Japanese invasion of Manchuria

Japanese troops marching into Mukden on 18 September 1931
Japanese soldiers of 29th Regiment on the Mukden West Gate
Map of the Manchukuo state in 1939

The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident.

- Japanese invasion of Manchuria

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Soviet invasion of Manchuria

The Soviet invasion of Manchuria, formally known as the Manchurian strategic offensive operation (Манчжурская стратегическая наступательная операция) or simply the Manchurian operation (Маньчжурская операция), began on 9 August 1945 with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.

Soviet gains in North East Asia, August 1945
Basic map showing the Soviet invasion plan for Manchuria
An IJA Type 95 Ha-Go of the Manchuria Tank School
Manchurian offensive
Soviet troops crossing into Manchuria, 9 August 1945
Soviet troops enter the city of Harbin following its liberation on 21 August 1945
Soviet Red Army Martyrs Cemetery built in Manzhouli after the war

The Russo-Japanese War of the early 20th century resulted in a Japanese victory and the Treaty of Portsmouth by which, in conjunction with other later events including the Mukden Incident and Japanese invasion of Manchuria in September 1931, Japan eventually gained control of Korea, Manchuria and South Sakhalin.

Mukden Incident

FT-17 tanks captured by the Japanese after the September 18th Incident, September 19, 1931.
Japanese soldiers of 29th Regiment on the Mukden West Gate
Japanese experts inspect the "sabotaged" South Manchurian Railway.
A section of the Liǔtiáo Railway. The caption reads "railway fragment".
Chinese delegate addresses the League of Nations after the Mukden Incident in 1932.
The September 18th History Museum in Shenyang

The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, known in Chinese as the 9.18 Incident (九・一八), was a false flag event staged by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria.


Puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Manchuria from 1932 until 1945.

Manchukuo (burgundy) within the Empire of Japan (pink) at its furthest extent
Location of Manchukuo (red) within Imperial Japan's sphere of influence (1939)
Manchukuo (burgundy) within the Empire of Japan (pink) at its furthest extent
Members of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere; territory controlled at maximum height. Japan and its allies in dark red; occupied territories/client states in lighter red. Korea and Taiwan were at that time considered integral parts of Japan and governed directly by the Japanese government, unlike client states such as Manchukuo that functioned under puppet governments.
The Japan–Manchukuo Protocol, 15 September 1932
The throne of the emperor of Manchukuo, c. 1937
Foreign recognition of Manchukuo represented by states in colors other than gray
Puyi as Emperor Kangde of Manchukuo
A map of the Japanese advance from 1937 to 1942
Propaganda poster promoting harmony between Japanese, Chinese, and Manchu. The caption says (Right to left): "With the cooperation of Japan, China, and Manchukuo, the world can be in peace."
Hideki Tōjō (right) and Nobusuke Kishi, the key architect of Manchukuo (1935–39), also known as the "Shōwa (Emperor) era monster/devil"
Map of Japanese Hokushin-ron plans for a potential attack on the Soviet Union. Dates indicate the year that Japan gained control of the territory.
Map of Manchukuo
Administrative divisions of Manchukuo in 1938
A Manchukuo propaganda poster promoting displaying European and East Asian ethnic groups
The Empress of Manchukuo taking part in a procession during a visit by Japanese officials (1934)
Propaganda poster of the Manchukuo Government for the Western audience, featuring a couple of Japanese agrarian immigrants
Showa Steel Works in the early 1940s
Cavalry of the Manchukuo Imperial Army
A Type 41 75 mm mountain gun during an Imperial Army exercise
Manchukuo Imperial Air Force pilots, 1942, with a Nakajima Ki-27 behind
Poppy harvest in Manchukuo

It was founded as a republic in 1932 after the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, and in 1934 it became a constitutional monarchy under the de facto control of Japan.

Marco Polo Bridge Incident

July 1937 battle between China's National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army.

Aerial photo of the Marco Polo Bridge. Wanping Fortress is on the opposite side of the river.
Japanese forces bombarding Wanping Fortress, 1937
Damage from the Japanese shells on the wall of Wanping Fortress is marked with a memorial plaque now. The texts on the stone drums below summarizes the history of the war that followed the incident.

Since the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, there had been many small incidents along the rail line connecting Beijing with the port of Tianjin, but all had subsided.

Lytton Report

Lytton Commission members in Shanghai (Lord Lytton wearing a coat in center of photo)
Lytton Commission, investigating the blast point of the railway.

Lytton Report (リットン報告書) are the findings of the Lytton Commission, entrusted in 1931 by the League of Nations in an attempt to evaluate the Mukden Incident, which led to the Empire of Japan's seizure of Manchuria.

World War II

Global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945.

The League of Nations assembly, held in Geneva, Switzerland, 1930
Adolf Hitler at a German Nazi political rally in Nuremberg, August 1933
Benito Mussolini inspecting troops during the Italo-Ethiopian War, 1935
The bombing of Guernica in 1937, during the Spanish Civil War, sparked fears abroad in Europe that the next war would be based on bombing of cities with very high civilian casualties.
Japanese Imperial Army soldiers during the Battle of Shanghai, 1937
Red Army artillery unit during the Battle of Lake Khasan, 1938
Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini, and Ciano pictured just before signing the Munich Agreement, 29 September 1938
German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop (right) and the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, after signing the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, 23 August 1939
Soldiers of the German Wehrmacht tearing down the border crossing into Poland, 1 September 1939
Soldiers of the Polish Army during the defence of Poland, September 1939
Finnish machine gun nest aimed at Soviet Red Army positions during the Winter War, February 1940
German advance into Belgium and Northern France, 10 May-4 June 1940, swept past the Maginot Line (shown in dark red)
London seen from St. Paul's Cathedral after the German Blitz, 29 December 1940
Soldiers of the British Commonwealth forces from the Australian Army's 9th Division during the Siege of Tobruk; North African Campaign, September 1941
German Panzer III of the Afrika Korps advancing across the North African desert, April-May 1941
European theatre of World War II animation map, 1939–1945 – Red: Western Allies and the Soviet Union after 1941; Green: Soviet Union before 1941; Blue: Axis powers
German soldiers during the invasion of the Soviet Union by the Axis powers, 1941
Soviet civilians leaving destroyed houses after a German bombardment during the Battle of Leningrad, 10 December 1942
Japanese soldiers entering Hong Kong, 8 December 1941
The USS Arizona (BB-39) was a total loss in the Japanese surprise air attack on the American Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, Sunday 7 December 1941.
US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British PM Winston Churchill seated at the Casablanca Conference, January 1943
Map of Japanese military advances through mid-1942
US Marines during the Guadalcanal Campaign, in the Pacific theatre, 1942
Red Army soldiers on the counterattack during the Battle of Stalingrad, February 1943
American 8th Air Force Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombing raid on the Focke-Wulf factory in Germany, 9 October 1943
U.S. Navy SBD-5 scout plane flying patrol over USS Washington (BB-56) and USS Lexington (CV-16) during the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign, 1943
Red Army troops in a counter-offensive on German positions at the Battle of Kursk, July 1943
Ruins of the Benedictine monastery, during the Battle of Monte Cassino, Italian Campaign, May 1944
American troops approaching Omaha Beach during the invasion of Normandy on D-Day, 6 June 1944
German SS soldiers from the Dirlewanger Brigade, tasked with suppressing the Warsaw Uprising against Nazi occupation, August 1944
General Douglas MacArthur returns to the Philippines during the Battle of Leyte, 20 October 1944
Yalta Conference held in February 1945, with Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin
Ruins of the Reichstag in Berlin, 3 June 1945.
Atomic bombing of Nagasaki on 9 August 1945.
Ruins of Warsaw in 1945, after the deliberate destruction of the city by the occupying German forces
Defendants at the Nuremberg trials, where the Allied forces prosecuted prominent members of the political, military, judicial and economic leadership of Nazi Germany for crimes against humanity
Post-war border changes in Central Europe and creation of the Communist Eastern Bloc
David Ben-Gurion proclaiming the Israeli Declaration of Independence at the Independence Hall, 14 May 1948
World War II deaths
Bodies of Chinese civilians killed by the Imperial Japanese Army during the Nanking Massacre in December 1937
Schutzstaffel (SS) female camp guards removing prisoners' bodies from lorries and carrying them to a mass grave, inside the German Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, 1945
Prisoner identity photograph taken by the German SS of a Polish Catholic girl who died in Auschwitz. Approximately 230,000 children were held prisoner and used in forced labour and Nazi medical experiments.
Polish civilians wearing blindfolds photographed just before their execution by German soldiers in Palmiry forest, 1940
Soviet partisans hanged by the German army. The Russian Academy of Sciences reported in 1995 civilian victims in the Soviet Union at German hands totalled 13.7 million dead, twenty percent of the 68 million persons in the occupied Soviet Union.
B-29 Superfortress strategic bombers on the Boeing assembly line in Wichita, Kansas, 1944
A V-2 rocket launched from a fixed site in Peenemünde, 21 June 1943
Nuclear Gadget being raised to the top of the detonation "shot tower", at Alamogordo Bombing Range; Trinity nuclear test, New Mexico, July 1945

The dates for the beginning of the war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the earlier Japanese invasion of Manchuria, on 19 September 1931.

China proper

Term used by Western writers on the Manchu-led Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China.

A 1912 map of the Republic of China found in the National Geographic. The territory of China proper is shaded in pink, while Chinese territories not part of China proper are marked with pink borders.
A 1944 map of China Proper, Manchuria (Northeast China), Mongolia, Sinkiang (Xinjiang), and Tibet from the War Information Office propaganda film Why We Fight: The Battle of China. (Note that the outer borders here include several areas claimed by the Republic of China.)
The approximate extent of China proper during the late Ming dynasty, the last dynasty of China ruled by the Han people.
The Eighteen Provinces of China proper in 1875, before Taiwan's separation from Fujian in 1885 and its annexation by Japan in 1895.
The approximate extent of the Han ethnicity, denoted in brown. Scattered distribution is denoted by circles. Although Han people also live elsewhere, only China is shown.{{NoteTag|Source: United States Central Intelligence Agency, 1983. The map shows the distribution of ethnolinguistic groups according to the historical majority ethnic groups by region. Note that this does not represent the current distribution due to age-long internal migration and assimilation.}}

Gu further theorized that "中国本部", the Chinese and Japanese term equal to "China proper" at the time, actually originated from Japan and was translated into "China proper", hence the concept of "China proper" was developed by Japanese people, and it had become a tool to divide Chinese people, making way for the Japanese invasion of Mongolia, Manchuria, and all parts of China.

Senjūrō Hayashi

Japanese politician and general.

General Senjūrō Hayashi (National Diet Library)
List of Ideological Criminal Probation Offices installed for censorship by Ideological Criminal Probation Act established under Kōki Hirota regime of Imperial Japan in 1936.
Senjūrō Hayashi as Prime Minister (1937)

He served as Imperial Japanese Army Commander of the Japanese Korean Army during the Mukden Incident and the invasion of Manchuria.

Siping, Jilin

Prefecture-level city in the west of Jilin province, People's Republic of China.

Communist troops in the Battle of Siping.

After 1932, under the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, some agriculture-based industry including brewing, oil pressing and flour milling grew up.

Manchukuo Imperial Army

The ground force of the military of the Empire of Manchukuo, a puppet state established by Imperial Japan in Manchuria, a region of northeastern China.

War flag of Manchukuo
Military exercise of the Manchukuo Imperial Army
Manchukuo Imperial Army generals
Manchukuo Imperial Army officers
Manchukuo Army marching band
Manchukuo Imperial Army cavalry
Park Chung-hee as a regimental aide in the Manchukuo Imperial Army
Soldiers of the Manchukuo Imperial Army
A Type 41 mountain gun during a training exercise, 1943

It initially consisted of former National Revolutionary Army troops of the "Young Marshal" Zhang Xueliang who were recruited after the Japanese invasion of Manchuria en masse, but eventually expanded to include new volunteers and conscripts.