Japanese honorifics

kunhonorificsan-chanHanshichanhonorificssama-sama-san
The Japanese language makes use of honorific suffixes when referring to others in a conversation.wikipedia
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Honorific speech in Japanese

keigohonorifichonorifics
Use of honorifics is correlated with other forms of honorific speech in Japanese, such as use of the polite form (-masu, desu) versus the plain form—using the plain form with a polite honorific (-san, -sama) can be jarring, for instance.
The Japanese language has many honorifics, referred to as keigo (敬語, literally "respectful language"), parts of speech that show respect.

Kansai dialect

Kansai accentKyoto dialectOsaka dialect
San (sometimes pronounced han in Kansai dialect) is the most commonplace honorific and is a title of respect typically used between equals of any age.
The use of in place of . Some debuccalization of is apparent in most Kansai speakers, but it seems to have progressed more in morphological suffixes and inflections than in core vocabulary. This process has produced はん for さん -san "Mr., Ms.", まへん for ません (formal negative form), and まひょ for ましょう (formal volitional form), ひちや for 質屋 "pawnshop", among other examples.

Honorific

honorific titlehonorificshonorific titles
The Japanese language makes use of honorific suffixes when referring to others in a conversation.
Japanese honorifics are similar to English, with titles like "Mister" and "Miss", but in Japanese, which has many honorifics, their use is mandatory in many formal and informal social situations.

Emperor of Japan

EmperorMonarchJapanese Emperor
With the exception of the Emperor of Japan, -sama can be used to informally address the Empress and other members of the Imperial Family.
In keeping with the analogy, they even used the term "Emperor" in reference to the shōguns and their regents, e.g. in the case of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, whom missionaries called "Emperor Taico-sama" (from Taikō and the honorific sama).

OS-tan

Nanami MadobeWindows 8 Pro DSP
Moe anthropomorphisms are often labeled as -tan, e.g., the commercial mascot Habanero-tan, the manga figure Afghanis-tan or the OS-tans representing operating systems.
The Japanese suffix tan is a mispronunciation of chan, an informal, intimate, and diminutive honorific suffix for a person, used for friends, family, and pets.

Hypocorism

hypocoristicpet namepet form
Bō is another diminutive that expresses endearment.
-chan, -tan, or -pi in Japanese, such as Kana-chan from Kana and Aki-chan from Akihiro. Gemination (doubling) of the consonant or lengthening of the vowel before the -chan to provide two moras is common, such as Settchan from Setsuko and Hii-chan from Hiroki. Many of these are derived from the custom of using Japanese honorifics, even in colloquial language.

The Tale of Genji

Genji MonogatariTale of GenjiGenji
The most famous example is the Prince Hikaru Genji, protagonist of The Tale of Genji who was called Hikaru no kimi .
The characters are instead referred to by their function or role (e.g. Minister of the Left), an honorific (e.g. His Excellency), or their relation to other characters (e.g. Heir Apparent), which changes as the novel progresses.

Sensei

Master先生senseis
Martial artists often address their teachers as sensei.
Sensei (can be pronounced "Sensai" as well), Sinsang, Sonsaeng, Seonsaeng or Xiansheng is an honorific term shared in Chinese honorifics and Japanese honorifics that is translated as "person born before another" or "one who comes before".

Senpai and kōhai

senpaikōhaisenior
Junior and senior students are organized via a senpai/kōhai system.
The kōhai defers to the senpais seniority and experience, and speaks to the senpai using honorific language.

Etiquette in Japan

etiquetteitadakimasuJapan
Etiquette in Japan
(The honorific "o" or お cannot be omitted from this word.) Bowing is extremely important: although children normally begin learning how to bow at a very young age, companies commonly train their employees precisely how they are to bow.

Chinese titles

titlearistocratsDàifu
Chinese titles
Japanese honorifics

Japanese language

JapaneseJapanese-languageJp
The Japanese language makes use of honorific suffixes when referring to others in a conversation.

Suffix

suffixesendingdesinence
The Japanese language makes use of honorific suffixes when referring to others in a conversation.

Grammar

grammaticalgrammaticallyrules of language
Although honorifics are not part of the basic grammar of the Japanese language, they are a fundamental part of the sociolinguistics of Japanese, and proper use is essential to proficient and appropriate speech.

Sociolinguistics

sociolinguisticsociolinguistsociolinguists
Although honorifics are not part of the basic grammar of the Japanese language, they are a fundamental part of the sociolinguistics of Japanese, and proper use is essential to proficient and appropriate speech.

Interlocutor (linguistics)

interlocutorinterlocutorsinterviewer
An honorific is generally used when referring to the person one is talking to (one's interlocutor), or when referring to an unrelated third party in speech.

Uchi-soto

uchiin-groupout-group
It is dropped, however, by some superiors, when referring to one's in-group, or in formal writing, and is never used to refer to oneself, except for dramatic effect, or some exceptional cases. When referring to a third person, honorifics are used except when referring to one's family members while talking to a non-family member, or when referring to a member of one's company while talking to a customer or someone from another company—this is the uchi–soto (in-group/out group) distinction.

Team sport

team sportsteamteams
Within sports teams or among classmates, where the interlocutors approximately have the same age or seniority, it can be acceptable to use family names without honorifics.

School

schoolsschoolingschool house
Within sports teams or among classmates, where the interlocutors approximately have the same age or seniority, it can be acceptable to use family names without honorifics.

Ingroups and outgroups

ingroupin-groupoutgroup
When referring to a third person, honorifics are used except when referring to one's family members while talking to a non-family member, or when referring to a member of one's company while talking to a customer or someone from another company—this is the uchi–soto (in-group/out group) distinction.

Translation

translatortranslatedtranslators
When translating honorific suffixes into English, separate pronouns or adjectives must be used in order to convey

Homophone

homophonoushomophoneshomophonic
Online, Japanese gamers often append a numeral 3 to another player's name to denote -san (e.g., Taro3 conveys Taro-san), since the number three is also pronounced san.

Shinto

ShintōShinto-derivedFolk Shinto
Deities such as native Shinto kami and the Christian God are referred to as kami-sama, meaning "Revered spirit-sama". When used to refer to oneself, -sama expresses extreme arrogance (or self-effacing irony), as in praising oneself to be of a higher rank, as with ore-sama .

Kami

godsdeitygod
Deities such as native Shinto kami and the Christian God are referred to as kami-sama, meaning "Revered spirit-sama". When used to refer to oneself, -sama expresses extreme arrogance (or self-effacing irony), as in praising oneself to be of a higher rank, as with ore-sama .