Japonic languages

JaponicJaponic language familyJaponic familyProto-JaponicJapaneseJaponic languageJapanese-Ryukyuan
The Japonic or Japanese-Ryukyuan language family includes the Japanese language spoken on the main islands of Japan as well as the Ryukyuan languages spoken in the Ryukyu Islands.wikipedia
192 Related Articles

Japanese language

JapaneseJapanese-languageJp
The Japonic or Japanese-Ryukyuan language family includes the Japanese language spoken on the main islands of Japan as well as the Ryukyuan languages spoken in the Ryukyu Islands. Other scholars such as Paul K. Benedict maintain that Japanese is a Para-Austronesian language, with him proposing a Austro-Tai–Japanese grouping.
It is a member of the Japonic (or Japanese-Ryukyuan) language family, and its relation to other languages, such as Korean, is debated.

Ryukyuan languages

RyukyuanRyukyuan languageIsland Language Day
The Japonic or Japanese-Ryukyuan language family includes the Japanese language spoken on the main islands of Japan as well as the Ryukyuan languages spoken in the Ryukyu Islands.
Along with the Japanese language, they make up the Japonic language family.

Altaic languages

AltaicAltaic language familyAltaic family
The term Japonic languages was coined by Leon Serafim, and the family is widely accepted by linguists, unlike the controversial Altaic hypothesis.
The Turkic, Mongolic and Tungusic groups are invariably included in the family; some authors added Koreanic and the Japonic languages.

Shirō Hattori

According to Shirō Hattori, this separation occurred during the Yamato period (250–710).
Born in Kameyama, Mie, Hattori was a linguist specializing in early Japanese and Japonic languages and a professor at the University of Tokyo.

Yamato period

YamatoYamato stateYamato Japan
According to Shirō Hattori, this separation occurred during the Yamato period (250–710).
By this time, Japonic had also spread to the Ryukyu Islands such as Okinawa.

Leon Serafim

The term Japonic languages was coined by Leon Serafim, and the family is widely accepted by linguists, unlike the controversial Altaic hypothesis.
The widely accepted linguistics term "Japonic languages" was coined by Serafim to identify and characterise the Japanese which is spoken on the main islands of Japan and the Ryukyuan spoken on the island of Okinawa and the Ryukyu Islands.

Language family

language familiesfamilylanguage group
The Japonic or Japanese-Ryukyuan language family includes the Japanese language spoken on the main islands of Japan as well as the Ryukyuan languages spoken in the Ryukyu Islands.
Classifications of the Japonic family, for example, range from one language (a language isolate with dialects) to nearly twenty—until the classification of Ryukyuan as separate languages within a Japonic language family rather than dialects of Japanese, the Japanese language itself was considered a language isolate and therefore the only language in its family.

Gaya language

GayaKara (Gaya)Pre-Kara
Pre-Kara †
Beckwith classifies the Japonic family with toponymic pre-Kara as follows:

Amami Islands

AmamiAmami archipelagoAmami Gunto
: Languages spoken in the northern part of the Ryukyu Islands chain, consisting of the major Amami and Okinawa Islands.
Although the Ryukyuan languages belong to the Japonic family along with Japanese, they are mutually unintelligible between each other and Japanese.

Tokyo dialect

Edo speechTokyo
: Most dialects from Nagoya east, including the modern standard Tokyo dialect.

Kansai dialect

Kansai accentKyoto dialectOsaka dialect
: Most dialects west of Nagoya, including the Kyoto dialect.

Austroasiatic languages

AustroasiaticMon–KhmerAustroasiatic language
Instead, the Yayoi may have spoken an Austroasiatic or Kra–Dai language, based on the reconstructed Japonic terms *(z/h)ina-Ci 'rice (plant)', *koma-Ci '(hulled) rice', and *pwo 'ear of grain' which Vovin assumes to be agricultural terms of Yayoi origin. A 2015 analysis using the Automated Similarity Judgment Program resulted in the Japonic languages being grouped with the Ainu and then with the Austroasiatic languages.
A 2015 made analysis using the Automated Similarity Judgment Program resulted in Japanese being grouped with the Ainu and the Austroasiatic languages.

Language isolate

isolateisolateslanguage isolates
Thus, the Ainu language is considered to be a language isolate, as is the Japanese language when the Japonic languages are considered to be dialects of a single language rather than a language family.
This happened with Japanese (now included in the Japonic family along with Ryukyuan languages such as Okinawan) and Georgian (now the most dominant or standard of the Kartvelian languages of the Caucasus).

Austro-Tai languages

Austro-TaiAustro-Tai hypothesisAustro-Tai root
Other scholars such as Paul K. Benedict maintain that Japanese is a Para-Austronesian language, with him proposing a Austro-Tai–Japanese grouping.
Benedict later abandoned Austric but maintained his Austro-Tai proposal, adding the Japonic languages to the proposal as well,.

Sakishima Islands

OgamiSakishimaSakishima Gunto
: Languages spoken in the southern part of the Ryukyu Islands chain, comprising the Sakishima Islands.
All these languages belong to the Ryukyuan languages group, which in turn belong to the Japonic languages group.

Japanese dialects

dialectdialectsJapanese
The Ryukyuan languages of Okinawa Prefecture and the southern islands of Kagoshima Prefecture form a separate branch of the Japonic family, and are not Japanese dialects, although they are sometimes referred to as such.

Austronesian languages

AustronesianAustronesian languageAustronesian language family
Other scholars such as Paul K. Benedict maintain that Japanese is a Para-Austronesian language, with him proposing a Austro-Tai–Japanese grouping.
Paul K. Benedict extended the Austric proposal to include Kra-Dai-Japanese and Hmong–Mien families, but this is still controversial and the Austric family stays as hypothetical family only.

Kra–Dai languages

Kra–DaiTai–KadaiTai-Kadai
Instead, the Yayoi may have spoken an Austroasiatic or Kra–Dai language, based on the reconstructed Japonic terms *(z/h)ina-Ci 'rice (plant)', *koma-Ci '(hulled) rice', and *pwo 'ear of grain' which Vovin assumes to be agricultural terms of Yayoi origin.
Echoing part of Benedict's conception of Austric, who added Kra–Dai-Japanese and Hmong–Mien to the proposal.

Japan

🇯🇵JPNJapanese
Besides Japanese, the Ryukyuan languages (Amami, Kunigami, Okinawan, Miyako, Yaeyama, Yonaguni), also part of the Japonic language family, are spoken in the Ryukyu Islands chain.

Tamna

Tamra
Thus, Vovin concludes that Japonic speakers were present on Jeju Island before being replaced by Koreanic speakers sometime before the 15th century, which was when the state of Tamna on Jeju became absorbed by the Korean Joseon dynasty.
Thus, Vovin concludes that Japonic speakers were present on Jeju Island before being replaced by Koreanic speakers sometime before the 15th century.

Ainu language

AinuSakhalin Ainuain
A 2015 analysis using the Automated Similarity Judgment Program resulted in the Japonic languages being grouped with the Ainu and then with the Austroasiatic languages.
A 2015 analysis using the Automated Similarity Judgment Program resulted in the Japonic languages being grouped with the Ainu and then with the Austroasiatic languages.

Ryukyu Islands

RyūkyūsRyukyusRyukyu
The Japonic or Japanese-Ryukyuan language family includes the Japanese language spoken on the main islands of Japan as well as the Ryukyuan languages spoken in the Ryukyu Islands.

Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
The term Japonic languages was coined by Leon Serafim, and the family is widely accepted by linguists, unlike the controversial Altaic hypothesis.

Okinawa Island

OkinawaOkinawanisland of Okinawa
*** //: Language spoken in the northern region of Okinawa Island, and neighboring islands of Okinoerabujima and Yoronjima.

Okinoerabujima

OkinoerabuOkinoerabu Island
*** //: Language spoken in the northern region of Okinawa Island, and neighboring islands of Okinoerabujima and Yoronjima.