
Tonkatsu pork cutlet
Yaki anago-ippon-nigiri (焼きアナゴ一本握り) – a roasted and sweet-sauced whole conger eel
California roll, a fusion makizushi created outside of Japan.
Ebifurai-maki (エビフライ巻き) – fried-shrimp roll
A branch of Kokoro in Sutton High Street, Sutton, Greater London
Sushi in shops are usually sold in plastic trays.
Chicken teriyaki bento set, including salmon sashimi, gyoza, salad and miso soup, served in a Japanese restaurant in Jakarta.
Sushi served on a wooden platter at a sushi restaurant in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan
Okonomiyaki and takoyaki served in a festival of 2018 Asian Games in Jakarta
Sushi in restaurant in Vienna, Austria
Whale meat sashimi, one of the most controversial Japanese dishes
Meat sushi
{{transl|ja|Makizushi}} topped with {{transl|ja|tobiko}}
{{transl|ja|Makizushi}} in preparation
{{transl|ja|Futomaki}}
{{transl|ja|Kappamaki}}
{{transl|ja|Nattōmaki}}
{{transl|ja|Tekkamaki}}
{{transl|ja|Ehōmaki}}
{{nihongo3|fatty tuna belly|鮪とろ握り|Toro nigiri}}
{{nihongo|Salmon roll|巻き鮭}}
{{nihongo3|persimmon leaf|柿の葉寿司|Kakinoha}} sushi
{{nihongo||茶巾寿司|Chakin-zushi}}, wrapped in thin omelette
{{nihongo|Sushi plate|盛り合わせ}}
{{nihongo||イクラ軍艦巻き|Ikura gunkan-maki}}
{{nihongo3|bamboo leaf|笹寿司|Sasa}} sushi
{{nihongo3|teriyaki-roasted freshwater eel|鰻寿司|Unagi}} sushi
{{transl|ja|Nigirizushi}} for sale at a supermarket in Tokyo
{{nihongo|Assorted sushi|盛り合わせ}}
{{nihongo|Assorted Western sushi|盛り合わせ}}
Western California roll and tuna roll {{transl|ja|uramaki}} ({{lang|ja|カリフォルニア巻き}})
{{nihongo|Western spicy tuna hand roll|スパイシーツナロール}}
{{nihongo|Western spicy shrimp roll|スパイシー海老ロール}}
{{transl|ja|Gari}} (ginger)
Wasabi
thumb|right|{{transl|ja|Tamago}} sushi

Sushi (すし, 寿司, 鮨, 鮓) is a Japanese dish of prepared vinegared rice (鮨飯), usually with some sugar and salt, accompanied by a variety of ingredients (ねた), such as seafood, often raw, and vegetables.

- Sushi

Seafood is common, often grilled, but also served raw as sashimi or in sushi.

- Japanese cuisine
Osechi, new year special dishes

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Sashimi combo served on a wooden plate, consists of slices of assorted fish flesh

Sashimi

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Sashimi combo served on a wooden plate, consists of slices of assorted fish flesh
Assorted sashimi: tuna, cuttlefish, and seabream
Plate of fugu sashimi (thinly sliced puffer fish)
Sashimi bōchō kitchen knives for sashimi
alt=Goat meat served raw as sashimi.|Goat meat served raw as sashimi
alt=Thinly sliced mimiga and chiraga served as sashimi.|Thinly sliced "mimigā" (near) and "chiragā" (far).
A plate of dolphin sashimi
A plate of horse sashimi (basashi)
thumb|Beef sashimi
Chicken sashimi served lightly braised as tataki
thumb|Beef liver sashimi served with sesame seed oil and salt{{Efn|Japanese regulation has banned providing or selling raw beef liver for sashimi at restaurants or stores, due to the risk of Hepatitis E and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, since July 2012.<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.mhlw.go.jp/stf/seisakunitsuite/bunya/kenkou_iryou/shokuhin/syouhisya/110720/index.html|title=Japanese regulation document|archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20150724035815/http://www.mhlw.go.jp/stf/seisakunitsuite/bunya/kenkou_iryou/shokuhin/syouhisya/110720/index.html|archive-date= 24 July 2015}}</ref>|name=bliver2012|group=}}|alt=1

Sashimi (刺身) is a Japanese delicacy consisting of fresh raw fish or meat sliced into thin pieces and often eaten with soy sauce.

Many non-Japanese use the terms sashimi and sushi interchangeably, but the two dishes are distinct and separate.

Frying tempura

Tempura

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Frying tempura
Scallop tempura with sea urchin roe
Mushroom tempura
Assorted vegetable tempura served at San-Sada restaurant in Asakusa, Tokyo, Japan
Tentsuyu is the most common sauce consumed with tempura.
Peixinhos da horta ("Little fishes from the garden"), the Portuguese ancestor of Japanese tempura
Tempura yatai (stall) of Edo period
Black bass ten-don in Lake Ashi, Japan.
Tenya
Tempura ice cream
Chocolate Cookie Tempura

Tempura (天ぷら or 天麩羅) is a typical Japanese dish usually consisting of seafood, meat and vegetables that have been battered and deep fried.

Tempura is considered one of "the Edo Delicacies" along with soba (buckwheat noodles) and sushi which were also food-stall take-outs.

Sesame

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Flowering plant in the genus Sesamum, also called benne.

Flowering plant in the genus Sesamum, also called benne.

Flower of S. indicum
Sesame seed capsule
Sesame Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn. from the Seikei Zusetsu agriculture encyclopedia
Sesame seeds are a rich source of oil.
Magnified image of white sesame seeds
Sesame seeds are commonly added to baked goods and creative confectionery
Rolled khao phan with black sesame seeds
Sesame seed breadsticks
Sesame sweet cake
Sesame seed ball confection
Til-patti – a sesame brittle-type confection from India
Simit, koulouri, or gevrek, a ring-shaped bread coated with sesame seeds

Sesame oil, particularly from roasted seed, is an important component of Japanese cooking and traditionally the principal use of the seed.

In Asia, sesame seeds are sprinkled onto some sushi-style foods.

One isomer of lactic acid

Lactic acid fermentation

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Metabolic process by which glucose or other six-carbon sugars are converted into cellular energy and the metabolite lactate, which is lactic acid in solution.

Metabolic process by which glucose or other six-carbon sugars are converted into cellular energy and the metabolite lactate, which is lactic acid in solution.

One isomer of lactic acid
This animation focuses on one molecule of glucose turning into pyruvate then into lactic acid. In the process there is one 6-carbon glucose molecule and 2 NAD+ molecules. 2 phosphates attach to the ends of the glucose molecule, then glucose is split into 2 3-carbon pyruvate precursors. Subsequently, NAD+ molecules are converted into 2 NADH and additional phosphate groups are attached to the carbons. Then ADP comes and takes the phosphates, creating 2 ATP molecules. The pyruvate is turned into 2 lactate molecules, which convert NADH back to NAD+. The process then repeats, starting with another glucose molecule.
A bottle and glass of Kumis

Examples of these dishes include burong isda of the Philippines; narezushi of Japan; and pla ra of Thailand.

From left: brown rice, half-milled rice, white rice

Japanese rice

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Japanese rice refers to a number of short-grain cultivars of Japonica rice including ordinary rice (uruchimai) and glutinous rice (mochigome).

Japanese rice refers to a number of short-grain cultivars of Japonica rice including ordinary rice (uruchimai) and glutinous rice (mochigome).

From left: brown rice, half-milled rice, white rice
A Japanese rice field in Nara
A comparison between Koshihikari and Calrose cultivars. Koshihikari on the left, Calrose on the right.
Sushi by Hiroshige in Edo period
Rice cooker of the Edo period Fukagawa Edo Museum

Ordinary rice, or uruchimai, is eaten in several ways in Japan, most commonly as plain rice lit. "cooked rice" or "meal of any sort" (ご飯) consumed as part of a typical washoku meal accompanied by several okazu dishes (おかず), tsukemono (various pickles), and miso soup.

It is used in sushi (寿司) and onigiri.