Japanese invasion of Manchuria

invasion of Manchuriainvaded ManchuriainvadedJapanese aggressionManchuriaJapanese invaded ManchuriaJapanese invasion of northeast ChinaJapanese occupationJapanese invasionhave been occupied
The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident.wikipedia
417 Related Articles

Mukden Incident

Manchurian IncidentSeptember 18 IncidentMukden
The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident.
The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was an event staged by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the Japanese invasion in 1931 of northeastern China, known as Manchuria.

Manchukuo

ManchuriaEmperor of ManchukuoPrime Minister of Manchukuo
After the war, the Japanese established the puppet state of Manchukuo.
It was founded in 1932 after the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, and in 1934 it became a constitutional monarchy.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
The invasion is sometimes cited as an alternative starting date for World War II, in contrast with the more commonly accepted one of September 1939.
The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931.

Soviet invasion of Manchuria

Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operationinvasion of Manchuriainvaded Manchuria
Their occupation lasted until the Soviet Union and Mongolia launched the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation in 1945.
The Russo-Japanese War of the early 20th century resulted in a Japanese victory and the Treaty of Portsmouth by which, in conjunction with other later events including the Mukden Incident and Japanese invasion of Manchuria in September 1931, Japan eventually gained control of Korea, Manchuria and South Sakhalin.

Kwantung Army

Kwangtung ArmyGuandong ArmyKantōgun
The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident.
Afterwards, the Kwantung Army leadership engineered the Mukden Incident and the subsequent invasion of Manchuria in 1931, in a massive act of insubordination (gekokujo) against the express orders of the political and military leadership based in Tokyo.

Lytton Report

Lytton Commissionaccusations against Japanbroadly supported
With the invasion having attracted great international attention, the League of Nations produced the Lytton Commission (headed by British politician Victor Bulwer-Lytton) to evaluate the situation, with the organization delivering its findings in October 1932.
Lytton Report are the findings of the Lytton Commission, entrusted in 1931 by the League of Nations in an attempt to evaluate the Mukden Incident, which led to the Empire of Japan's seizure of Manchuria.

Jirō Tamon

Jiro Tamon
Under orders from Lieutenant General Jirō Tamon, troops of the 2nd Division moved up the rail line and captured virtually every city along its 730-mile length in a matter of days, occupying Anshan, Haicheng, Kaiyuan, Tiehling, Fushun, Szeping-Chieh, Changchun, Kuanchengtzu, Yingkou, Antung, and Penhsihu.
He was noted as the commander in many of the operations of the invasion of Manchuria.

2nd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

IJA 2nd Division2nd Division2nd Infantry Division
Under orders from Lieutenant General Jirō Tamon, troops of the 2nd Division moved up the rail line and captured virtually every city along its 730-mile length in a matter of days, occupying Anshan, Haicheng, Kaiyuan, Tiehling, Fushun, Szeping-Chieh, Changchun, Kuanchengtzu, Yingkou, Antung, and Penhsihu.
In 1931, it was transferred to the Kwantung Army in Manchuria, it took the lead in the initial operations of the invasion of Manchuria, then in the Jiangqiao Campaign, Chinchow Operation, and in overcoming the defense of Harbin, following the Mukden Incident.

Xi Qia

Aisin-Gioro Xiqia
Other secessionist movements were organized in Japanese-occupied Kirin by General Xi Qia head of the "New Kirin" Army, and at Harbin, by General Chang Ching-hui.
Aisin-Gioro Xiqia (Aisin-Gioro Hsi-hsia; ; 1883–1950), commonly known monomymously as Xi Qia or Xi Xia (Hsi Hsia; ; Hepburn: Ki Kō), was a general in command of the Kirin Provincial Army of the Republic of China, who defected to the Japanese during the Invasion of Manchuria in 1931, and who subsequently served as a cabinet minister in Manchukuo.

Siping, Jilin

SipingSiping CitySiping (city)
Under orders from Lieutenant General Jirō Tamon, troops of the 2nd Division moved up the rail line and captured virtually every city along its 730-mile length in a matter of days, occupying Anshan, Haicheng, Kaiyuan, Tiehling, Fushun, Szeping-Chieh, Changchun, Kuanchengtzu, Yingkou, Antung, and Penhsihu.
After 1932, under the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, some agriculture-based industry including brewing, oil pressing and flour milling grew up.

Manchukuo Imperial Army

Manchukuoarmed forcesarmy
Other secessionist movements were organized in Japanese-occupied Kirin by General Xi Qia head of the "New Kirin" Army, and at Harbin, by General Chang Ching-hui.
It initially consisted of former National Revolutionary Army troops of the "Young Marshal" Zhang Xueliang who were recruited after the Japanese invasion of Manchuria en masse, but eventually expanded to include new volunteers and conscripts.

Shigeru Honjō

Shigeru HonjoHonjō Shigeru
However, Kwantung Army commander-in-chief General Shigeru Honjō instead ordered his forces to proceed to expand operations all along the South Manchuria Railway.
In 1931 he was made commander in chief of the Kwantung Army in Manchuria, commanding the forces during the Mukden Incident and invasion of Manchuria.

Zhang Haipeng

Chang Hai-peng
In early October, at Taonan in northwest Liaoning province, General Zhang Haipeng declared his district independent of China, in return for a shipment of a large number of military supplies by the Japanese Army.
Zhang Haipeng (, Hepburn: Chō Kaihō) (1867–1949), was a Chinese Northeastern Army general, who went over to the Japanese during the Invasion of Manchuria and became a general in the Manchukuo Imperial Army of the State of Manchuria.

Ma Zhanshan

Ma Chan-shan
During this fight, the Nenjiang railroad bridge was dynamited by troops loyal to General Ma Zhanshan to prevent its use.
Ma Zhanshan (Ma Chan-shan; ; November 30, 1885 – November 29, 1950) was a Chinese general who initially opposed the Imperial Japanese Army in the invasion of Manchuria, briefly defected to Manchukuo, and then rebelled and fought against the Japanese in Manchuria and other parts of China.

Anti-Japanese resistance volunteers in China

Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armiesvolunteer armiesAnti-Japanese Volunteer Army
The publicity inspired more volunteers to enlist in the Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies.
After the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, and until 1933, large volunteer armies waged war against Japanese and Manchukuo forces over much of Northeast China.

Empire of Japan

JapaneseJapanImperial Japan
The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident.

Manchuria

ManchurianThree Eastern ProvincesNortheast
The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident.
Following the Mukden Incident in 1931 and the subsequent Japanese invasion of Manchuria, the Japanese declared Inner Manchuria an "independent state", and appointed the deposed Qing emperor Puyi as puppet emperor of Manchukuo.

Republic of China (1912–1949)

Republic of ChinaChinaChinese
After the Liaoning Provincial government fled Mukden, it was replaced by a "Peoples Preservation Committee" which declared the secession of Liaoning province from the Republic of China.
The Central Plains War in 1930, the Japanese aggression in 1931, and the Red Army's Long March in 1934 led to more power for the central government, but there continued to be foot-dragging and even outright defiance, as in the Fujian Rebellion of 1933–34.

Pacification of Manchukuo

Japanese occupation of Manchuriaanti-bandit operationsbombing in northeastern China
With this stronger force, the Japanese Army announced on 21 December the beginning of large-scale anti-bandit operations in Manchuria to quell a growing resistance movement by the local Chinese population in Liaoning and Kirin provinces.
The earliest formation of large Anti-Japanese partisan groups occurred in Liaoning and Kirin provinces due to the poor performance of the Fengtien Army in the first month of the Japanese invasion of Manchuria and to Japan's rapid success in removing and replacing the provincial authority in Fengtien and Kirin.

Kenji Doihara

Doihara KenjiKenji Doihara's criminal activitiesDoihara''' Kenji
As negotiations with Generals Ma Zanshan and Ting Chao to defect to the pro-Japanese side had failed, in early January Colonel Kenji Doihara requested collaborationist General Qia Xi to advance his forces and take Harbin.
As a general in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II, he was instrumental in the Japanese invasion of Manchuria for which he earned the nickname "Lawrence of Manchuria," a reference to Lawrence of Arabia.

Liaoyuan

TungliaoXi'an County
Between 20 September and 25 September, Japanese forces took Hsiungyueh, Changtu, Liaoyang, Tungliao, Tiaonan, Kirin, Chiaoho, Huangkutun and Hsin-min.
During the Japanese occupation from 1931 to 1945, Liaoyuan was the second largest coal-mining center of Manchukuo, preceded only by Fushun.

Second Sino-Japanese War

Sino-Japanese WarJapanese invasion of ChinaJapanese invasion
Some sources in the modern People's Republic of China date the beginning of the war to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931.

China proper

ChinaInner ChinaEighteen Provinces
The operation was cancelled by Japanese War Minister General Jirō Minami, due to the acceptance of modified form of a League of Nations proposal for a "neutral zone" to be established as a buffer zone between China proper and Manchuria pending a future Chinese-Japanese peace conference by the civilian government of Prime Minister Baron Wakatsuki in Tokyo.
Gu further theorized that "中国本部", the Chinese and Japanese term equal to "China proper" at the time, actually originated from Japan and was translated into "China proper", hence the concept of "China proper" was developed by Japanese people, and it had become a tool to divide Chinese people, making way for Japanese invasion of Mongolia, Manchuria, and all parts of China.

8th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

8th DivisionIJA 8th Division8th
Additional troops from Japan, notably the 4th Mixed Brigade from the 8th Division, were sent in November.
The 8th division (initially only 4th Brigade has participated in the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in the aftermath of the Mukden Incident in September 1931, there it participated in the Pacification of Manchukuo from November 1931.

Zhang Xueliang

Chang Hsueh-LiangCheung Hok-leungYoung Marshal
He was an instigator of the 1936 Xi'an Incident, in which Chiang Kai-shek, the leader of China's ruling party, was arrested in order to force him to enter into a truce with the insurgent Chinese Communist Party and form a united front against Japan, which had occupied Manchuria.